1. Family: Brassicaceae Burnett
    1. Genus: Cardamine L.
      1. Cardamine africana L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, India to W. Malesia, Central & S. Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Slender perennial herb up to 40–60 cm. tall, stems often rooting at the nodes, sparsely pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves trifoliolate, petiolate, petioles slender, up to 5–10 cm. long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, leaflets up to 4 x 3 cm., ovate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acute to rounded, margins crenate-dentate, base truncate, rounded or slightly cordate, sparsely pubescent or strigulose.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, greenish-white or greenish-yellow, pedicellate, pedicels up to 4 mm. long, in corymbose racemes.
    Calyx
    Sepals 2–3 x 1–1.5 mm., suberect, obovate-oblong.
    Corolla
    Petals 4, 5 x 1.5 mm., narrowly oblanceolate or cuneate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6.
    Fruits
    Silique 25–45 x 1.5–2 mm., straight, linear, flattened, tapering gradually, with pedicel 3–12 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.8–2 x 1.2–1.5 mm., flattened-ellipsoid, brownish.
    [FWTA]

    Cruciferae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A weak herb, 1–2 ft. high
    Flowers
    White flowers.
    [FTEA]

    Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    Perennial herb, with single or clustered shoots arising from a rhizome.
    Stem
    Stems erect or ascending, often basally rooting, unbranched or with a few branches below the middle, 5–80 cm. high, often with elongate internodes, basally glabrous or finely pubescent, upwards glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves tripartite, with long petioles, which are clasping, non-auricuate, usually hispidulous, 5–95 mm. long; leaflets broadly to narrowly ovate, acuminate (rarely obtuse), cuneate to truncate, serrate to crenate, usually sparsely strigose on both surfaces, whitish green beneath; terminal leaflet 8–72 mm. long, with a 1–22 mm. long petiole; lateral leaflets 3–64 mm. long, basally oblique, sessile or with up to 11 mm. long petioles.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes with 5–20 flowers on 4–11 mm. long peduncles, in fruit condensed or lax, 2–16 cm. long; pedicels ascending, 4–30 mm. long with nearly erect siliqua.
    Calyx
    Sepals green with white margins, elliptic, 1.4–4.5 mm. long, glabrous.
    Corolla
    Petals white to pale violet, spathulate, broadly obtuse, at least twice as long as the sepals, 3.2–9 mm. long and ± 1/3 as broad.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, with linear basally widening filaments; anthers ± 1.5 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary cylindrical, with a short narrower style and a rather flat stigma.
    Fruits
    Siliqua glabrous, linear, 23–56 mm. long, 1.3–2.5 mm. broad, tapered towards the style, which is 0.6–1.4 mm. long and ± 0.4 mm. broad.
    Seeds
    Seeds reddish brown, broadly elliptic or oblong in outline, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, 1.0–1.5 mm. broad, minutely rugose.
    Habitat
    Montane forest, often in clearings or along roads and paths, damp shady places; 1000–3400 m.
    Distribution
    Central and tropical South America.widespread in elevated parts of Africa from Ethiopia southwards to South Africa (Cape Province) and westwards to Mt. Cameroon, K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T2 T3 T6 T7 U1 U2 U3 U4
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1400 - 3000 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Hierba
    Conservation
    No Evaluada

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chile South, Colombia, Comoros, Ecuador, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Free State, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Honduras, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Réunion, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Venezuela, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Peru

    Cardamine africana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Dec 1, 2000 Cable, S. [2977], Cameroon K000337522
    Dec 1, 2000 Onana, J.-M. [544], Cameroon K000337521
    Jan 1, 1993 Cheek, M. [3710], Cameroon K000540107
    Jan 1, 1993 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [391], Cameroon K000540167
    Jan 1, 1960 Morton, J.K. [828], Cameroon K000105646
    Richards, P.W. [5317], Cameroon K000105643
    Morton, J.K. [7113], Cameroon K000105647
    Maitland, T.D. [1345], Cameroon K000105645
    Thomas, D.W. [3000], Cameroon K000105649
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9352], Cameroon K000105642
    Brenan, J.P.M. [2148], Cameroon K000105644
    Spruce, R. [5378], Ecuador K000201408
    Ekman, E. L. [18502], Cuba Cardamine porphyrophylla K000076242 isotype

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 655 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Schulz in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 32: 414 (1902).
    • —F.T.A. 1: 60
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Jonsell in Bot. Notis. 129: 124 (1976).
    • Agnew & Stewart in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 97, fig. (1974).
    • Marais in Flora of Southern Africa 13: 100 (1970).
    • Exell in Flora Zambesiaca 1: 189 (1960).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 153 (1954).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 98 (1954).
    • Robyns & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 535 (1951).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 215 (1948).
    • De Wild., Pl. Bequaert. 1: 147 (1921)
    • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(1): 260 (1915).
    • Muschler in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 220 (1911).
    • O.E. Schulz in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32: 414 (1903).
    • Th. Dur. & Schinz, Consp. Fl. Afr. 1: 80 (1898).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile A: 123 (1895)
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 183 (1895).
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 226 (1892).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 60 (1868).
    • Sond. in Fl. Cap 1: 23 (1860).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 18 (1847).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 655 (1753).

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0