1. Family: Crassulaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Crassula L.
      1. Crassula vaginata Eckl. & Zeyh.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.


    Crassulaceae, R. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    A succulent, 8-90 cm. high perennial, forming clumps up to about 90 cm. in diameter.
    Stem arising from a fleshy to woody obconical or swollen tuber, erect, straight, usually simple, ± stout (up to 10 mm. in diameter at the base) or sometimes ± slender, terete, pale- or yellow-green below, bright red to reddish-brown above, usually crimson on drying, glabrous towards the base, papillose-hairy or shortly papillose upwards below the nodes along two ± short stripes alternating with the lamina of the leaves (the papillae usually very short, patent, obtuse or, if long, then hair-like), or completely glabrous, rarely papillose throughout.
    Leaves 2·5-26·5 x (0·1-0·2) 0·4-2·7(3·3) cm., sometimes up to 37 times longer than wide, the basal ones the longest and rosulate, oblong- to linear-lanceolate or linear, ± attenuate, the lower cauline leaves similar to the basal ones but shorter, the succeeding ones lanceolate or linear to oblong- or ovate-lanceolate, the uppermost sometimes bract-like, all acute or subacute at the apex, entire and with a row of short, contiguous, obtuse, white papillose cilia at the margin, sessile, ± long-connate at the base, clasping the stem below, then subappressed to it, finally erect or somewhat arched, flat, fleshy (but not very thick), pale to bright green when fresh, greenish-brown or dark brown when dry, usually glabrous on both faces or very rarely papillose-hairy beneath or on both surfaces; sheath (0·5)1-3 cm. long in the lower cauline leaves, shortening in the following; all internodes shorter than the leaves (sometimes the stem completely concealed by the sheaths and the clasping part of the laminas) or the upper ones subequalling or longer than them.
    Flowers 5-merous in a repeatedly dichotomous, usually very dense, subhemispherical, corymbose inflorescence, 1·5-22(30) cm. in diam.; branches ± papillose to nearly glabrous; pedicels 2-6 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely papillose.
    Calyx (1)1·5-3(4) mm. long, 1/3-1/2 (2/3) as long as corolla, rarely subequalling it, pale green; sepals ovate-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic to linear-lanceolate, not or ± attenuate, acute, with one terminal ± long obtuse papilla at the apex, usually entire and without marginal papillae or sometimes obtuse papillae present over a short to ±: long extent of the margin as well as on the median nerve above.
    Corolla (2·25)2·5-3·5(4·5) mm. long, white, pinkish-white or cream-white, sometimes red-tipped, or yellow, rarely red; petals 0·75-1·5(2) mm. wide, elliptic-oblong to ovate-oblong or ovate, obtuse or nearly so, slightly thickened at the top, not or indistinctly mucronate below the apex, smooth.
    Filaments 1·5-2 mm. long; anthers (0·25)0·3-0·4(0·5) mm., subcircular.
    Follicles (incl. styles) 2-2·5(2·75) mm. long, contracted into the very short styles.
    Seeds c. 0·5 mm. long, oblong.

