Skip to main content

Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

Cuscuta epithymum (clover dodder)

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Cuscuta epithymum is a rootless, wholly parasitic plant that occurs most commonly on heather (Calluna vulgaris), gorse (Ulex europaeus) and clover (Trifolium) species. Clover dodder is native to Europe, but occurs almost worldwide. It is a member of the Convolvulaceae family, which includes Ipomoea and Convolvulus species, many of which are commonly known as bindweed and morning glory. Clover dodder is normally insect-pollinated, but can also self-pollinate. Studies have shown that flowers are visited by many different insects, including ants, bees and wasps.

Species Profile
Geography and distribution

Although clover dodder is native to Europe, it has since spread across six continents, giving it an almost worldwide occurrence. However, the genus Cuscuta does not occur at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere or in desert areas of Africa and Asia. Small, remote islands such as the Galapagos Islands also lack species of this genus. Introduction of clover dodder to non-native areas can follow unintentional import of seeds of C. epithymum in forage crops.

Description

Overview: Clover dodder is a rootless, parasitic plant in which leaves are reduced to minute scales. Its stems are hairless, thread-like (0.25-0.40 mm in thickness) and can be yellow, red or purplish in colour.

Flowers: Clusters of 7-25 stalkless, purplish flowers are arranged in a compact, sphere. Flowers are 2.5-3.0 mm long and have five sepals and petals. The sepals come together to form a cup shape, each individual sepal being longer than it is wide. The corolla tube (a tubular structure formed when all petals in a flower are united) is longer than the cup-shaped sepal assemblage. Stamens (male parts) protrude from the flowers and have oval shaped anthers (pollen-bearing parts). Within flowers, the style (female structure) extends from the top of the ovary and is usually as long as the ovary.

Fruits: The fruit is a spherical capsule, which opens along its circumference and is topped by the withered petals. Each capsule contains four small seeds about 1 mm in diameter.

There are six varieties of Cuscuta epithymum , which are distinguished by differences in their flower structure as well as the number of flowers and how they are grouped.

Invasion of the host plant

Clover dodder seeds germinate April-July in response to seasonal temperature changes. A swollen, root-like organ emerges from the seed but can only survive for a few days and hence must find a host plant quickly. When a host is found, clover dodder grows a sucker that attaches to it. The root-like organ then withers and clover dodder continues to grow using nutrients stolen from the host plant through the sucker.

Cells of the sucker produce an adhesive substance that works as an effective glue. Within the tissue of the sucker, an intrusive organ (haustorium) develops and directly penetrates the host tissue to create a bridge between host and parasite. This direct contact enables rapid growth and is one of the reasons why Cuscuta species are the most rapidly growing parasitic plants.

Parasitic life

Clover dodder stems wind counter-clockwise around the host plant as it grows. New haustoria (organs that penetrate the host tissue) develop close together wherever the dodder stem produces tight coils as it climbs up the host plant. These tight coils alternate with looser coils that search for new host branches or new hosts to parasitize. Extent of growth depends on the clover dodder's compatibility with the host and vigour of the host plant.

When growing on perennial hosts, Cuscuta epithymum induces the formation of galls (growths of host tissue) where parasitic tissue is able to overwinter. The following spring, new clover dodder plants develop from these galls. 

Threats and conservation

In north west Europe, Cuscuta epithymum flourishes on heathland that are 0-3 years old. Disturbance resulting from turf-cutting, burning or mowing of heathland aids the germination of clover dodder seeds. European dry heath is usually managed on a rotational basis, which maintains a high level of biodiversity. Clover dodder seeds may lie dormant, which extends germination potential over several years, and this is crucial for the persistence of this species. In this way it can build up a 'seed bank' within the soil to cope with the dynamic nature of managed heathland. However, if a heathland remains unmanaged for a long period of time or if the seed banks are too small or not viable for long enough for successful reestablishment, local extinction of clover dodder may occur.

Uses

Clover dodder is used in traditional medicine as a purgative and to treat disorders of the liver, spleen and urinary tract. However, there has been little scientific investigation into the actual effectiveness of its use.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

Two collections of Cuscuta epithymum seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

See Kew's Seed Information Database for further information on C. epithymum seeds

This species at Kew

Clover dodder is not currently recorded at Kew, but the related species Cuscuta europaea (greater dodder) can be seen growing on Scutellaria altissima (tall skullcap) in the Plant Family Beds at Kew.

Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of C. epithymum are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including images, can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of the flowers and seeds of C. epithymum , as well specimens of it growing on heather, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

UK Virtual Herbarium Project

Cuscuta epithymum is one of 50 species on the Botanical Society of the British Isles (BSBI) Threatened Plants Project list. The herbarium specimens of these species are being digitised as part of the UK Virtual Herbarium Project.

Find out how you can help in this project by visiting the herbaria@home website

Ecology
Common in disturbed areas, especially disturbed heathland; also in grassland.
Conservation
Vulnerable (VU) in Great Britain according to IUCN Red List criteria, but globally common.
Hazards

A worldwide weed of agricultural crops, particularly legumes.

