1. Family: Cucurbitaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Cucumis L.
      1. Cucumis melo L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula to India, N. & Central Australia.

    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Annual climber or trailer to 1.5 m.; stems ± spreading-hairy, hispid or lanate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade membranous, broadly ovate- or reniform-cordate in outline, ± scabrid-hairy (especially on nerves beneath) or scabrid-punctate, shallowly sinuate-toothed, 26–160 mm. long, 33–200 mm. broad, unlobed or variously palmately 3–5-lobed; lobes usually broad, shallow and rounded, with the central largest, semicircular, broadly ovate or ovate-oblong, rarely elliptic, usually not or but little narrowed towards the base; petiole spreading hispid-hairy, 27–105 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers in 2–4-flowered fascicles; pedicels slender, 3–25 mm. long; receptacle-tube pale green, 3–6 mm. long; lobes linear-lanceolate or filiform, 1–6 mm. long; petals yellow, 5–22 mm. long, 2.5–14 mm. broad, united in lower third. Female flowers on stalks 3–50 mm. or more long; ovary elliptic to elongate-cylindrical, densely adpressed-pubescent to long-lanate, 5–60 mm. long, 2–6 mm. across; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long; lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–6 mm. long; petals 4–19 mm. long, 2–12 mm. broad.
    Male
    Male flowers in 2–4-flowered fascicles; pedicels slender, 3–25 mm. long; receptacle-tube pale green, 3–6 mm. long; lobes linear-lanceolate or filiform, 1–6 mm. long; petals yellow, 5–22 mm. long, 2.5–14 mm. broad, united in lower third.
    Female
    Female flowers on stalks 3–50 mm. or more long; ovary elliptic to elongate-cylindrical, densely adpressed-pubescent to long-lanate, 5–60 mm. long, 2–6 mm. across; receptacle-tube 2.5–5 mm. long; lobes lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 1–6 mm. long; petals 4–19 mm. long, 2–12 mm. broad.
    Fruits
    Fruit on a 6–40 mm. or more long stalk, ovoid, bluntly ellipsoid or oblong-ellipsoid, 35–100 mm. long, 20–75 mm. across, in cultivated forms often much larger and sometimes very elongated, variable in colour, sometimes netted, commonly green or striped dark and light green, citron-yellow or orange and with the surface smooth.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed, elliptic in outline, 5–8 × 2.5–4 × 1–1.5 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 16/8–9, p. 101.
    Habitat
    A weed of cultivated land and waste places; 0–1220 m.
    Distribution
    widely cultivated and spread by cultivation in most parts of the globewild forms found only in eastern and north-eastern tropical Africa and in the Indian subcontinent T1 T3 T4 T6 T8 U1
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Female
    Female flowers solitary; pedicel stout, 3–50(80) mm. long; ovary (5)11–16(60) × 2–6 mm., various, often oblong, velutinous; perianth similar to that ofmale flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2·5–10 × 2–7·5 cm., various, pyriform, ellipsoid, oblong, globose or obpyriform, green with lighter green or yellow stripes becoming yellow when ripe, in cultivated forms often much larger and very variable in size, shape, ornamentation and colour; fruit-stalk 1–8 cm. long.
    Seeds
    Seeds 5–8 × 2·5–4 · 1–1·5 mm., elliptic in outline, in cultivated forms often larger.
    Habit
    Annual; stems prostrate or scandent, to 2 m., patent-setulose or hirsute.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2·5–8·5(16) × 3–11(20) cm., broadly ovate to reniform in outline, shallowly cordate, sinuate-denticulate, more or less setulose becoming punctate above and beneath, unlobed and broadly rounded or variously usually faintly palmately (3)5—lobed, lobes usually broad, shallow and rounded.
    Petiole
    Petiole 1·5–8(10·5) cm. long, patent-setulose.
    Flowers
    male flowers solitary or 2–5 in small sessile or shortly pedunculate fascicles; pedicels 3·5–4·5(25) mm. long, often densely setulose. Receptacle-tube 3–8 mm. long; lobes 1–3·5(6) mm. long. Petals 3–10(22) mm. long, yellow or pale apricot yellow. Female flowers solitary; pedicel stout, 3–50(80) mm. long; ovary (5)11–16(60) × 2–6 mm., various, often oblong, velutinous; perianth similar to that ofmale flowers.
    Male
    male flowers solitary or 2–5 in small sessile or shortly pedunculate fascicles; pedicels 3·5–4·5(25) mm. long, often densely setulose. Receptacle-tube 3–8 mm. long; lobes 1–3·5(6) mm. long. Petals 3–10(22) mm. long, yellow or pale apricot yellow.
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Stems prostrate or scandent, to 15 m., finely hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 6–18 × 6–23 cm., broadly ovate in outline, cordate, dark green, asperulous or scabrid, palmately 5–7-lobed, the lobes triangular to elliptic or narrowly oblong-lanceolate, obscurely sinuate-denticulate to coarsely and deeply sinuate-serrate or rarely lobulate, obtuse to acute, often acuminate, apiculate, the central largest.
