1. Family: Verbenaceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Genus: Verbena L.
      1. Verbena bonariensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SE. & S. Brazil to S. South America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Habit
    Stiffly erect perennial herb up to 2.5 m tall Stiffly erect perennial herb up to 2.5 m tall.
    Stem
    Stem simple or little-branched, ascending-erect, strongly 4-angled, with pale ribbed angles and flattish faces, somewhat constricted just below the nodes, scabrid to hispid or hirsute; branches mostly 5–9 cm long; indumentum sparse, consisting of spreading bristle-like hairs, sometimes intermixed with short glandular hairs Stem simple or little-branched, ascending-erect, strongly 4-angled, with pale ribbed angles and flattish faces, somewhat constricted just below the nodes, scabrid to hispid or hirsute; branches mostly 5–9 cm long; indumentum sparse, consisting of spreading bristle-like hairs, sometimes intermixed with short glandular hairs.
    Ecology
    In damp soil in grassland, in headwaters of streams and on river banks; also in old cultivation and on roadsides; 65–1500 m.
    Distribution
    Native to Argentina, Uruguay and Chile.  Now widely naturalized in southern North America, Europe, Asia and Australia, and in Africa in Kenya, Tanzania, Dem. Rep. Congo, South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal, Transvaal, Free State and Cape Province), Lesotho and Sw District code: ZIM S, ZIM N, ZIM C, ZIM E, MOZ M. Zambia Zimbabwe Mozambique
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)5–12(17.5) cm long and up to 3 cm wide, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute at the apex, narrowed above the base and enlarged below into a subauriculate, semiamplexicaul base, serrate to double serrate at the margin, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves 7–10.5 cm long and narrowly oblong to linear-lanceolate, the uppermost becoming bract like, sometimes the uppermost entire. Leaves (3)5–12(17.5) cm long and up to 3 cm wide, ovate, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, acute at the apex, narrowed above the base and enlarged below into a subauriculate, semiamplexicaul base, serrate to double serrate at the margin, the base sometimes entire; lamina stiff, scabrid with patent acicular tubercle-based hairs, the indumentum densest beneath particularly on the nervation; midrib and nervation impressed above, raised beneath; the upper leaves 7–10.5 cm long and narrowly oblong to linear-lanceolate, the uppermost becoming bract like, sometimes the uppermost entire
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of numerous spikes in a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads; spikes densely flowered, up to 4.5 cm long and 4–7 mm thick, ovoid becoming cylindric in fruit, the central one sessile, the lateral ones subsessile; bracts usually a little shorter than the calyx, 2.5–3(4) mm long, lanceolate, attenuate towards the acute apex, pilose with some minute glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins. Inflorescence of numerous spikes in a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster, the spikes cymosely arranged and mostly in dense groups of triads; spikes densely flowered, up to 4.5 cm long and 4–7 mm thick, ovoid becoming cylindric in fruit, the central one sessile, the lateral ones subsessile; bracts usually a little shorter than the calyx, 2.5–3(4) mm long, lanceolate, attenuate towards the acute apex, pilose with some minute glandular hairs intermixed, ciliate on the margins
    Calyx
    Calyx (2.5)3–3.5 mm long, hispidulous outside with small glandular hairs intermixed. Calyx (2.5)3–3.5 mm long, hispidulous outside with small glandular hairs intermixed
    Corolla
    Corollas deep purple, the uppermost overtopping the spike; tube (3.25)3–4.75(5–5.5) mm, exserted above the calyx teeth for (0.5)0.75–1.5 mm; limb c. 3 mm in diameter. Corollas deep purple, the uppermost overtopping the spike; tube (3.25)3–4.75(5–5.5) mm, exserted above the calyx teeth for (0.5)0.75–1.5 mm; limb c. 3 mm in diameter
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.5 mm long. Stamens inserted near middle of the corolla tube; anthers 0.5 mm long
    Style
    Style (1.25)1.5 mm long. Style (1.25)1.5 mm long
    Fruits
    Mericarps 1.5–2.1 mm long. Mericarps 1.5–2.1 mm long.
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Stiffly erect branched mostly annual herb 0.6–1.8(–2.5) m. tall; stems scabrid to hispid or hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate, obovate or ovate-lanceolate below to oblong, elliptic or elliptic-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate above, 3–15 cm. long, 0.2–3 cm. wide, acuminate at the apex, cuneate, rounded or ± amplexicaul, sessile, regularly serrate or doubly serrate, the base sometimes entire, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs; venation impressed above, raised and closely reticulate beneath.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of numerous spikes 0.5–1.5(–4.5) cm. long, 5–7 mm. wide, arranged cymosely in mostly dense groups of triads, the central ones subsessile, the whole forming a dense flat-topped or rounded cluster; bracts lanceolate, 2.75–4 mm. long, setulose-ciliate.
    Calyx
    Calyx ± 3.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla purple or magenta, the limb sometimes bluish; tube 5.5–7 mm. long, exserted for about 1/2 its length or 1.5 mm. (in dry state), pubescent outside; limb (3.5 dry–)4.2–5.5 mm. wide.
    Anthers
    Anthers inserted near the middle of the corolla-tube.
    Fruits
    Nutlets brown, narrowly oblong, ± 8 mm. long, 0.6 mm. wide, reticulate-ridged outside, scabridulous white scaly inside.
    Habitat
    Grassy roadsides, river-banks, grassland with scattered trees, etc.; 1650–2650 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 but now widely naturalised in Europe, Asia, Africa and Australia

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Bermuda, Borneo, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Czechoslovakia, Easter Is., Fiji, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Illinois, India, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malaya, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oregon, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Réunion, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Victoria, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Verbena bonariensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 183], United Kingdom K000914327
    Hessler, E. [3324], Paraguay Verbena intercedens K000470517
    Hessler, E. [6149], Paraguay Verbena intercedens K000470516

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 9 (1992).
    • Kew Bull. 45 : 105, fig. 2 (1990).
    • Fl. Europaea 3 : 123 (1972) pro parte.
    • Phytologia 8 : 246 (1962).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Stöhr, O. & al. (2012). Beiträge zur Flora von Österreich, IV Stapfia 97: 53-136.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Nesom, G.L. (2010). Taxonomic notes on Verbena bonariensis (Verbenaceae) and related species in the USA Phytoneuron 2010-12: 1-16.
    • Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2010). Flora Iberica 12: 1-650. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Fernandes, R.B. (2006). Contribução para o conhecimento das Avicenniaceae e Verbenaceae da Flora de Angola Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17(2): 5-68.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Beaman, J.H. & Anderson, C. (2004). The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 5: 1-609. Natural history publications (Borneo), Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Webb, C.J., Sykes, W.R & Garnock-Jones, P.J. (1988). Flora of New Zealand 4: 1-1365. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Britton, N. (1918). Flora of Bermuda: 1-585. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Yeo in Kew Bulletin 45: 105, fig. 2 (1990).
    • Troncoso in Burkart, Fl. Ilustr. Entre Rios (Argentina) 5: 241, fig. 110 (1979), pro parte.
    • Franco in Fl. Europaea 3: 123 (1972), pro parte.
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 8: 246 (1962), pro parte.
    • Burkart in Darwiniana 11: 383, t. 16 (1957), pro parte.
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 20 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/