Skip to main content

This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Central Asia and Arabian Peninsula, Macaronesia, N. & NE. Tropical Africa. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Naturalizada en Colombia; Alt. 1500 - 3700 m.; Andes, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta.
Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Naturalised in Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 1500 - 3700 m.
Habit
Herb.

[FZ]

Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

Habit
Aquatic or semi-aquatic herb with glabrous stems, often rooting at the nodes, varying greatly in length according to conditions.
Leaves
Lower leaves up to about 13 x 5.5 cm. (reduced when not growing in water), lyrate-pinnate, the upper sessile and auricled, glabrous or with a few sparse hairs, leaflets oblong-elliptic to sub-orbicular, obtuse, margins usually sinuate.
Flowers
Flowers white, pedicellate, pedicel up to 7–10 mm. long, in short, terminal, somewhat corymbose racemes.
Calyx
Sepals 2–2.5 x 0.8 mm., oblong.
Corolla
Petals 4–5 mm. long.
Stamens
Stamens 6.
Fruits
Silique 10–18 x 1.5–3 mm., terete, cylindric, somewhat curved, with persistent style 0.5–1 mm. long.
Seeds
Seeds 2-seriate, 0.7–1 x 0.5–0.6 mm., lenticular.

[FWTA]

Cruciferae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Vernacular
The Common Watercress
Ecology
Introduced to, and naturalized in, certain localities within our area
Flowers
Flowers white.

[FTEA]

Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

Habit
Perennial, practically glabrous herb.
Stem
Stems juicy and hollow, prostrate to ascending, usually rooting at the lower nodes, richly branched, 10–100 cm. long.
Leaves
Leaves petiolate, auriculate, pinnatisect, oblong in outline, up to 10 cm. long; lateral leaflets in 2–9 pairs, sessile, narrowly obovate, elliptic or nearly orbicular, entire to faintly dentate; terminal leaflet of similar shape, often somewhat larger.
Inflorescences
Racemes mostly terminal, ebracteate, with numerous small white flowers, in fruit rather lax but short, usually ± 10 cm. long.
Pedicel
Pedicels spreading to somewhat reflexed, 8–12 mm. long.
Calyx
Sepals green, elliptic, ± 2 mm. long.
Corolla
Petals white, often with a violet tinge, obovate, ± 4 mm. long.
Anthers
Anthers ± 0.7 mm. long.
Ovary
Ovary narrowly ellipsoid, with short but distinct style.
Fruits
Siliqua broadly linear, often curved and torulose, 10–18 mm. long, 2–2.5 mm. broad, 7–12 times as long as broad, with seeds arranged in 2 distinct rows; style 0.8–1.8 mm. long, ± 0.5 mm. broad, with a slightly expanded stigma; valves rather thin, bulging when seeds ripe.
Seeds
Seeds shining, dark red-brown, nearly orbicular in outline, 1–1.3 mm. long, covered by a distinct rather high reticulum, which forms 25–50 areoles at each side of the seed.
Figures
Fig. 18/4, p. 52.
Habitat
Muddy or gravelly soil along running water, sometimes floating; 1500–2700 m.
Distribution
native in Eurasia and perhaps in Ethiopia, but widely cultivated (“water-cress”) and spread with European settlement to temperate and montane areas throughout the world K1 K4 T2 T3 T7

>

[UPB]
Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, Pakistan, Palestine, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Southwest Caribbean, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sudan, Sweden, Switzerland, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Himalaya, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil South, British Columbia, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cook Is., Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Maine, Mali, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Niger, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Trinidad-Tobago, Tristan da Cunha, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Spanish
Berros, mastuerzo.

Nasturtium officinale W.T.Aiton appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 4, 2011 Day, C.D. [299], Turkey K000341536
Hooker, J.D. [s.n.] K001134166
Heyde [3078], Guatemala K001134321
Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Portugal K001134165
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4774], India K001039870
Migeod, F. [52], Cameroon Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum K000105775

First published in Hortus Kew. 4: 110 (1812)

Accepted by

  • Alatanzhula & al. (2018). New information of Angiosperm plants in Inner Mongolia Guihaia 38: 1463-1470.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Al-Eisawi, D. (2016). Taxonomic synopsis of Brassicaceae for the flora of Jordan Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 71: 219-226.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(2): 628-1199. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Jafri, S.M.H. (1973). Flora of West Pakistan 55: 1-308.
  • Hedge, J. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 57: 1-372. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1965). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 1: 1-567. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Not accepted by

  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum.]

Literature

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Alatanzhula & al. (2018). New information of Angiosperm plants in Inner Mongolia Guihaia 38: 1463-1470.
  • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
  • Al-Eisawi, D. (2016). Taxonomic synopsis of Brassicaceae for the flora of Jordan Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 71: 219-226.
  • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
  • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Larson, J., Reif, B., Nelson, B.E. & Hartman, R.L. (2014). Floristic studies in North Central New Mexico, U.S.A. the Sange de Cristo mountains Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 8: 271-303.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
  • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of North America North of Mexico 7: 1-797. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
  • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2001). Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
  • Morat, P. (ed.) (1997). Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
  • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (1984). Flora of Bhutan 1(2): 189-462. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Meikle, R.D. (1977). Flora of Cyprus 1: 1-832. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedge, J. & Rechinger, K.H. (1968). Flora Iranica 57: 1-372. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1965). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 1: 1-567. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
  • Korovin, E.P. & Vvedensky, A.I. (eds.) (1955). Flora Uzbekistana 3: 1-824. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
  • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/