Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Old World.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb forming several to many annual stems from a long taproot.
Morphology Stem
Stems prostrate or twining, angular, sparsely pubescent to glabrous.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf lamina entire, ovate-oblong or oblong, 1·5–4·5 × 0·5–1·5 cm., with a hastate or sagittate base, obtuse or mucronulate at the apex, glabrous or thinly hairy; petiole 5–10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers axillary, solitary or sometimes 2–3 flowered cymes; peduncles 1–1·5 cm.; bracts linear, about 2 mm. long; pedicels up to 10 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals slightly unequal, elliptic-circular or oblong, 3.5–5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink or both, broadly funnel-shaped, about 2 cm. long in the limb shallowly lobed, glabrous except at apices of the midpetaline areas.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule ovoid-globose, glabrous, 4-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown or black.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herb; stems prostrate or twining, glabrous or pubescent.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade glabrescent, ovate-oblong to lanceolate, 1.5–7.5 cm. long, 1–3 cm. wide, obtuse or mucronulate at the apex, hastate or sagittate at the base; petiole 0.5–2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Peduncle 1(–2–3)-flowered, 2–4 cm. long; bracts linear, about 3 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals elliptic-orbicular or oblong, 3.5–5 mm. long, 2–3.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla white or pink or both, broadly funnel-shaped, about 2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule glabrous, ovoid-globose, 5–8 mm. long, 4-seeded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds dark brown or black, 3–4 mm. long.
Habitat
Weed in cultivations on black cotton and other soils; about 1500 m.
Distribution
widely distributed in the temperate regions of both hemispheresa frequently introduced European weed in the Kenya highlands K3 K4 K6

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Egypt, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hainan, Hungary, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mongolia, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Georgia, Gulf States, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, India, Iowa, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen

Convolvulus arvensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 1975 Manisadjan [4], Turkey K000852027 isotype
Collenette, I.S. [7898], Saudi Arabia 57655.000
Hinton, J.C. [17138], Nuevo León K000465046
Day, C.D. [223], Turkey K000341701
Cope, T.A. [RBG 424], Great Britain K000914307

First published in Sp. Pl.: 153 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
  • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. (1990). Annotated checklist of New Mexican Convolvulaceae Sida 14: 273-286.
  • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Baker, J.G. & C.H. Wright in Thiselton Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1904). Convolvulaceae Flora Capensis 4(2): 45-87.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Carranza, E. (2008). Convolvulaceae II Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 155: 1-107.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Gray, A. in Gray, A. (1878). Convolvulaceae Synoptical Flora of North America, edit. 1 2(2): 207-224, 394.
  • Gray, A. in Gray, A. (1886). CNV, supplement, in Syn. Fl. N. Amer. Ed. 2 Synoptical Flora of North America, edit. 1: 433-436.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Greuter, W., R. Pleger & T. Raus (1983). The vascular flora of the Karpathos island group (Dodecanesos, Greece). A preliminary checklist Willdenowia 13: 43-78.
  • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
  • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
  • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
  • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora Cyprus CNV Flora of Cyprus 2: 1166-1179. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Norton, J. et al. in Norton, J. et al. (2009). Illustr. Cklist. Fl. Qatar Convolvulaceae An illustrated checklist of the Flora of Qatar: 32-34. UNESCO Office in Doha.
  • Nowroozi, M. in Assadi, M. & Khatamsaz, M. (2002). Convolvulaceae Fl. Iran Flora of Iran 40: 1-110. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Sa'ad, F. (1967). The Convolvulus species of the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region and the Near and Middle East Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 281: 1-288.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistan Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Spaulding, D. in Spaulding, D. (2013). Convolvulaceae Checklist of Alabama's vascular flora: 137-139.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Wood, J.R.I., Williams, B.R.M., Mitchell, T.C., Carine, M.A., Harris, D.J. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). A foundation monograph of Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae) PhytoKeys 51: 1-282.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
  • Austin, D.F. (1990). Annotated checklist of New Mexican Convolvulaceae Sida 14: 273-286.
  • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
  • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
  • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
  • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Carranza, E. (2008). Convolvulaceae II Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 155: 1-107.
  • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Danin, A. & Fragman- Sapir, O. (2019). Flora of Israel Online http://flora.org.il/en/plants/.
  • Dempster, L. T. in Hickman, J. C. (ed.) (1993). Convolvulaceae The Jepson Manual, higher plants of Cilfornia: 516-522. Univ. California Press.
  • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Grigor'ev, Y.S. (1974). Convolvulaceae Flora of the USSR 19: 3-30. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
  • Malyschev, L.I. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 11: 1-310. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora Cyprus CNV Flora of Cyprus 2: 1166-1179. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.
  • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Norton, J. et al. in Norton, J. et al. (2009). Illustr. Cklist. Fl. Qatar Convolvulaceae An illustrated checklist of the Flora of Qatar: 32-34. UNESCO Office in Doha.
  • Nowroozi, M. in Assadi, M. & Khatamsaz, M. (2002). Convolvulaceae Fl. Iran Flora of Iran 40: 1-110. Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture.
  • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
  • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Parris, B.S. & R. Brummitt in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Convolvulaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 197-222. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
  • Sa'ad, F. (1967). The Convolvulus species of the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region and the Near and Middle East Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 281: 1-288.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Shinners, L. in Correll, D.S. & M.C Johnston (1970). Convolvulaceae Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: 1241-1261. Texas Research Foundation.
  • Siddiqi, M.A. in Jafri, S.M.H. & El-Gadi, A. (eds.) (1977). Convolvulaceae Flora of Libya 45: 1-27. Al-Faateh University, Tripoli.
  • Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H. (2014). Illustrated Flora of Lebanon, ed. 2: 1-610. CNRS Publication.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press.
  • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2) : 97(1905).
  • L., Sp. Pl. : 153 (1753).
  • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 695(1958).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0