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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Myanmar, NE. Tropical Africa to N. Kenya.
Citrullus colocynthis

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Trailing perennial herb to 3 m or more; rootstock tuberous
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade elongate-ovate in outline, stiff, scabrid, 2.5–11 x 2.5–6.5 cm, palmately deeply 3–5-lobed, the lobes deeply pinnately lobulate, petiole 1–7 cm long, retrorsely hispid or scabrid
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils usually simple
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals lanceolate, 2–4 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals greenish-yellow, obovate, 8–15 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers solitary Male flowers solitary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary subglobose
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Hypanthium
Hypanthium very short Hypanthium broadly obconic, 1.5–2.5 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Perianth
Perianth like that of male flowers
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, smooth, green, longitudinally mottled with darker green, ripening yellow, 5–12 cm in diam.; flesh white, very bitter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicel up to 5.5 cm long Pedicel 10–45 mm long Pedicel 8–20 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovate in outline, dark brown, smooth, 6–10 x 3.5–5 x 2–2.5 mm.
Distribution
N1, 3; C1 semidesert areas of northern Africa, tropical Asia and Australia.
Ecology
Altitude range 0–1000 m.
Vernacular
Unun (Somali).

[FTEA]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

Morphology General Habit
Perennial trailing herb with somewhat woody tuberous rootstock; stems angled, shortly hairy when young becoming scabrid.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade ± elongate-ovate in outline, distinctly scabrid-hairy beneath, smooth except on the nerves above, 26–110 mm. long, 24–66 mm. broad, palmately deeply 3–5-lobed; lobes pinnately lobulate, with the central lobe longest, long-ovate in outline; petiole 8–60 mm. long, rather densely rough-hairy.
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils simple, less often bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts
Probracts lanceolate-elliptic, 4–5 mm. long, caducous.
sex Male
Male flowers on 8–20 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube broadly obconic, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, green; lobes lanceolate, 2–4 mm. long; petals greenish-yellow, ± 8–9 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, united below.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers on 10–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary hairy, subglobose, 7–9 mm. long, 5–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube short; lobes lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long; petals 6–10 mm. long, 4–6 mm. broad. Male flowers on 8–20 mm. long pedicels; receptacle-tube broadly obconic, 1.5–2.5 mm. long, green; lobes lanceolate, 2–4 mm. long; petals greenish-yellow, ± 8–9 mm. long and 5 mm. broad, united below.
sex Female
Female flowers on 10–45 mm. long pedicels; ovary hairy, subglobose, 7–9 mm. long, 5–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube short; lobes lanceolate, 3–5 mm. long; petals 6–10 mm. long, 4–6 mm. broad.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on a stalk up to 55 mm. long, subglobose, smooth, green longitudinally striped or mottled with yellow or rather uniformly yellow when ripe, 50–120 mm. or more in diameter, firm-walled, fleshy.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ovate in outline, smooth, 6.5–10 × 3.5–5 × 2–2.5 mm.
Figures
Fig. 5/6–7, p. 45.
Habitat
Semi-desert bushland and grassland; 600–770 m.
Distribution
tropical and subtropical north Africa and Asia, in the semi-desert regions from the Atlantic Is. eastwards to Afghanistan and Pakistan K1

[FWTA]

Cucurbitaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Prostrate or climbing herb
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit globose, about 21/2 in. diam., intensely bitter.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Algeria, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Chad, Cyprus, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Myanmar, Niger, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Western Sahara, Yemen

Introduced into:

Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bulgaria, California, Corse, East Aegean Is., Hungary, Italy, Massachusetts, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Paraguay, Queensland, Romania, South Australia, Texas, Transcaucasus, Uzbekistan, Victoria, Western Australia

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [133], Cape Verde K001134352
Sandwith, N.Y. [2821], Libya 18784.000
Niger 51303.000
Wickens, G.E. [3061], Sudan K000731876
Carter [1934], Sudan K000731874
Ash [3325], Ethiopia K000731879
Vogel, T. [23], Cape Verde K001134353
Vogel, T. [26], Cape Verde K001134366
Carter [1969], Sudan K000731882
Gilbert, M.G. [2544], Ethiopia K000731878
Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 6732], India Cucumis colocynthis K001124683
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6732], Bangladesh Cucumis colocynthis K001124682
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6732] Cucumis colocynthis K001124681

First published in Linnaea 12: 414 (1838)

Accepted by

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Andersen, J.S. (1977). Flora Iranica 123: 1-14. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1972). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 4: 1-657. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
  • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Nazimuddin, S. & Naqvi, S.S.H. (1984). Flora of Pakistan 154: 1-56. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
  • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
  • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.

Literature

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1982). Flora of Australia 8: 1-420. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Andersen, J.S. (1977). Flora Iranica 123: 1-14. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Daoud, H.S. in Al-Rawi, A. (1985). Flora of Kuwait 1: 1-224. Alden Press Ltd., U.K.
  • Delipavlov, D. & Cheshmedzhiev, I. (eds.) (2011). Opredelitel na rasteniiata v Bulgariia: 1-590. Akad. Isd. Agrar. Univers. Plovdiv.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Jeanmonod, D. & Schlüssel, A. (éd.) (2012). Notes et contributions à la flore de Corse, XXIV Candollea 67: 293-321.
  • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
  • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Townsend, C.C. & Guest, E. (eds.) (1980). Flora of Iraq 4(1): 1-628. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by C. Jeffrey & M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Pickering, H. & Awale, A. I. (2018). Introduction to plants in Central Somaliland. Ponte Invisibile, Redsea Cultural Foundation.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Hassib, Cucurbitac. in Egypt: 58 (1938).
  • Hook. f. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 548 (1871).
  • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 1: 183 (1927).
  • Keraudren, Fl. Madag. Cucurbitac: 154 (1966).
  • Schrad. in Linnaea 12: 414 (1838).

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/