1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Bactris Jacq. ex Scop.
      1. Bactris maraja Mart.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. Tropical America.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    Widespread and common from Costa Rica south through Central America, Colombia, and into the Amazon region; lowland and premontane rain forest, on terra firme or in inundated areas, at low elevations but occasionally reaching 1500m. Widespread from Central America to Bolivia, on both sides of the Andes. Distribution in Ecuador. In Ecuador it is fairly common E of the Andes, usually on terra firme, and in the NW, where it occurs in periodically flooded land dominated by Euterpe oleracea.
    General Description
    Understorey palm. Stems clustered, to 5 m tall and 3 cm in diameter. Spines on the leaf sheath and axis pale yellow to whitish grey, broad, and flat. Leaf blade 0.5-1.5 m long; pinnae 5-25 on each side, sigmoid, inserted in groups and spreading in different planes, the middle ones 15-50 cm long and 4.5-9 cm wide. Inflorescence 15-30 cm long; branches ca. 10, to 10 cm long, 2-3 mm in diameter. Female flowers scattered along the branches. ruit black, flattened at top, rostrate, smooth or rough, 1-2 cm in diameter; fruiting perianth with a 3 lobed calyx ca. half as long as the deeply 3-lobed, usually minutely bristly corolla; staminodial ring absent. Stems solitary or cespitose, usually in open clumps of 2-15 stems, 1-7(-10) m tall, 1-4 cm diam., spiny on internodes. Leaves 3-10; leaf spines yellowish and then black at base and apex, or brown, flattened, to 5(-10) cm long, moderate to dense on sheath, petiole, fewer on rachis; sheath 12-35 cm long, sheath, petiole, and rachis occasionally densely brown-tomentose; ocrea to 15 cm long; petiole 13-76 cm long; rachis 30-130 cm long; pinnae (2-)6-30 per side (occasionally leaf simple), irregularly arranged in clusters of 2-5, spreading in different planes, or regularly arranged and spreading in the same plane, sigmoid to lanceolate, long-acuminate, occasionally pilose abaxially; middle pinnae 20-48 x 3-7 cm. Inflorescences interfoliar; peduncle 11-18 cm long, recurved, not spiny or spinulose; prophyll 8- 26 cm long; peduncular bract 15-38 cm long, whitish brown-tomentose, velvety brown-tornentose, not spiny or occasionally with flattened, yellowish or brownish spines to 8 mm long especially at the apex; rachis 1-5 cm long; rachillae 2-17, 5-15 cm long, at anthesis densely brown tomentose; triads irregularly arranged among paired or solitary staminate flowers; staminate flowers 3.5-5 mm long, deciduous; sepal lobes 0.5- 1.5 mm long; petals 3-5 mm long; stamens 6; pistillode absent; pistillate flowers 3-4 mm long; calyx tubular, 2.5-4 mm long, rarely spinulose; corolla tubular, 2.5-4 mm long, usually spinulose; staminodes absent; fruits to 1.7 cm diam., widely depressed obovoid, rostrate, purple-black, usually minutely spinulose; mesocarp juicy; endocarp depressed-oblong, the sterile pores displaced longitudinally; endocarp fibers free, numerous, with juice sacs attached; fruiting perianth with deeply 3-lobed calyx half as long as the deeply 3-lobed, often spinulose corolla, without staminodial ring.
    Vernacular
    Bolivia: chontilla conguillo, shinishëoxo (Chacabo). Brazil: marajá, marajá pupunha, tupina'i (Arawete), ubim de espinho. Colombia: chontilla, espina. French Guiana: anuyawili (Wayâpi). Guyana: bunyashiri. Panama: chunga, gui (Kuna), gui wala (Kuna), mogor (Kuna), uvita. Peru: chambira ñeja, chonlilla, ñeja, ñejilla. Suriname: piritu (Trio), piritiumë (Trio). Venezuela: piritu, uvade montaña.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Arbusto, palma cespitosa
    Conservation
    Preocupación Menor

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela

    Bactris maraja Mart. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [842], Brazil K000584843 holotype
    s.coll. [842], Brazil K000584844 holotype
    Schomburgk [s.n.], Guyana K000520347

    First published in Hist. Nat. Palm. 2: 93 (1826)

    Accepted by

    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Lorenzi, H., Noblick, L.R., Kahn, F. & Ferreira, E. (2010). Brazilian Flora Arecaceae (Palms): 1-268. Instituto Plantarum de Estudos da Flora LTDA, São Paulo, Brazil.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hammel, B.E. & al. (2003). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 2: 1-694. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • Henderson, A.J., Bactris (Palmae) in Flora Neotropica Monographs 79. 2000
    • Borchsenius F., Borgtoft-Pedersen H. and Baslev H. 1998. Manual to the Palms of Ecuador. AAU Reports 37. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Aarhus, Denmark in collaboration with Pontificia Universidad Catalica del Ecuador

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0