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This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & E. Medit. to Iran and Arabian Peninsula, NE. Tropical Africa. It is used to treat infection, blood system disorders and genitourinary system disorders, as a vegetable and for food.

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Habit
Herb.
Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 4200 m.
Distribution
Introduced and naturalised in Colombia.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada y adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 4200 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca.
Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FZ]

Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Habit
Annual or biennial herb with stout or tuberous tap-root.
Leaves
Basal leaves stalked, bristly, lyrate-pinnatifid, upper ones sessile, amplexicaul, ± glaucous.
Flowers
Flowers bright yellow, in terminal racemes.
Calyx
Sepals spreading.
Corolla
Petals 4, 6–10 mm. long.
Stamens
Stamens 6.
Fruits
Silique curved, erect, slightly flattened with a long, tapering beak.
Seeds
Seeds 1–5–2 mm. in diam., blackish or reddish-brown.

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Habit
Annual or biennial herb with thin or stout, often fusiform to tuberous taproot.
Stem
Stem erect, branched, glabrous or slightly hispid below (rarely higher up), up to 150 cm. high.
Leaves
Basal leaves ± indistinctly petioled, bright green, hispidulous, lyrate-pinnatipartite, dentate, crenate or sinuate; terminal lobe large, orbicular to ovate, obtuse, cordate; lateral lobes in up to 5 pairs, rather small, ovate to triangular; lower cauline leaves sessile, clasping, pinnatifid; upper cauline leaves ± glaucous, sessile, distinctly clasping, undivided (fiddle-shaped, narrowly triangular or lanceolate), entire to repand-dentate.
Inflorescences
Racemes loosely corymbiform with open flowers overtopping the buds; in fruit very elongate; pedicels 10–30 mm. long.
Calyx
Sepals yellow-green, spreading, 5–8 mm. long.
Corolla
Petals yellow, clawed, with obovate slightly emarginate blade, 6–11 mm. long.
Anthers
Anthers ± 2 mm. long.
Ovary
Ovary with 20–30 ovules.
Fruits
Siliquae linear, rarely on a gynophore, 40–100 mm. long, 2.5–4 mm. broad; beak 5–30 mm. long with 0–1 seed.
Seeds
Seeds dark brown, globose, 1.0–1.5 mm. in diameter, with a fine distinct reticulum.
Habitat
Cultivated land, abandoned fields; 1500–2600 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 T2 T6 U2 worldwide as an escape from cultivationpure weed form mainly European

>

[UPB]
Food
'Roots' - edible (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Vegetables
Flowers - Eaten as vegetables (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Blood System Disorders
Used in the treatment of anemia (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Genitourinary System Disorders
Used in the treatment of kidney stones (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).
Infections & Infestations
Used as an antimicrobial agent (Florez-Cárdenas et al. 2010).

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Bulgaria, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Turkey, Yugoslavia

Extinct in:

Juan Fernández Is.

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Gilbert Is., Great Britain, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Irkutsk, Juan Fernández Is., Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Krym, Kuril Is., Labrador, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Poland, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yakutskiya, Yukon, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Nabos.

Brassica rapa L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Dec 1, 2000 Cable, S. [3046], Cameroon K000337523
Savatier [s.n.], France K000653816
Savatier [s.n.], France K000653817
Briggs, T.R. [78c], Great Britain K000653813
Briggs, T.R. [78c], Great Britain K000653815
Briggs, T.R. [s.n.], Great Britain K000653814
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4791], India Sinapis dichotoma K001039911
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039904
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039905
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039906
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039907
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039908
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039909
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791], India Sinapis dichotoma K001039910
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4791] Sinapis dichotoma K001039912
Prain, D. [s.n], India Brassica campestris var. sarson K000247162 Unknown type material

First published in Sp. Pl.: 666 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Florez-Cárdenas, G., Núñez-Izquierdo, O. L., Núñez-Izquierdo, M. M., Ramírez-Mesa, M., & Zusunaga-Quintana, J. A. (2010). 100 Plantas útiles del páramo del Rabanal: Guía para comunidades rurales. Bogotá: Instituto Alexander von Humboldt - CAR - Corpoboyac

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Danton, P. & Perrier, C. (2017). Suppressions and additions to the flora of the Juan Fernández archipelago (Chile) Botany Letters 164: 351-360.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
  • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Gutiérrez, J. & Solano, E. (2014). Afinidades florísticas y fitogeográficas de la vegetación del municipio de San José Iturbide, Guanajuato, México Acta Botanica Mexicana 107: 27-65. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Monro, A.K., González, F., Santamaría, D., Chacón, O., Rodríguez, A., Solano, D. Zamora, N. & Correa, M. (2011). A first checklist to the vascular plants of La Amistad International Park (PILA), Costa Rica-Panama Phytotaxa 322: 1-283.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Ebel, A. (2005). Review of Brassicaceae family in the flora of Khakassia Turczaninowia 8(1): 11-38.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2004). Flora of Siberia 7: 1-318. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Jalas, J., Suominen, J. & Lampinen, R. (eds.) (1996). Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1988). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 3: 1-419. Nauka, Leningrad.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hultén, E.O.G. (1960). Flora of the Aleutian Islands and westernmost Alaska Peninsula: with notes on the flora of Commander Islands, ed. 2: 1-376. Weinheim : J. Cramer ; New York : Hafner Pub. Co.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1955). Flora Uzbekistana 3: 1-824. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • B.A.Fedtschenko & al. (1948). Flora Turkmenii 3: 1-280. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Agnew & Stewart in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 94 (1974).
  • Exell & Gonçalves in Fl. Moçamb. 11: 5 (1973).
  • Marais in Flora of Southern Africa 13: 6 (1970).
  • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 188 (1960).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 150 (1954).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 97 (1954).
  • A. Chev., Fl. Viv. 1: 208 (1939).
  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1): 261 (1915).
  • Dammer in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 139 (1895).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 666 (1753).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/