1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Convolvulus L.
      1. Convolvulus arvensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Perennial herb forming several to many annual stems from a long taproot.
    Stem
    Stems prostrate or twining, angular, sparsely pubescent to glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf lamina entire, ovate-oblong or oblong, 1·5–4·5 × 0·5–1·5 cm., with a hastate or sagittate base, obtuse or mucronulate at the apex, glabrous or thinly hairy; petiole 5–10 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, solitary or sometimes 2–3 flowered cymes; peduncles 1–1·5 cm.; bracts linear, about 2 mm. long; pedicels up to 10 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals slightly unequal, elliptic-circular or oblong, 3.5–5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or pink or both, broadly funnel-shaped, about 2 cm. long in the limb shallowly lobed, glabrous except at apices of the midpetaline areas.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid-globose, glabrous, 4-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds dark brown or black.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Perennial herb; stems prostrate or twining, glabrous or pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade glabrescent, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, 1.5–7.5 cm. long, 1–3 cm. wide, obtuse or mucronulate at the apex, hastate or sagittate at the base; petiole 0.5–2 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Peduncle 1(–2–3)-flowered, 2–4 cm. long; bracts linear, about 3 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals elliptic-orbicular or oblong, 3.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide.
    Corolla
    Corolla white or pink or both, broadly funnel-shaped, about 2 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule glabrous, ovoid-globose, 5–8 mm. long, 4-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds dark brown or black, 3–4 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Weed in cultivations on black cotton and other soils; about 1500 m.
    Distribution
    widely distributed in the temperate regions of both hemispheresa frequently introduced European weed in the Kenya highlands K3 K4 K6

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Gulf States, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, India, Iowa, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen

    Convolvulus arvensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 1975 Manisadjan [4], Turkey K000852027 isotype
    Collenette, I.S. [7898], Saudi Arabia 57655.000
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 424], Great Britain K000914307
    Hinton, J.C. [17138], Nuevo León K000465046
    Day, C.D. [223], Turkey K000341701

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 153 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Wood, J.R.I., Williams, B.R.M., Mitchell, T.C., Carine, M.A., Harris, D.J. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). A foundation monograph of Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae) PhytoKeys 51: 1-282.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
    • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
    • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Norton, J. et al. in Norton, J. et al. (2009). Illustr. Cklist. Fl. Qatar Convolvulaceae An illustrated checklist of the Flora of Qatar: 32-34. UNESCO Office in Doha.
    • Carranza, E. (2008). Convolvulaceae II Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 155: 1-107.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Nowroozi, M. in Assadi, M. & Khatamsaz, M. (2002). Convolvulaceae Fl. Iran Flora of Iran 40: 1-110. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
    • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
    • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
    • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
    • Austin, D.F. (1990). Annotated checklist of New Mexican Convolvulaceae Sida 14: 273-286.
    • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora Cyprus CNV Flora of Cyprus 2: 1166-1179. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
    • Greuter, W., R. Pleger & T. Raus (1983). The vascular flora of the Karpathos island group (Dodecanesos, Greece). A preliminary checklist Willdenowia 13: 43-78.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
    • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
    • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
    • Sa'ad, F. (1967). The Convolvulus species of the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region and the Near and Middle East Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 281: 1-288.
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Baker, J.G. & C.H. Wright in Thiselton Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1904). Convolvulaceae Flora Capensis 4(2): 45-87.
    • Gray, A. in Gray, A. (1886). CNV, supplement, in Syn. Fl. N. Amer. Ed. 2 Synoptical Flora of North America, edit. 1: 433-436.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
    • Gray, A. in Gray, A. (1878). Convolvulaceae Synoptical Flora of North America, edit. 1 2(2): 207-224, 394.
    • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Norton, J. et al. in Norton, J. et al. (2009). Illustr. Cklist. Fl. Qatar Convolvulaceae An illustrated checklist of the Flora of Qatar: 32-34. UNESCO Office in Doha.
    • Carranza, E. (2008). Convolvulaceae II Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 155: 1-107.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Malyschev, L.I. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 11: 1-310. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Nowroozi, M. in Assadi, M. & Khatamsaz, M. (2002). Convolvulaceae Fl. Iran Flora of Iran 40: 1-110. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
    • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
    • Austin, D.F. (1990). Annotated checklist of New Mexican Convolvulaceae Sida 14: 273-286.
    • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora Cyprus CNV Flora of Cyprus 2: 1166-1179. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
    • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
    • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
    • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
    • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
    • Sa'ad, F. (1967). The Convolvulus species of the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region and the Near and Middle East Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 281: 1-288.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
    • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 695(1958).
    • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2) : 97(1905).
    • L., Sp. Pl. : 153 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0