    Crassulaceae, G.E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    A succulent rosette-forming perennial forming clumps up to ± 90 cm. in diameter (fide F.Z.).
    Rootstock a fleshy to woody obconical or swollen, sometimes bifurcating tuber with remains of former leaves.
    Stems annual, dying back after flowering, erect, usually simple, up to 90 cm. high, usually ± 30 cm., terete, ± stout, up to 10 mm. in diameter at the base, ± glabrous or minutely papillose-pubescent near the base, becoming increasingly papillose upwards, the papillae in broad vertical bands between the nodes alternating with the laminae.
    Leaves sessile, oblong- to linear-lanceolate or linear, (1–)2.5–17.5(–35) cm. long, (0.1–)0.2–2.1(–3.5) cm. wide, apex obtuse to subacute, bases of opposite leaves united to form a sheath around the stem (0.5–)1–2.5(–3) cm. high, basal leaves sometimes long-attenuate at the base, margins entire, shortly white papillose-ciliate, otherwise glabrous; cauline leaves, sheaths and internodes shortening towards the apex.
    Inflorescence a terminal, repeatedly dichotomous, usually rather dense, subhemispherical, corymbose cyme, with foliaceous bracts; branches ± papillose to subglabrous; pedicels 2–6 mm. long, glabrous or sparsely papillose.
    Flowers 5-merous.
    Calyx-lobes narrowly to broadly triangular to ovate-lanceolate, (1–)1.5–2.5(–3.5) mm. long, 0.6–0.8 mm. wide, subacute with a terminal obtuse papilla, united at the base for 0.5 mm., margins entire, rarely with a few vestigial papillae.
    Petals yellow (not in E. Africa), cream, white or pink, elliptic-oblong to oblong-ovate, oblong or ovate, (2.5–)3–4(–4.5) mm. long, (0.75–)1–1.3(–2.3) mm. wide, obtuse, slightly thickened; base united for ± 0.5–1 mm., entire, glabrous.
    Stamen-filaments 1.5–2 mm. long; anthers suborbicular, (0.2–)0.3–0.5 mm. long, yellow.
    Nectary scales transversely oblong to almost square, 0.2–0.6 mm. high, 0.4–0.8 mm. wide, truncate or emarginate.
    Carpels oblong, up to 2.7 mm. long, rather abruptly contracted into short styles, indistinctly papillose-ciliate along the suture.
    Seeds 2–6(–8) per carpel, broadly oblong, ± 0.5 mm. long, ± 0.3 mm. wide, minutely longitudinally rugulose (indistinguishable from those of C. alba).
    Fig. 2B.
    Upland grassland, especially on rock outcrops, or in clearings in montane forest; (1500–)2000–4500m.
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1



    Native to:

    Angola, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Crassula vaginata Eckl. & Zeyh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13568], Cameroon K000541192
    Dec 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8564], Cameroon K000337884
    Dec 1, 2000 Pollard, B.J. [272], Cameroon K000337879
    Mar 1, 1999 Etuge, M. [3520], Cameroon K000337881
    Apr 1, 1997 Munyenyembe, P. [758], Cameroon K000337878
    Jan 1, 1993 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1426], Cameroon K000436678
    Jan 1, 1993 Watts, J. [429], Cameroon K000436472
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [265], Cameroon K000460067
    Jan 1, 1993 Tekwe, C. [245], Cameroon K000437041
    Jan 1, 1980 Kuntze, O. [1450], South Africa K000310577 isotype
    Mar 1, 1979 Volkens, G. [1905], Tanzania K000310064 isosyntype
    Feb 1, 1979 Holst, C. [24234], Tanzania K000310063 syntype
    Jan 1, 1978 Smuts, J.C. [48], South Africa K000310580 holotype
    Maitland, T.D. [0s.n.30], Cameroon K000050057
    Maitland, T.D. [644], Cameroon K000050065
    Maitland, T.D. [827], Cameroon K000050066
    Meurillon, A. [1156], Cameroon K000050064
    Bauer, P.J. [107], Cameroon K000050056
    Hedberg, O. [93134], Cameroon K000087423
    Mann G. [2036], Cameroon K000050061 Unknown type material
    Mann G. [1304], Cameroon K000050060 Unknown type material
    Johnston H. H. [88], Cameroon K000050062 Unknown type material
    Mildbraed, G. W. J. [10861], Cameroon K000050058
    Migeod, F. W. H. [180], Cameroon K000050059
    Johnstone, A.T. [0s.n.02], Cameroon K000050063
    Kingsley, M H. [0s.n.], Cameroon K000050067
    Ujor, E.U. [FHI 29978], Cameroon K000050055

    First published in Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral.: 298 (1837)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1987). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Crassulaceae: 1-66.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1983). Flora Zambesiaca 7(1): 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • R. Fernandes in Flora Zambesiaca 7: 24, t. 4B (1983).
    • R. Fernandes in Consp. Fl. Angol., Fam. 70: 12, t. 1 (1982)
    • Wickens in Kew Bulletin 36: 667 (1982).
    • Tölken in Contrib. Bolus Herb. 8: 356 (1977).
    • Jacobsen, Lex. Succ. Pl.: 168 (1974).
    • Berger in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 18a: 394 (1930).
    • Schönl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 43: 359 (1909).
    • Eckl. & Zeyh., Enum. Pl. Afr. Austr.: 298 (1837).


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
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