[KSP]
Use
Medicine.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, Finland, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, New Mexico, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Selvagens, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Arkansas, British Columbia, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Rhode I., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Tennessee, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin

English
Clover dodder

Cuscuta epithymum (L.) L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 8, 1976 J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790119
Dec 9, 1950 Burtt, B.L. [73], United Kingdom K000790222
Jan 1, 1949 s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790143
Jun 1, 1857 Willkomm, H.M. [455], Spain K000852521
Jun 1, 1857 Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852524
16379.000
Drummond, R.B., United Kingdom 16678.000
70000.263
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790192
Blanco, A. [140], Spain K000852522
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852523
s.coll. [s.n.], Italy K000852529
Day, C.D. [575], Turkey K000341702
Sandwith, C.I. [2890], United Kingdom K000790123
Brenan, J.P.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790125
Jones, D.O. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790126
Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790130
Clarke, C.B. [43088], United Kingdom K000790133
Cabot, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790135
Wallace, E.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790140
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790147
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790149
Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790157
Brewer, J.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790158
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790263
Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790273
Palmer, E. [735], United Kingdom K000790276
Airy Shaw, H.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790279
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790189
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790207
Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790208
Marsden-Jones, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790215
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790227
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790232
Welfitt-Nicholls, E.M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790250
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790255
Lowne, B.T. [1132], United Kingdom K000790295
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790206
Edmonds, M.E. [28], United Kingdom K000790245
Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790251
Devis, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790144
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [768], United Kingdom K000790220
Thurston, E. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790219
Drummond, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790277
Guicciardi, J. [443], Greece K000852532
Carpenter, A. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790156
Dovaston, H.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790161
Libbey, R.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790166
Makins, F.K. [1421], United Kingdom K000790120
Little, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790282
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790196
White, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790145
Clarke, C.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790283
J.W.C.K. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790201
Meikle, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790127
Sandwith, N.Y. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790118
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790202
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790280
Melville, R. [113], Great Britain K000790185
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790200
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790253
s.coll. [0120], United Kingdom K000790287
Medlin, L.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790218
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790240
Basset, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790246
Gamble, J.S. [18842], United Kingdom K000790259
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790163
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790178
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790229
Reader, H.P. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790286
Ridley, H.N. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790204
Eastham, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790199
Heldreich, T.H.H. von [32], Greece K000852533
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790247
Baldacci, A. [28], Greece K000852530
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790235
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790264
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790162
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790230
Faucconnet [s.n.], Switzerland K000790298
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790172
Souster, J.E.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790242
Whiting, M.M. [46], United Kingdom K000790141
Grubbe, J. [747], United Kingdom K000790154
Cubitt, M. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790270
Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Spain K000852528
Britton, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790148
Worsdell, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790160
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790237
Tressider, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790177
Wright, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790252
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790275
Clarke, C.B. [43088 K], United Kingdom K000790221
Worsdell, W.C. [515/3.], United Kingdom K000790164
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790299
Lowne, B.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790293
Thacker, J.L. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790244
Luddington, J.L. [1206], Great Britain K000790136
Bolland, B.G.C. [51], United Kingdom K000790268
Mann, R.J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790212
Bromfield, W.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790292
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790233
Baker, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790266
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790291
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790184
Harrison, K.M. [H.1590/30], United Kingdom K000790284
Power, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790131
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790213
Gibson, G.S. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790297 holotype
Archer, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790239
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790186
Bennett, E.T. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790195
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790121
Williams, L.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790128
Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790203
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790243
Rawlings, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790248
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790261
Varenne, E.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790190
Fraser, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790254
Hosking, A. [1132], Great Britain K000790150
Gregor, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790241
Lester-Garland, L.V. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790152
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790231
Dewar, D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790236
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790289
Rowley, G.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790209
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852525
Edmonds, M.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790269
Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790285
Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790272
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790217
Hunt, P.F. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790124
Tineo, V. [s.n.], Italy K000852531
Curnow, W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790180
Bromfield, S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790194
Rico, L. [1860], Tunisia K000296005
Hosking, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790188
Hosking, A. [1133], United Kingdom K000790187
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790228
Downes, J. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790132
Riddelsdell, H.J. [1207], United Kingdom K000790173
Baker, J.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790183
Nelmes, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790281
White, J.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790191
More, A.G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790170
Mann, R.J. [734], United Kingdom K000790211
Loydell, G. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790238
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790198
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790260
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790267
Turrill, W.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790214
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790134
Harvey, H.H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790176
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790171
Bullock, A.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790216
Bailey, C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790153
Bolland, B.G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790274
Des Moulins, C.R.A. [s.n.], France K000852526
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790155
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790265
Townsend, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790288
Russell, F. [734], United Kingdom K000790159
Dennis, R.W.G. [s.n.], Great Britain K000790122
Thurston, E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790224
Gamble, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790257
Lynch, R.I. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790210
Gamble, J.S. [30313], United Kingdom K000790258
Boswell, H. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790181
Mill, J.S. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790182
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790175
Lousley, J.E. [F.15], United Kingdom K000790205
Davies, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790294
Welwitsch, F.M.J. [s.n.], Portugal K000852527
Lousley, J.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790151
Naylor, G.T. [361], United Kingdom K000790249
s.coll. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790138
Babington, C.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790167
Joad, G.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790234
Summerhayes, V.S. [2640.], United Kingdom K000790296
Hubbard [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790223
Southey Hill, R. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790256
Barton, W.C. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790174
Jackson, A.B. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790278
Hill, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790179
Bennett, A.W. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790197
Cotton, A.D. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790137
Sprague, T.A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K000790262

