1. Family: Crassulaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Crassula L.
      1. Crassula alba Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, SW. Arabian Peninsula.


    Crassulaceae, R. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    A perennial or biennial succulent herb up to 90 cm. high with a tuberous root producing one to many flowering stems, surrounded at base by dense rosulate leaves which usually disappear at anthesis.
    Stem ± stout, erect, terete, simple, fleshy, from base to apex ± covered all around with retrose, appressed, whitish, ± long hair-like papillae (or papillae short, obtuse or acute, sometimes nearly bulliform), rarely glabrous, fleshy, green or reddish-purple.
    Rosette-leaves up to 16(20) x 2·5 cm., oblong-lanceolate or lanceolate, attenuate towards the acute apex, entire and ciliate or pectinate-ciliate at the margin (the cilia usually nearly contiguous, acute), sessile and connate at the base, flat, fleshy but not very thick, usually glabrous, sometimes papillose-pilose, green, sometimes with purple marks or ± purple beneath, deflexed; cauline leaves similar to the basal ones but usually smaller, the lower longer than the internodes, the upper successively shorter, becoming erect and ± clasping the stem, the upper cauline leaves sometimes ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-oblong, sometimes nearly bract-like; sheaths of lower cauline leaves 0·2-0·8(1·2) cm. long, those of the upper ones very short.
    Flowers 5-merous, arranged in a terminal, ± dense, up to 17(30) cm. in diam., corymbose, flat-topped inflorescence, with papillose or hairy branches; pedicels up to 15 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so.
    Calyx (2·5)3-5·5(6·5) mm. long, usually longer than 5 corolla to equalling it; sepals 1-1·25 mm. broad, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, very attenuate, ± acute, Sérrulate or denticulate to ciliate-pectinate at the margins (cilia acute, ± rigid), or entire, green or reddish-purple.
    Corolla (4·5)5·7 mm. long; petals 1·25-2 mm. broad, oblong, obtuse or subacute, erect but with ± reflexed or spreading tips, mucronate below the slightly inflexed apex, sometimes minutely scabrid outside towards the apex, white, greenish-white flushed with pink or bright to deep red.
    Filaments (2)2·5-3(3·5) mm. long; anthers (0·5)-0·75(1) mm. long, rectangular.
    Follicles (2·75)3-5-5·5 mm. long including the styles.
    Scales ± 0·5 mm. long, rectangular or subquadrate, truncate.

    Crassulaceae, G.E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Biennial or perennial rosette herb with tuberous root.
    Stems annual, dying back after flowering, erect, usually simple, up to 60(–90) cm. high, terete, 2–5(–20) mm. in diameter, papillose pubescent, rarely glabrous; papillae retrorse appressed, whitish, elongate or short.
    Rosette leaves usually disappearing by anthesis, linear-lanceolate, lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, up to 16(–20) cm. long, 0.5–2.5 cm. wide, apex attenuate-acute, bases of opposite leaves united to form a sheath around the stem up to 1(–1.5) cm. long, usually glabrous above, papillose-pubescent becoming glabrescent or glabrous beneath, margins entire, papillose ciliate; cauline leaves similar, blades, sheaths and internodes shortening towards the apex.
    Inflorescence a terminal, repeatedly dichotomous, usually rather dense flat-topped corymbose cyme with foliaceous bracts, rarely with axillary inflorescences in the axils of the upper leaves; pedicels up to 15 mm. long, glabrous or nearly so.
    Flowers 5-merous.
    Calyx-lobes lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2.5–4(–6.5) mm. long, 1–1.3 mm. wide, acute, margins with few-many ± contiguous papillae (papillae larger than in C. vaginata).
    Petals white or greenish white or bright to deep red, oblong, (3–)3.5–8 mm. long, (1.2–)1.5–2(–2.5) mm. wide, obtuse to subacute, thickened and mucronate, margins entire, glabrous and minutely papillose-ciliate.
    Stamen-filaments (2–)2.5–3(–5) mm. long; anthers oblong, 0.5–0.8 mm. long.
    Nectary scales rectangular to almost square, ± 0.5 mm. high, truncate.
    Carpels oblong, (2.7–)3.5–5.5 mm. long, narrowing into styles about one-quarter the length of the ovaries, indistinctly papillose-ciliate or glabrous along the suture.
    Seeds 8–30 per carpel, broadly oblong, ± 0.5 mm. long, ± 0.3 mm. wide, minutely longitudinally rugulose (indistinguishable from those of C. vaginata).
    Fig. 2A, p. 14.
    Rock crevices and rocky outcrops; (450–)1500–2670 m.
    K1 K3 K4 K6 T1 T7 U2

    Crassulaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Erect herb to 3 ft. high. with stout stem
    Flowers white.



    Native to:

    Burundi, Cape Provinces, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Crassula alba Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 1979 Schimper [931], Ethiopia K000310079 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1979 Schimper [1609], Ethiopia K000310080 Unknown type material
    Mar 1, 1979 Quartin-Dillon [45], Ethiopia K000310082 Unknown type material
    Milne-Redhead, E. [4407], Zambia 10526.000
    Brenan, J.P.M., Cameroon 10521.000
    Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4390], Yemen 51946.000
    Collenette, I.S., Saudi Arabia 39155.000

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 60 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1987). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Crassulaceae: 1-66.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 60 (1775).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 7: 27, t. 4A (1983).
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. Kenya: 30, photo. 68 (1982).
    • Wickens in Kew Bulletin 36: 669 (1982).
    • Tölken in Contrib. Bolus Herb. 8: 362 (1977).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 104, fig. on p. 108 (1974).
    • Jacobsen, Lex. Succ. Pl.: 156 (1974), excl. syn. C. mannii et C. schweinfurthii.
    • Cuf. in Senck. Biol. 39: 123 (1958).
    • O. Hedberg, Afroalpine Vascular Plants p. 101 (1957) pro syn. C. abyssinica.
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 69 (1954), pro parte.
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 116 (1954), pro parte quoad syn.
    • Berger in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 18a: 394 (1930).
    • Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. 4, App. 2:197 (1896).
    • DC., Prodr. 3:390 (1828).
    • Forssk., Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.:60 (1775).


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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