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This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical Northern Hemisphere to Old World Tropical Mountains.
Cardamine hirsuta

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Annual to 20 cm high or more
Morphology Stem
Stems glabrous or sparsely hairy
Morphology Leaves
Leaves glabrous or hairy above, pinnate with a terminal leaflet and 2–6 pairs of smaller lateral leaflets, the lower in a rosette with reniform terminal leaflet and rounded lateral leaflets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes without bracts, elongating in fruit; pedicels ascending, 3–8 mm long in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals longer than the sepals, c. 2–3 mm long, white, spathulate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliqua erect, linear, straight, 12–27 x c. 1 mm; style c. 0.5–1 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds c. 1 x 0.8 mm.
Distribution
N2 East Africa, almost cosmopolitan.
Ecology
Altitude range: about 1550 m.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 3250 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[FWTA]

Cruciferae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Small annual, often much-branched or tufted at the base
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white.

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Morphology General Habit
Usually annual, branching from the base but not or very sparsely above (occasionally perennating and then branched above and devoid of leaf-rosette).
Morphology Stem
Stems erect or (in tall specimens) curving, 5–30 cm. high, glabrous or with scattered hairs.
Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves forming a distinct rosette, cauline leaves rather few; all leaves pinnatipartite, with a terminal and 2–6 pairs of lateral leaflets, 1.5–10 cm. long (including petiole); petiole not auriculate, with a few straight hairs at its base; leaflets rhombic, ovate, orbicular or reniform, truncate to broadly cuneate (in upper leaves also narrowly cuneate), entire to deeply crenate, occasionally with secondary lobes, glabrous or with scattered hairs; terminal leaflet 5–15 mm. long, 3–20 mm. broad, distinctly petioled, the lateral ones oblique, 2–10 mm. long, 2–11 mm. broad, nearly sessile or with a petiole up to the length of the leaflet.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes terminal, very dense, with several small whitish flowers, in fruit rather lax (up to ± 10 cm. long); pedicels in fruit ascending, 3–8 mm. long, with erect siliquae overtopping the flowers.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals green with narrow white margins, oblong, obtuse, ± 1.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals white, narrowly spathulate, usually 2–3 mm. long (rarely absent).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 6–4; anthers ± 0.4 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary cylindrical, with a very short style narrower than the ovary, and a flat stigma.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Siliqua glabrous, linear, 12–27 mm. long, ± 1 mm. broad, with a 0.5–1 mm. long and ± 0.4 mm. broad style.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds reddish brown with a vestigial wing, broadly oblong to suborbicular in outline, ± 1 mm. long and 0.8 mm. broad, minutely colliculate.
Habitat
Slightly moist, rather open ground; 300–4600 m.
Distribution
elsewhere native at least to Europe, widespread more or less as a weed over most cultivated parts of the world K3 K4 T2 T3 U2 U3

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Borneo, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canary Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Gabon, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Krym, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Malaya, Manchuria, Mauritius, Morocco, Myanmar, Netherlands, New Guinea, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Norway, Pakistan, Palestine, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Qinghai, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

Introduced into:

Alabama, Amsterdam-St.Paul Is, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arkansas, Bangladesh, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile South, Christmas I., Colombia, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Haiti, Hawaii, Illinois, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, New Caledonia, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Pennsylvania, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, South Georgia, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia

Cardamine hirsuta L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2011 Day, C.D. [30], Turkey K000341542
Aug 1, 2008 Takeuchi, W. et al. [20294], Papua New Guinea K000575049
Dec 1, 2000 Cable, S. [3078], Cameroon K000337520
Dec 1, 2000 Asongani, J.N. [1308], Cameroon K000337519
Jan 1, 1993 Cheek, M. [3669], Cameroon K000540122
Cooley, G.E. [s.n.], Alaska K000077448
Henry, A. [1313], China K000697729
s.coll. [Cat. no. 4781], India K001039884
Dalavay, J.M. [1839], Yunnan K000697730
Cope, T.A. [RBG 325], Great Britain K000914146
Dalavay, J.M. [1839], Yunnan K000697728

First published in Sp. Pl.: 655 (1753)

Accepted by

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Alatanzhula & al. (2018). New information of Angiosperm plants in Inner Mongolia Guihaia 38: 1463-1470.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jonsell, B. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cruciferae: 1-73.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Not accepted by

  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST. [Cited as Cardamine flexuosa.]

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Schulz in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 32: 464 (1902).
  • —F.T.A. 1: 61

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • GBIF (2008-2020). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(2): 1-524. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hedge, J. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 57: 1-372. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Heenman, P.B. (2017). A taxonomic revision of Cardamine L. (Brassicaceae) in New Zealand Phytotaxa 330: 1-154.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Meades, S.J. & Brouillet, L. (2019). Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Newfoundland and Labrador https://www.newfoundland-labradorflora.com/checklist/.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Rodríguez, R., Grau, J., Baeza, C. & Davies, A. (2008). Lista comentada de las plantas vasculares de los Nevados de Chillan, Chile Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3 (1): 260 (1915).
  • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 1: 19 (1847).
  • Agnew & Stewart in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 97 (1974).
  • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 153 (1954).
  • Engl., Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile A: 123 (1895)
  • Engl., Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 184 (1895).
  • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 225 (1892)
  • Jonsell in Bot. Notis. 129: 124 (1976).
  • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 98 (1954).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 655 (1753).
  • Marais in Flora of Southern Africa 13: 101 (1970).
  • Muschler in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 220 (1911).
  • O. Hedberg, Afroalpine Vascular Plants p. 92 (1957).
  • O.E. Schulz in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 32: 464 (1903).
  • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 61 (1868).
  • Robyns & Boutique in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi,2: 538 (1951).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/