    Petiole
    Petiole 1–15 cm. long, finely ascending-pilose, becoming scabrid-strigose.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils usually 2–4-fid.
    Probract
    Probracts 3–7 mm. long, oblong-ovate or obovate.
    Flowers
    male flowers racemose; peduncles 7–32 cm. long, finely hairy; pedicels 3–12 mm. long, finely hairy; bracts adnate to the pedicels, spathulate, glandular, 2–6 mm. long. Receptacle finely hairy; receptacle-tube 3–7 mm. long, obconic below, expanded above, lobes 9–14 mm. long, triangular, acuminate, sometimes glandular. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., rich yellow. Stamens 5 or rarely 3. Female flowers on 2·5–14·5 cm. peduncles; ovary 20–40 × 2–7 mm., cylindrical, densely puberulous; receptacle-tube 2·5–6 mm. long, lobes 8–16 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, glandular; corolla as in male flowers.
    Male
    male flowers racemose; peduncles 7–32 cm. long, finely hairy; pedicels 3–12 mm. long, finely hairy; bracts adnate to the pedicels, spathulate, glandular, 2–6 mm. long. Receptacle finely hairy; receptacle-tube 3–7 mm. long, obconic below, expanded above, lobes 9–14 mm. long, triangular, acuminate, sometimes glandular. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., rich yellow. Stamens 5 or rarely 3.
    Female
    Female flowers on 2·5–14·5 cm. peduncles; ovary 20–40 × 2–7 mm., cylindrical, densely puberulous; receptacle-tube 2·5–6 mm. long, lobes 8–16 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, glandular; corolla as in male flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit 6–25 × 2·5–6 cm. or larger, ellipsoid to cylindrical, ± terete; fruit-stalk stout, 1·5–15 cm. long, expanded upwards.
    Seeds
    Seeds 10–15 × 6–11 × 2–3 mm., broadly elliptic in outline, rounded at the ends, black, smooth, compressed, with a narrow, thin, wing-like margin.
    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Herbaceous climber or trailer to 15 m.; stems finely hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade ovate-cordate in outline, 60–180 mm. long, 60–210 mm. broad, palmately 3–5-lobed; lobes triangular or ovate and broadest at the base, or broadest about the middle, narrowed below and slightly lobulate laterally, acute or subacute and apiculate, entire, sinuate-toothed or strongly sublobulate-dentate; central lobe the most prominent; petiole 22–150 mm. long, finely and somewhat densely adpressed-hairy.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils 3–6-fid, rarely bifid, branches often unequal in stoutness.
    Bracts
    Probracts small, Ungulate, glandular, ± 3 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Male flowers ± 5–16 in 120–350 mm. long racemes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, each bearing a small glandular bract near the base; receptacle-tube shortly campanulate, 4–8 mm. long, 5–7 mm. across, hairy inside; lobes triangular, acute, often acuminate, 8–12 mm. long; petals yellow or golden yellow, broadly rounded, apiculate, 25–45 mm. long, 18–35 mm. broad; stamens 3 or 5. Female flowers on 15–30 mm. long stalks; ovary cylindrical, densely and shortly adpressed-hairy, obscurely 10-ribbed, 20–36 mm. long, 4–7 mm. across; receptacle-tube shortly cylindrical, 4–6 mm. long; lobes ovate, 10–11 mm. long; petals 30–37 mm. long, 20–30 mm. broad.
    Male
    Male flowers ± 5–16 in 120–350 mm. long racemes; pedicels 3–7 mm. long, each bearing a small glandular bract near the base; receptacle-tube shortly campanulate, 4–8 mm. long, 5–7 mm. across, hairy inside; lobes triangular, acute, often acuminate, 8–12 mm. long; petals yellow or golden yellow, broadly rounded, apiculate, 25–45 mm. long, 18–35 mm. broad; stamens 3 or 5.
    Female
    Female flowers on 15–30 mm. long stalks; ovary cylindrical, densely and shortly adpressed-hairy, obscurely 10-ribbed, 20–36 mm. long, 4–7 mm. across; receptacle-tube shortly cylindrical, 4–6 mm. long; lobes ovate, 10–11 mm. long; petals 30–37 mm. long, 20–30 mm. broad.
    Fruits
    Fruit on a stout 20–60 mm. long stalk, ellipsoid or cylindrical, 60–190 mm. long, 25–60 mm. across or much larger, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds lenticular, broadly elliptic in outline, 10–12 × 6–8 × 2–3 mm., ± smooth, dull, blackish, with a narrow membranous wing-like border most prominent distally.
    Figures
    Fig. 10.
