1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ipomoea L.
      1. Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FWTA]

    Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Nearly glabrous, stems hollow, from a stout woody stock, trailing on mudand rooting at the nodes
    Flowers
    Pale or dark red-purple flowers 2-3 in. long.
    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb.
    Stem
    Stems several from a stout woody base, prostrate or floating, thick, semi-succulent, 2–3 m. long, rooting at the nodes glabrous or hairy at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf lamina very variable in shape and size, ovate, triangular, ovate-oblong, lanceolate or linear, 3–15 × 1–10 cm., acute, acuminate or rarely obtuse at the apex, truncate, cordate or rounded at the base or sagittate to hastate, entire or coarsely dentate; petiole 3–25 cm. long, thick, glabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 1-few-flowered; peduncle 1–14 cm. long, glabrous; pedicels 2–6·5 cm. long, glabrous; bracts minute, narrow, acute, 1·5–2 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate or ovate-elliptic 6–12 mm. long, blunt or more or less acute, sometimes more or less tuberculate, margins thin and pale.
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped with a narrow tube, purple or pink or white with a deeper centre, 4–10·5 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds densely pubescent.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb; stems prostrate or floating, thick, semi-succulent, 2–3 m. long, rooting at the nodes, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade very variable, narrowly to broadly triangular or linear-oblong, 3–15 cm. long, 0.5–9 cm. wide, acute, acuminate or rarely obtuse at the apex, truncate, cordate or rarely rounded at the base or sagittate to hastate; petioles 3–25 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Peduncle 1–few-flowered, 1–14 cm. long; pedicels 2–6.5 cm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate or ovate-elliptic, 6–12 mm. long, 3–6 mm. wide, blunt or ± acute, sometimes ± tuberculate, margins thin and pale.
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped with a narrow tube, purple or pink or white with a deeper centre, (2.5–)4.5–7.5 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, 8–10 mm. in diameter.
    Seeds
    Seeds densely pubescent.
    Habitat
    Swampy places, margins of ponds and extending into shallow water, often in seasonal swamps in semi-desert country, also rice-fields; 50–1200 m.
    Distribution
    Somali Republic (N.) to West Africa, Angola and South West Africapantropical. K1 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 U1 U2

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Guatemala, Yemen

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Botswana, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Belize, Brazil North, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Christmas I., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Wallis-Futuna Is.

    Recorded in error in:

    Nicaragua

    Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2005 s.coll. [s.n.] K000097480 holotype
    Nov 11, 2004 Conklin [2561], Philippines K000270990
    Jan 1, 1952 Horsfield, T. [12], Jawa K001081756 isotype
    Edie, Hong Kong 7215.000
    Horsfield, T. [12], Jawa K001081755 isotype
    Greve [s.n.], Madagascar K000384509
    Greve, M. [45], Madagascar K000384510
    Phillipson, P. [1700], Madagascar K000384507

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 44 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2015). Convolvulaceae Flore du Gabon 46: 1-52. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. in Al Khulaidi, A.W.A. (2012). Fl. Yemen Convolvulaceae + Cuscutaceae Flora of Yemen: 73-76 + 80. EPA and UNDP, Republic of Yemen.
    • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Subba Rao, G.V. & G.R. Rao in Subba Rao, G.V & G.R Kumari (2002). Convolvulaceae Flora of Visakhapatnam District, Andhra Pradesh 1: 549-574. Botanical Survey of India.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Liogier, H.A. & L.F. Martorell in Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis: 162-167. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Austin, D.F. in Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana): 87-88. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas Taxon 45: 3-38.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 491-503. ORSTOM éditions.
    • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
    • Liogier, A.H. in Liogier, A. H. (1994). Convolvulaceae La flora de la Española 6: 49-114. Universidad Central del Este.
    • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Morat, P. & J.-M. Veillon (1985). Contribution a la connaissance de la vegetation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin de Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, IV Series, section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
    • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.

    Not accepted by

    • Standley, P.C. & Williams, L.O. (1970). Convolvulaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series 24 (9: 1,2): 4-85. Field Museum of Natural History. [Cited as Ipomoea reptans.]
    • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam. [Cited as Ipomoea reptans Poir. = Ipo aquatica Forssk..]
    • Standley, P. C. (1938). Convolvulaceae Publications of Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(3): 960-974. [Cited as Ipomoea reptans.]

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Meeuse in Bothalia 6: 753 (1958).
    • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 528
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 170
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. Descr. Pl. 44 (1775)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Breteler, F.J. (2015). Convolvulaceae Flore du Gabon 46: 1-52. Muséum National D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Hashimoto, T. et al. (2002). A list of herbarium specimens (Angiosperms) from Vanuatu, collected in 2000 and 2001 Annals of the Tsukuba Botanical Garden 21: 1-23.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Alfarhan, A. & Thomas, J. in Chaudhary, S.A. (2001). Saudi Arabian CNV + CUS Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(2): 156-222. Ministry of Agriculture & Water, Riyadh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Convolvulaceae Flora de Nicaragua 1: 653-679. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. in Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: i-x, 1-246. New York Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Liogier, H.A. & L.F. Martorell in Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis: 162-167. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Austin, D.F. in Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana): 87-88. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. in Wood, J.R.I. (1997). Handb. Yemen Fl. Convolvulaceae A Handbook of the Yemen Flora: 230-236. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas Taxon 45: 3-38.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 491-503. ORSTOM éditions.
    • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Morat, P. & J.-M. Veillon (1985). Contribution a la connaissance de la vegetation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin de Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, IV Series, section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329. Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Standley, P.C. & Williams, L.O. (1970). Convolvulaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series 24 (9: 1,2): 4-85. Field Museum of Natural History.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Kanjilal, U.N., A. Das, P.C. Kanjilal, & R.E. De (eds.) (1939). Fl. Assam Convolvulaceae Flora of Assam 3: 338-362+538. Govt. of Assam.
    • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.
    • Clarke, C.B. in Hooker, J.D. (1883). Fl. Br. India Convolvulaceae Flora of British India 4: 179-228 + 734.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Meeuse in Bothalia 6 : 753 (1958).
    • van Ooststr. in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4 (4) : 473, fig. 47–8 (1953).
    • Bak. & Rendle in Flora of Tropical Africa 4 (2) : 170 (1905).
    • Forsk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. : 44 (1775).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0