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This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil to S. South America.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

Morphology General Habit
Stiffly erect perennial herb up to 2.5 m tall Stiffly erect perennial herb up to 2.5 m tall.
Morphology Stem
Stem simple or little-branched, ascending-erect, strongly 4-angled, with pale ribbed angles and flattish faces, somewhat constricted just below the nodes, scabrid to hispid or hirsute; branches mostly 5–9 cm long; indumentum sparse, consisting of spreading bristle-like hairs, sometimes intermixed with short glandular hairs Stem simple or little-branched, ascending-erect, strongly 4-angled, with pale ribbed angles and flattish faces, somewhat constricted just below the nodes, scabrid to hispid or hirsute; branches mostly 5–9 cm long; indumentum sparse, consisting of spreading bristle-like hairs, sometimes intermixed with short glandular hairs.
Ecology
In damp soil in grassland, in headwaters of streams and on river banks; also in old cultivation and on roadsides; 65–1500 m.
Distribution
Native to Argentina, Uruguay and Chile.  Now widely naturalized in southern North America, Europe, Asia and Australia, and in Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, Dem. Rep. Congo, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal, Free State and Cape Province), Lesotho and Sw District code: ZIM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, MOZ M. Zambia Zimbabwe Mozambique
Morphology Leaves
Leaves (3)5–12(17.5) cm long and up to 3 cm wide, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute at the apex, narrowed above the base and enlarged below into a subauriculate, semiamplexicaul base, serrate to double serrate at the margin, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves 7–10.5 cm long and narrowly oblong to linear-lanceolate, the uppermost becoming bract like, sometimes the uppermost entire. Leaves (3)5–12(17.5) cm long and up to 3 cm wide, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute at the apex, narrowed above the base and enlarged below into a subauriculate, semiamplexicaul base, serrate to double serrate at the margin, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves 7–10.5 cm long and narrowly oblong to linear-lanceolate, the uppermost becoming bract like, sometimes the uppermost entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence of numerous spikes in a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads; spikes densely flowered, up to 4.5 cm long and 4–7 mm thick, ovoid becoming cylindric in fruit, the central one sessile, the lateral ones subsessile; bracts usually a little shorter than the calyx, 2.5–3(4) mm long, lanceolate, attenuate towards the acute apex, pilose with some minute glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins. Inflorescence of numerous spikes in a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads; spikes densely flowered, up to 4.5 cm long and 4–7 mm thick, ovoid becoming cylindric in fruit, the central one sessile, the lateral ones subsessile; bracts usually a little shorter than the calyx, 2.5–3(4) mm long, lanceolate, attenuate towards the acute apex, pilose with some minute glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx (2.5)3–3.5 mm long, hispidulous outside with small glandular hairs intermixed. Calyx (2.5)3–3.5 mm long, hispidulous outside with small glandular hairs intermixed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corollas deep purple, the uppermost overtopping the spike; tube (3.25)3–4.75(5–5.5) mm, exserted above the calyx teeth for (0.5)0.75–1.5 mm; limb c. 3 mm in diameter. Corollas deep purple, the uppermost overtopping the spike; tube (3.25)3–4.75(5–5.5) mm, exserted above the calyx teeth for (0.5)0.75–1.5 mm; limb c. 3 mm in diameter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.5 mm long. Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style (1.25)1.5 mm long. Style (1.25)1.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Mericarps 1.5–2.1 mm long. Mericarps 1.5–2.1 mm long.

[FTEA]

Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

Morphology General Habit
Stiffly erect branched mostly annual herb 0.6–1.8(–2.5) m. tall; stems scabrid to hispid or hairy.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves ovate, obovate or ovate-lanceolate below to oblong, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate above, 3–15 cm. long, 0.2–3 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, cuneate, rounded or ± amplexicaul, sessile, regularly serrate or doubly serrate, the base sometimes entire, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs; venation impressed above, raised and closely reticulate beneath.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences of numerous spikes 0.5–1.5(–4.5) cm. long, 5–7 mm. wide, arranged cymosely in mostly dense groups of triads, the central ones subsessile, the whole forming a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster; bracts lanceolate, 2.75–4 mm. long, setulose-ciliate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx ± 3.5 mm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla purple or magenta, the limb sometimes bluish; tube 5.5–7 mm. long, exserted for about 1/2 its length or 1.5 mm. (in dry state), pubescent outside; limb (3.5 dry–)4.2–5.5 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers inserted near the middle of the corolla-tube.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Nutlets brown, narrowly oblong, ± 8 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide, reticulate-ridged outside, scabridulous white scaly inside.
Habitat
Grassy roadsides, river-banks, grassland with scattered trees, etc.; 1650–2650 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 K6 but now widely naturalised in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay

Introduced into:

Alabama, Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bermuda, Borneo, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Easter Is., Fiji, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hawaii, Illinois, India, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Massachusetts, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oregon, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Swaziland, Sweden, Tanzania, Tennessee, Tubuai Is., Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Verbena bonariensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Apr 4, 2007 Rakoto [132], Madagascar K000479084
Cope, T.A. [RBG 183], United Kingdom K000914327
Hessler, E. [6149], Paraguay Verbena intercedens K000470516
Hessler, E. [3324], Paraguay Verbena intercedens K000470517

First published in Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

Literature

Flora Zambesiaca

  • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 9 (1992).
  • Fl. Europaea 3 : 123 (1972) pro parte.
  • Kew Bull. 45 : 105, fig. 2 (1990).
  • Phytologia 8 : 246 (1962).

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2019). doi: 10.3897/italianbotanist.8.48621 epublication.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
  • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
  • Hallé, N. (1980). Les Orchidees de Tubuai (archipel des Australes, Sud Polynesie), suivies d'un catalogue des plantes a fleurs et fougeres des iles Australes Cahiers de l'Indo-Pacifique 2(3): 69-130.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Stöhr, O. & al. (2012). Beiträge zur Flora von Österreich, IV Stapfia 97: 53-136.
  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 2: 989-1918. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Burkart in Darwiniana 11: 383, t. 16 (1957), pro parte.
  • Franco in Fl. Europaea 3: 123 (1972), pro parte.
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753).
  • Moldenke in Phytologia 8: 246 (1962), pro parte.
  • Troncoso in Burkart, Fl. Ilustr. Entre Rios (Argentina) 5: 241, fig. 110 (1979), pro parte.
  • Yeo in Kew Bulletin 45: 105, fig. 2 (1990).

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/