1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Syngonium Schott

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    Diagnostic
    Evergreen, climbing hemiepiphytes with milky latex, sometimes creeping on the ground in submature growth, internodes long; leaf blade cordate, sagittate or hastate to pedatisect or rarely pinnatifid, usually with submarginal collective vein, fine venation reticulate; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; male flowers connate into truncate synandrium; berries connate into indehiscent syncarp.
    Distribution
    Mexico to Trop. America.
    Habitat
    Tropical humid forest and disturbed areas; climbing epiphytes and hemiepiphytes, creeping when juvenile.
    General Description
    Latex milky. HABIT : root-climbing or shortly creeping, evergreen herbs, internodes short to elongate, green. LEAVES : numerous. PETIOLE : sheath long. BLADE : at maturity cordate, oblong-cordate, lanceolate, sagittate, trifid to trisect, pedatifid to pedatisect, rarely pinnatifid, when juvenile entire, ovate to sagittate or cordate-sagittate or hastate; basal ribs usually well-developed, primary lateral veins pinnate, usually forming a submarginal collective vein, 1-2 distinct marginal veins also present, or sometimes primaries long-arcuate and running into margin (e.g. S. schottianum), secondary laterals ± parallel to primaries, higher order venation reticulate to transverse-reticulate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-8 in each floral sympodium. PEDUNCLE : much shorter than petiole, erect at anthesis, pendent in fruit. SPATHE : strongly constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, ovoid-ellipsoid, or cylindric or globose, sometimes ventricose, persistent, blade usually cream, boat-shaped to expanded at anthesis, erect to spreading, usually marcescent after anthesis, later deciduous. SPADIX : sessile, much shorter than spathe, female zone cylindric to conoid, separated from male zone by zone of sterile flowers, sterile zone constricted, male zone clavate to cylindric or ellipsoid, longer than female zone, fertile to apex. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 3-4-androus, stamens connate, synandrium obpyramidal, truncate to rounded at apex, often deeply lobed, common connective thick, overtopping anthers, thecae linear, dehiscing by apical pore or short slit. POLLEN : extruded in strands, inaperturate, ellipsoid-oblong to spherical or subspheroidal, medium-sized (mean 48 µm., range 34-75 µm.), exine minutely fossulate or verruculate, narrowly rugulate and minutely scabrate, spinose or tuberculate. STERILE MALE FLOWERS : ± prismatic synandrodes. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecia connate, rarely ± free at anthesis and becoming connate later ( S. steyermarkii) , ovary obovoid or oblong-obovoid, (1-)2(-3)-locular, ovules 1(-2) per locule, anatropous, funicle short, placenta axile near septum base to parietal-basal, stylar region as broad as ovary and ± truncate or very slightly attenuate, stigma discoid or 2-lobed, rarely globose, discoid-capitate or cup-shaped, narrower than ovary. BERRIES : connate, forming ovoid to ellipsoid, usually brown, sometimes white, fleshy syncarp, usually exposed at maturity by opening of persistent orange, yellow, red or violet spathe tube. SEED : ovoid to ellipsoid, rather large, testa smooth, thin, black or dark brown, shiny, embryo large, ellipsoid to subglobose, endosperm absent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles

    Introduced into:

    Bahamas, Bangladesh, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil South, Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cook Is., Florida, Hawaii, Jawa, Leeward Is., Malaya, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, Seychelles, Windward Is.

    Syngonium Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Wiener Z. Kunst 3: 780 (1829)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2008. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0