    Habitat
    Persisting in old cultivations and near habitations, frequently becoming naturalized in forest, woodland, bushland, thicket and grassland; 0–1530 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T8 U2 U3 U4 widely distributed in the tropics and subtropics as an escape from cultivationdoubtfully a native of tropical East Africa

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Angola, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, South Australia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Burkina, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Illinois, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Korea, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Myanmar, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Philippines, Portugal, Rhode I., Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., South Carolina, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Virginia, West Virginia, Windward Is., Zaïre

    Cucumis melo L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1990 Lazarides, M. [4426], Australia K000731896
    Jan 1, 1990 Geerling, C. [1346], Sudan K000731900
    Jan 1, 1990 Johnson, R.W. [1305], Australia K000731895
    Jan 1, 1979 Scholz, U. [511], Togo K000731898
    Sep 8, 1972 Byrnes, N. [2614], Australia K000731894
    Mar 11, 1971 Daramola, B.O. [63705], Nigeria K000731901
    Jan 1, 1967 s.coll [5853], Sudan K000731911
    Sudan 1718.000
    20737.003
    29047.032
    Afghanistan 32451.000
    32647.000
    32649.000
    United Kingdom 5144.000
    Drummond, R.B. [1790], Tanzania 800.000
    Melville, R., India 40087.000
    Myers, J.G. [8027], Sudan K000731913
    Hemming, C.F. [JESS86101], Somalia K000731923
    Renvoize, S.A. [1267], USA 29047.133
    Lock, J.M. [81208], Sudan K000731912
    Sudan K000312893
    Ern, H. [1090], Togo K000731899
    Boulos, L. [19609], Egypt K000037285
    Kuchar, P. [17503], Somalia K000731921
    Kuchar, P. [17503], Somalia K000731922
    Moggi, G. [1156], Somalia K000731920
    s.coll. [s.n.] K000742807
    de Wilde, J.J.F.E [4674], Ethiopia K000731919
    Leach, G.J. [2409], Australia K000731892
    Lykke, A.M. [596], Senegal K000731897
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124697
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124698
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124699
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124700
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124701
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6738] K001124702
    Friss, I. [12230], Ethiopia K000731916
    Friss, I. [12230], Ethiopia K000731917
    Ash Jonquil, Mrs. [2502], Ethiopia K000731914
    Gilbert, M.SB. [1264], Ethiopia K000731915
    Sue, E. [3914], Ethiopia K000731918
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6755], Myanmar Luffa hederacea K001124737
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6755], Myanmar Luffa hederacea K001124738
    Jan 1, 1990 Rottler [s.n.], Tamil Nadu Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis K000634447 holotype
    Jan 1, 1990 Röttler, J.P. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu Cucumis melo subsp. agrestis K000794987
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6758], India Luffa parvala K001124742
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6729], India Cucumis pubescens K001124678
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6757], India Luffa satpatia K001124741
    Milne-Redhead, E. [5074], Ghana Cucumis melo var. agrestis 5148.000
    Borgen? [748], Niger Cucumis melo var. agrestis K000312901
    Luffa cylindrica 22213.000
    Hepper, F.N. [4208], Chad Luffa cylindrica 33337.000
    Hunt, D.R. [5498], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139574
    Hunt, D.R. [5498], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139575
    Philcox, D. [4048], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139576
    Philcox, D. [3681], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139581
    Plowman, T. [8937], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139591
    Plowman, T. [8937], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139593
    Hatschbach, G. [29556], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139571
    Hatschbach, G. [49468], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139588
    Ash [141], Ethiopia Luffa cylindrica 900.008
    Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310296
    Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310298
    Equatorial Guinea Luffa cylindrica K000310297
    Maas, P.J.M. [483], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139577
    Maas, P.J.M. [483], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139579
    Maas, P.J.M. [309], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139580
    Silva, L.A.M. [416], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139589
    Walter, B.M.T. [2869], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139587
    Oldenburger, F.H.F. [1693], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139586
    Santos, J.U. [83], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139595
    Gardner, G. [s.n.], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139583
    Balée, W.L. [965], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139590
    Scardino [282], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139594
    Prance, G.T. [20973], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139572
    Prance, G.T. [20747], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139573
    Davidson, C. [10703], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139570
    s.coll. [s.n.] Luffa cylindrica K000742649
    Albuquerque, B.W. [1322], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139592
    Pires, M.J.P. [808], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139578
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139582
    Gardner [2616], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139584
    Glaziou [6548], Brazil Luffa cylindrica K001139585
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6731] Cucumis utilissimus K001124680
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6710] Bryonia collosa K001124641

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1011 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Kar, S.K. & al. (2016 publ. 2017). Additions to the flora of Chilika lake and its immediate neighbourhood Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 40: 134-150.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Memon, R.A. & al. (2014). Illustrated weed flora of Cotton crop of Khairpur district, Sindh, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 5-12.
    • Shaheen, H., Qureshi, R., Akram, A., Gulfraz, M. & Potter, D. (2014). A preliminary floristic checklist of Thal desert Punjab, Pakistan Pakistn Journal of Botany 46: 13-18.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
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    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
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    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
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    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
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    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
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    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Yan, X.L. & Ma, J.S. (2011). Nomenclatural notes on alien invasive vascular plants in China Plant Diversity and Resources 33: 132-142.
    • Hohla, M. (2011). Zwei Funde der Kleine Seerose (Nymphaea candida) sowie weitere Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Flora von Oberösterreich Stapfia 95: 141-161.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
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    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0