1. Family: Cucurbitaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Citrullus Schrad. ex Eckl. & Zeyh.
      1. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Myanmar, NE. Tropical Africa to N. Kenya.

    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Perennial trailing herb with somewhat woody tuberous rootstock; stems angled, shortly hairy when young becoming scabrid.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade ± elongate-ovate in outline, distinctly scabrid-hairy beneath, smooth except on the nerves above, 26–110 mm. long, 24–66 mm. broad, palmately deeply 3–5-lobed; lobes pinnately lobulate, with the central lobe longest, long-ovate in outline; petiole 8–60 mm. long, rather densely rough-hairy.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple, less often bifid.
    Bracts
    Probracts lanceolate-elliptic, 4–5 mm. long, caducous.
    Male
    Male flowers on 8–20 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube broadly obconic, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, green; lobes lanceolate, 2–4 mm. long; petals greenish-yellow, ± 8–9 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, united below.
    Flowers
    Female flowers on 10–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary hairy, subglobose, 7–9 mm. long, 5–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube short; lobes lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long; petals 6–10 mm. long, 4–6 mm. broad. Male flowers on 8–20 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube broadly obconic, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, green; lobes lanceolate, 2–4 mm. long; petals greenish-yellow, ± 8–9 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, united below.
    Female
    Female flowers on 10–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary hairy, subglobose, 7–9 mm. long, 5–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube short; lobes lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long; petals 6–10 mm. long, 4–6 mm. broad.
    Fruits
    Fruit on a stalk up to 55 mm. long, subglobose, smooth, green longitudinally striped or mottled with yellow or rather uniformly yellow when ripe, 50–120 mm. or more in diameter, firm-walled, fleshy.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovate in outline, smooth, 6.5–10 × 3.5–5 × 2–2.5 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 5/6–7, p. 45.
    Habitat
    Semi-desert bushland and grassland; 600–770 m.
    Distribution
    tropical and subtropical north Africa and Asia, in the semi-desert regions from the Atlantic Is. eastwards to Afghanistan and Pakistan K1
    [FWTA]

    Cucurbitaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Prostrate or climbing herb
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, about 21/2 in. diam., intensely bitter.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Algeria, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Gulf States, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Western Sahara, Yemen

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, California, Corse, East Aegean Is., Hungary, Italy, Masachusettes, Paraguay, Romania, Sri Lanka, Texas, Uzbekistan

    Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [133], Cape Verde K001134352
    Niger 51303.000
    Sandwith, N.Y. [2821], Libya 18784.000
    Gilbert, M.G. [2544], Ethiopia K000731878
    Wickens, G.E. [3061], Sudan K000731876
    Ash [3325], Ethiopia K000731879
    Carter [1934], Sudan K000731874
    Carter [1969], Sudan K000731882
    Vogel, T. [23], Cape Verde K001134353
    Vogel, T. [26], Cape Verde K001134366
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6732], India Cucumis colocynthis K001124683
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6732] Cucumis colocynthis K001124681
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6732], Bangladesh Cucumis colocynthis K001124682

    First published in Linnaea 12: 414 (1838)

    Accepted by

    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Keraudren, Fl. Madag. Cucurbitac: 154 (1966).
    • Hassib, Cucurbitac. in Egypt: 58 (1938).
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 1: 183 (1927).
    • Hook. f. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 548 (1871).
    • Schrad. in Linnaea 12: 414 (1838).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0