1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Symplocarpus Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Asia, E. Canada, N. Central & E. U.S.A.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Distribution
    Temp. Asia, E. Canada, NC. & E. U.S.A.
    Diagnostic
    Seasonally dormant geophytes with thick, erect rhizomes; leaf blade subcordate to cordate-ovate, fine venation reticulate to transverse-reticulate; spadix stipitate, subglobose; spathe boat-shaped or hooded, enclosing the spadix; flowers bisexual, periogoniate, with 4 tepals. Differs from Lysichiton in dark, boat-shaped or hooded spathe inserted just below spadix, spadix enclosed within spathe, subglobose with a short stipe.
    General Description
    HABIT : fairly large, seasonally dormant herbs, rhizome thick, erect with thick roots. LEAVES : few. PETIOLE : fairly broad, sulcate, sheath short. BLADE : subcordate- to cordate-ovate; primary lateral veins pinnate, arching towards apex, running into inconspicuous marginal vein, secondary laterals and higher order venation reticulate to transverse-reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium, appearing before or with leaves. PEDUNCLE : only shortly exserted above ground. SPATHE : thick, boat-shaped or conchiform, lower part convolute, upper part somewhat to widely gaping, apex 2-keeled, rostrate, curving forwards. SPADIX : stipitate, subglobose, hidden within spathe. FLOWERS : bisexual, perigoniate; tepals 4, fornicate, imbricate. STAMENS : 4, filaments flattened, connective slender, thecae oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slit. POLLEN : monosulcate, ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 33 µm.), exine reticulate, apertural exine coarsely verrucate. GYNOECIUM : ovary somewhat immersed in spadix axis, 1-locular, ovule 1, orthotropous, funicle very short, placenta apical-parietal, style long-attenuate, stigma punctate-discoid. BERRY : tepals and style persistent to ripe fruiting stage, seed and base of berry immersed in spongy spadix axis, infructescence ± globose. SEED : globose, testa thin, smooth, embryo globose, endosperm very sparse, only a single cell layer thick. Herbs, large, glabrous, seasonally dormant. Rhizome erect, stout, with thick roots. Leaves few to several, petiolate; petiole long, with sheath; leaf blade subcordate to cordate-ovate, large, apex acute to cuspidate; midvein strong, primary lateral veins pinnate and arching toward apex, running into inconspicuous marginal vein, secondary lateral veins and higher order venation reticulate to transversely reticulate. Inflorescences 1 or 2 in a sympodium, appearing before or with leaves; peduncle long but only shortly exserted above ground; cataphylls surrounding peduncle. Spathe convolute at base, somewhat to widely gaping at apex, thick, boat-shaped or conchiform, apex 2-keeled, rostrate, curving forward. Spadix stipitate, globose to broadly ellipsoid, much shorter than spathe and hidden within. Flowers bisexual, with perigone; tepals 4, arching and imbricate. Stamens 4, free; filaments flattened; connective slender; thecae oblong, dehiscing by longitudinal slit; pollen grains ellipsoid, monosulcate, exine reticulate, apertural exine verrucate. Ovary of gynoecium (pistil) somewhat immersed in spadix axis, 1-loculed; ovule 1, orthotropous; funicle very short; placentation apical-parietal; stylar region long attenuate; stigma punctate-disciform. Infructescence globose to broadly ellipsoid, berries densely arranged. Berry with tepals and style persistent to ripe fruiting stage, base of berry immersed in spongy spadix axis. Seed globose; testa thin, smooth; embryo globose, large; endosperm very sparse, only a single cell layer thick. 2n = 30, 60.
    Habitat
    Temperate damp woodlands, rarely open wetlands, from near sea level to ca. 900m. alt.; usually in shaded sites, frequent near water courses; S. foetidus and S. renifolius flower in early spring before the leaves appear and fruit in the summer of the same year; S. nipponicus flowers after the leaves appear and the fruits ripen in the following spring.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Maine, Manchuria, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Québec, Rhode I., Sakhalin, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin

    Symplocarpus Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Veg. Mater. Med. U.S. 1: 124 (1817)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2008. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0