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This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to NE Queensland.
Momordica charantia

[FZ]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Stems prostrate or scandent to 5 m., sparsely to densely crispate-pubescent or villous, especially at nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-lamina 1–10 × 1–12·5 cm., broadly ovate to orbicular in outline, cordate, narrowly decurrent on to petiole, punctate and sparsely pubescent to densely villous on veins beneath, sparsely hirsute especially on veins above, deeply palmately 3–7-lobed, lobes variously sinuate-dentate or lobulate, acute to retuse, apiculate.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petiole 0·5–7 cm. long.
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils simple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers monoecious, solitary. male flowers: peduncle 0·3–5 cm. long; bract 2–17 mm. long, broadly ovate or reniform, sessile, cordate, amplexicaul, obtuse or retuse, apiculate, green; pedicel 2–9·5 cm. long. Receptacle-tube 1–5 mm. long; lobes 3–7 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate. Petals 1·0–2·5 cm. long, pale to deep yellow, ovate to obovate. Female flowers: peduncle 0·2–5 cm. long; bract 1–12 mm. long; pedicel 1–10 cm. long; ovary 8–11(30) × 2–4 mm., ovoid-rostrate to fusi-form, ridged, pilose on ridges, tuberculate; receptacle-tube 1–3 mm. long, lobes 2–5 mm. long, lanceolate; petals 0·7–1·2 cm. long.
sex Male
male flowers: peduncle 0·3–5 cm. long; bract 2–17 mm. long, broadly ovate or reniform, sessile, cordate, amplexicaul, obtuse or retuse, apiculate, green; pedicel 2–9·5 cm. long. Receptacle-tube 1–5 mm. long; lobes 3–7 mm. long, ovate-lanceolate. Petals 1·0–2·5 cm. long, pale to deep yellow, ovate to obovate.
sex Female
Female flowers: peduncle 0·2–5 cm. long; bract 1–12 mm. long; pedicel 1–10 cm. long; ovary 8–11(30) × 2–4 mm., ovoid-rostrate to fusi-form, ridged, pilose on ridges, tuberculate; receptacle-tube 1–3 mm. long, lobes 2–5 mm. long, lanceolate; petals 0·7–1·2 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit 2·5–4·8(11) × 1·5–2·3(4) cm., ovoid-rostrate or ellipsoid, longitudinally ribbed and tuberculate, bright orange-red, dehiscent into 3 valves; fruit-stalk 3·4–15 cm. long.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 8–11 × 4·5–8 × 2–3·5 mm., enveloped in sticky red pulp, ovate-elliptic to oblong in outline; faces flattened, sculptured, with sinuate edges; margins grooved.

[FTEA]

Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

Morphology General Habit
Annual climber or trailer to 5 m.
Morphology Stem
Stems herbaceous, ridged, glabrous or hairy, strap-shaped at the base.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blade broadly ovate-reniform or orbicular in outline, cordate, 25–100 mm. long, 30–125 mm. broad, glabrous or pubescent (especially on the nerves) on both surfaces, deeply palmately (3–)5(–7)-lobed; lobes obovate, ovate-elliptic or rhombic in outline, narrowed towards the base, acute and apiculate, sinuate-toothed and unlobed or more usually sinuate-lobulate; petioles 14–70 mm. long.
Morphology General Tendrils
Tendrils simple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Monoecious. Male flowers solitary; peduncle 5–28 mm. long, bearing an apical 3–15 mm. long 4–22 mm. broad suborbicular apiculate clasping green bract; pedicel 18–55 mm. long; receptacle-tube obconic, pale greenish-yellow, 2–4 mm. long; lobes ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, adpressed to lower surface of the petals, 3–6.5 mm. long; petals obovate-lingulate, apiculate, 11–22 mm. long, 7.5–15 mm. broad, pale yellow to orange-yellow, 2 with scales inside at the base; stamens 3; anthers coherent in centre of flower; thecae triplicate. Female flowers with peduncle 2–50 mm. long, bearing an apical broadly ovate or suborbicular 1–12 mm. long 1–10 mm. broad sessile bract; pedicel 10–100 mm. long; ovary ovoid and beaked to elongate-fusiform, muricate-tuberculate, 8–30 mm. long, 2–4 mm. across; receptacle-lobes linear, acute, 2–5 mm. long, reflexed at the tips; petals 7–12 mm. long, 3–6 mm. wide.
sex Male
Male flowers solitary; peduncle 5–28 mm. long, bearing an apical 3–15 mm. long 4–22 mm. broad suborbicular apiculate clasping green bract; pedicel 18–55 mm. long; receptacle-tube obconic, pale greenish-yellow, 2–4 mm. long; lobes ovate-lanceolate or elliptic, adpressed to lower surface of the petals, 3–6.5 mm. long; petals obovate-lingulate, apiculate, 11–22 mm. long, 7.5–15 mm. broad, pale yellow to orange-yellow, 2 with scales inside at the base; stamens 3; anthers coherent in centre of flower; thecae triplicate.
sex Female
Female flowers with peduncle 2–50 mm. long, bearing an apical broadly ovate or suborbicular 1–12 mm. long 1–10 mm. broad sessile bract; pedicel 10–100 mm. long; ovary ovoid and beaked to elongate-fusiform, muricate-tuberculate, 8–30 mm. long, 2–4 mm. across; receptacle-lobes linear, acute, 2–5 mm. long, reflexed at the tips; petals 7–12 mm. long, 3–6 mm. wide.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit on a 37–150 mm. or more long stalk, pendulous, broadly ovoid and beaked to attenuate-ellipsoid, 35–110 mm. long, 20–40 mm. across, reddish-orange with a paler apex, ornamented with ± 8 longitudinal rows of subconical tubercles and with many smaller tubercles in between, splitting into 3 valves and exposing the seeds sheathed in sticky red pulp hanging in two rows from the faces of each valve.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds oblong, ± 8–11 × 4.5–6 × 2.5–3.5 mm.; testa sculptured; margins grooved.
Habitat
Lowland rain-forest and riverine forest, elephant-grass thicket and in plantations; 100–1220 m.; sometimes cultivated
Distribution
K7 T4 T8 U2 U4 Z pantropical, but probably introduced in the New World

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Adventicia en Colombia; Alt. 5 - 1500 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Islas Caribeñas, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Trepadora
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
alchucha, archucha, archurchis, balsamín, balsamina, balsamino, balsamira, bejuco de cojé, bejuco de culebra, bocado de culebra, bocaoeculebra, chauchilla, cojé, cundeamor, fruto de la culebra, maravilla, marsamila, mavilla, pepinillo, pepino, pepino de c

[FWTA]

Cucurbitaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Morphology General Habit
Climber, flowers yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ripening orange, 2–3 in. long, bursting in 3 valves to expose the carmine red seeds
Ecology
Extending into moister regions.

Native to:

Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Christmas I., Congo, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Extinct in:

Socotra

Introduced into:

Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central American Pac, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Jamaica, Korea, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Southwest Caribbean, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

