1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium krauseanum Fedde

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SW. Peru to NW. Chile.

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Peru, Depto. Arequipa, prope Mollendo, in saxosis, 50 – 100 m, Oct., A. Weberbauer 1552 (holotype B† [photo F neg. no. 17327: F, GH, NY, US]); Peru, Depto. Arequipa, Mollendo, beach at Sta. Catarindo, 17°0'S, 72°1'W, 3 m, 3 Dec. 2006, M. Ackermann & F. Cáceres 630 (epitype USM, selected here; isoepitypes BSB, F, HUSA, M). Replacement name for Heliotropium saxatile.
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.5 – 1.5 m tall, profusely branched, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 17 leaves, sessile, linear-oblanceolate to oblong, 10 – 55 (− 60) × 1.2 – 9 (−10.5) mm; lamina glutinous, pubescent on both sides, sparsely strigose on the adaxial surface, tomentose on the abaxial surface, dark-green or dark greyish-green, margin sinuate, revolute, base attenuated, apex obtuse, with the main and secondary veins conspicuous, the latter forked toward the margin
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes linear, free or fused only at the base, sparsely hirsute outside, glabrous or sparsely hirsute within, 1.5 – 3 × 0.3 – 1 mm, free portion 1.5 – 3 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, dull white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 2.5 – 5 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 2.5 – 4.5 (− 6) mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers linear-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, 1 – 1.5 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head or above it
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.5 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, 0.5 – 0.9 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, bilobate and sometimes papillose at the apex, 0.3 – 0.7 × 0.3 – 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown, c. 0.5 – 1 × 0.9 – 1.2 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 0.7 × 1 mm diam. Figs 2G, 3G and 9.
    Distribution
    Coastal range of the Departments of Tacna, Moquegua and Arequipa in southern Peru (Johnston 1928b; Macbride 1960; Ferreyra 1961; Galán de Mera et al. 2003; Weigend et al. 2003). Two outliers have recently been found in the Andean foothills of the province of Yauyos, Department of Lima, Peru (Weigend et al. 2003) and in the coast of the province of Tamarugal, Región de Tarapacá, Chile, 12°37' – 19°37'S (Luebert & Pinto 2004). This is the only species of section Cochranea that ranges into Peru (Map 7).
    Ecology
    Foggy coastal lomas formations, usually on sandy and rocky slopes (Ferreyra 1961; Weigend et al. 2003; Luebert & Pinto 2004), 0 – 780 (− 1734) m. The populations of the province of Yauyos in the Department of Lima form part of the vegetation dominated by cacti in the dry Andean valleys, above 1200 m (Weigend et al. 2003).
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC), see Luebert (2010).
    Phenology

    Throughout the year provided sufficient moisture.

    Note

    In his description of Heliotropium saxatile, Krause (1906) associated this species with H. lanceolatum Ruiz & Pav. (Ruiz & Pavón 1799) from the section Heliothamnus. Johnston (1928b), however, placed the former species in section Cochranea, which was followed by subsequent authors (Macbride 1960; Förther 1998; Weigend et al. 2003; Luebert & Pinto 2004) based on morphology. Molecular phylogenetic analyses (Luebert & Wen 2008; Luebert et al. 2011a) have shown that H. krauseanum is a member of section Cochranea and is only distantly related to section Heliothamnus. The type specimen of H. krauseanum housed at B was destroyed during the Second World War, and only a picture remains (F neg. no. 17327). After consultation with the curators of the major herbaria holding Weberbauer’s specimens (F, GH, MOL, USM, WRSL; see Luteyn et al. 2008) no isotype seems to exist, from which a lectotype could be selected. In order to fix and stabilise the application of the name, an epitype has been therefore selected from among the collections made at the same locality of the holotype.

    The name was dedicated to Kurt Krause, who first described this species.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North, Peru

    Heliotropium krauseanum Fedde appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Just's Bot. Jahresber. 34(3): 72 (1908)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pinto, R. & Luebert, F. (2009). Datos sobre la flora vascular del desierto costero de Arica y Tarapaca, Chile, y sus relaciones fitogeograficas con el sur de Peru Gayana. Botánica 66: 28-49.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Luebert & Pinto (2004)
    • Galán de Mera et al. (2003: 331)
    • Weigend et al. (2003)
    • Förther (1998: 202)
    • Brako & Zarucchi (1993: 220)
    • Ferreyra (1961: 111)
    • Macbride (1960: 561)
    • Johnston (1928b: 28)
    • Fedde (1906: 72)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Pinto, R. & Luebert, F. (2009). Datos sobre la flora vascular del desierto costero de Arica y Tarapaca, Chile, y sus relaciones fitogeograficas con el sur de Peru Gayana. Botánica 66: 28-49.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0