First published in Amoen. Acad. 4: 478 (1759)

Accepted by

  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
  • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae, Cuscutaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland 1: 217-221-& 227-228. Timber Press.
  • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
  • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Trabut, L. (1907). Les Cuscutes du nord de l'Afrique Bulletin de la Société de la France 53(sess. extr.): 34-43.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Baskin, C., Hermy, M., Meulebrouck, K. & Verheyen, K. (2010). Will the sleeping beauties wake up? Seasonal dormancy cycles in seeds of the holoparasite Cuscuta epithymum. Seed Science Research 20: 23-30.
  • Cheffings, C. & Farrell, L. (eds) (2005). The Vascular Plant Red Data List for Great Britain. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, Peterborough.
  • Costea, M. & Tardia, F. J. (2006). The biology of Canadian weeds. 133. Cuscuta campestris Yuncker, C. gronovii Willd. ex Schult., C. umbrosa Beyr. ex Hook., C. epithymum (L.) L. and C. epilinum Weihe. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86: 293-316.
  • Costea, M., Er, E. & Staples, G. (eds) (2011). Cuscuta epithymum.
  • Feinbrun, N. (1970) A taxonomic review of European Cuscutae. Israel Journal of Botany 19: 16-29.
  • Heide-Jørgensen, H. S. (2008). Parasitic Flowering Plants. Brill, Leiden.
  • Klinkenberg, B. (ed.) (2010). Cuscuta epithymum. In: E-Flora BC: Electronic Atlas of the Plants of British Columbia [eflora.bc.ca]. Lab for Advanced Spatial Analysis, Department of Geography, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
  • Kuijt, J. (1969). The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. University of California Press, California.
  • Medical Economics Company (2000). Cuscuta epithymum. In: PDR for herbal medicines. p.506. Medical Economics Company, Montvale, New Jersey.
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2002). A Field Manual for Seed Collectors (pdf) (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2011). Sowing the seeds of UK biodiversity - Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank launches UK Native Seed Hub.  (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (2012). Identifying seeds and assessing quality. (accessed 20 March 2012).
  • Whitman, K. (2011). Cuscuta epithymum Murray.
  • Yuncker, T. G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta. Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 109-331.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
  • Butkov, A.Y. (1974). Cuscuta in Fl. USSR Flora of the USSR 19: 30-57. Science Publishers, Inc.
  • Charkevicz, S.S. (ed.) (1995). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 7: 1-394. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Cronquist, A. et al. in Cronquist, A., et al. (1984). Convolvulaceae Intermountain Flora, vascular plants of the intermountain west, U.S.A. 4: 74-84. New York Botanical garden.
  • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
  • Fernald & Rollins in Fernald, M.L. with R. C. Rollins (1950). Gray's Manual of Botany, 8th edition: 1177-1185. Dioscorides Press.
  • Greuter, W., Burdet, H.M., & Long, G. (1986). Med-checklist 3: Dicotyledones (Convolvulaceae - Labiatae) 3: 1-395. Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques, Ville de Genève.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 88-93.
  • Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist in Hitchcock, C.L. & A. Cronquist (1991). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Pacific Northwest: 363-366. Univ. Washington Press.
  • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
  • Kitamura, S. in Kitamura, S. (1960). Fl. Afghanistan Convolvulaceae Flora of Afghanistan 2: 309-313. Kyoto University.
  • Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins in Martin, W. C. & C. R. Hutchins (1981). Convolvulaceae A flora of New Mexico 2: 1546-1569.
  • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
  • Plitmann, U. in Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Cuscutaceae Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 222-237. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Scoggan, H.J. in Scoggan, H.J. (1979). Convolvulaceae The Flora of Canada 4: 1253-1257. National Museum of Natural Sciences.
  • Turland, N.J. in Press, J.R. & Short, M.J. (eds.) (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Madeira: 266-271. HMSO.
  • Valentine, D.H. et al. in Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Convolvulaceae Flora Europaea 3: 74-83. Cambridge University Press.
  • Voss, E.G. in Voss, E.G. (1996). Convolvulaceae Michigan Flora, part III, Dicots 3: 95-104. Cranbrook Institute of Science.
  • Webb, C.J., W.R. Sykes, & P.J. Garnock-Jones (1988). Fl. New Zealand Convolvulaceae - naturalised Flora of New Zealand 4: 547-560+1289. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Yuncker, T.G. & Rechinger, K.H. (1964). Cuscutaceae for Flora Iranica Flora Iranica 8: 1-16. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1932). The genus Cuscuta Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club 18: 113-331. New York Botanical Garden.

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0