Momordica charantia L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2016 Hooker, J.D. [162], Cape Verde K001134350
Jan 1, 2009 Fernandes, D. [464], Bolivia K000634046
Oct 3, 2007 Hamilton, M.A. [185], Montserrat 76505.000
Jan 1, 2006 Cheek, M. [11710], Cameroon K000582255
Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [5634], Cameroon K000008307
Feb 1, 2003 Cable, S. [2799], Cameroon K000008301
Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7524], Cameroon K000008306
Feb 1, 2003 Sidwell, K. [385], Cameroon K000008303
Feb 1, 2003 Cable, S. [3231], Cameroon K000008308
Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7524], Cameroon K000008305
Feb 1, 2003 Zapfack, L. [642], Cameroon K000008302
Dec 1, 1967 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [6945], Cameroon K000050716
22677.000
Verdcourt, B. [3942], Kenya 23968.000
29047.008
Tweedie, E.M. [3484], Kenya 32458.000
Harley, R.M. [16272], Brazil 35923.000
Radcliffe-Smith, A. [3882], Oman 38880.000
4646.000
Richards, H.M. [16056], Tanzania 4994.000
Milne-Redhead, E. [7596], Tanzania 5158.000
Bullock, A.A. [3999], Zambia 6519.000
Purseglove, J.W. [3258], Uganda 8104.000
White, F. [2379], Zambia 8105.000
Wild, H. [44470], Zimbabwe 823.000
Philcox, D. [4039], Brazil K001139652
Philcox, D. [3860], Brazil K001139654
Burchell [7158-2], Brazil K001139659
Prance, G.T. [4004], Brazil K001139669
Albuquerque, B.W. [1363], Brazil K001139672
Traill, J.W.H. [362], Brazil K001139638
Bolland, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001139640
Fonseca, V.S. [116], Brazil K001139642
Harley, R. [5182], Brazil K001139625
Hatschbach, G. [31372], Brazil K001139629
Harley, R.M. [16272], Brazil K001139632
Hatschbach, G. [45119], Brazil K001139609
Andrade, I.M. [84], Brazil K001139607
Mexia, Y. [4543], Brazil K001139664
Hunt, D.R. [6162], Brazil K001139667
Hatschbach, G. [38552], Brazil K001139619
Pearson, H.P.N. [4], Brazil K001139649
Kummrow, R. [538], Brazil K001139615
Burchell [822], Brazil K001139658
Manning, S.D. [1265], Cameroon K000050717
Harley, R.M. [17255], Brazil K001139634
Hutchinson, J. [99], Cameroon K000050719
Lobo, M.G.A. [156], Brazil K001139636
Balée, W.L. [1542], Brazil K001139608
s.coll. [s.n.] K000742645
Eiten, G. [4571], Brazil K001139651
Skorupa, L. [90], Brazil K001139626
Moseley [s.n.], Brazil K001139656
s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001139646
Kummrow, R. [508], Brazil K001139618
Hutchinson, J. [99], Cameroon K000050720
Prance, G.T. [4004], Brazil K001139631
Robert, A. [748], Brazil K001139655
França, F. [2290], Brazil K001139623
Harley, R.M. [16212], Brazil K001139633
Swainson, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001139644
Döbereiner, J. [1470], Brazil K001139637
Hatschbach, G. [29505], Brazil K001139630
Moseley, H.N. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134351
Lemos, M.J.S. [20], Brazil K001139622
Agra, M.F. [1169], Brazil K001139679
Trail, J.W.H. [362], Brazil K001139617
Lindeman, J.C. [4573], Brazil K001139678
Lobão, A.Q. [28], Brazil K001139641
Teixeira, L.O.A. [378], Brazil K001139610
Hage, J.L. [589], Brazil K001139614
Teixeira, L.O.A. [720], Brazil K001139611
Hutchinson, J. [99], Cameroon K000050718
s.coll. [Cat. no. 6746] K001124719
Silva, J.M. [1930], Brazil K001139676
Vieira, G. [389], Brazil K001139635
Graham [s.n.], Brazil K001139639
Rico, L. [1415], Bolivia K000295406
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001139661
Balick, M.J. [1545], Brazil K001139650
Moseley [s.n.], Brazil K001139657
Lowrie, S.R. [400], Brazil K001139613
Irwin, H.S. [15866], Brazil K001139668
s.coll. [s.n.], India K000742644
Riedel [707], Brazil K001139648
Harley, R. [5182], Brazil K001139624
Hatschbach, G. [33807], Brazil K001139620
Damineli, E.C. [20426], Brazil K001139675
Hatschbach, G. [49168], Brazil K001139627
Vieria, R.F. [93], Brazil K001139628
s.coll. [s.n.] K001139643
Pickersgill, B. [Ru71-272], Brazil K001139616
Miers, J. [3491], Brazil K001139647
Irwin, H.S. [21484], Brazil K001139665
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001139662
Preston, T.A. [s.n.], Brazil K001139663
Maas, P.J.M. [322A], Brazil K001139674
Burchell, W.J. [7158-2], Brazil K001139660
Lemos, M.J.S. [20], Brazil K001139677
Daly, D.C. [D520], Brazil K001139612
Silva, N.T. [2059], Brazil K001139673
Hatschbach, G. [5203], Brazil K001139621
Philcox, D. [4039], Brazil K001139653
Prance, G.T. [4004], Brazil K001139670
Hatschbach, G. [17173], Brazil K001139666
Prance, G.T. [14673], Brazil K001139671
Gibert, E.J. [37], Paraguay K001139645

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1009 (1753)

Accepted by

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  • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2011). Flora of China 19: 1-884. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
  • de Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2008). Flora of Thailand 9(4): 411-546. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.

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  • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(1): 1-346.
  • Wagner, W.L., Herbst, D.R. & Sohmer, S.H. (1999). Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'i, rev. ed., 1: 1-988. University of Hawai'i Press, Bishop Museum Press.
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Flora of Tropical East Africa

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Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
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Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
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