1. Family: Araceae Juss.
    1. Typhonodorum Schott

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania (Islands), W. Indian Ocean.

    [CATE]

    CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011. araceae.e-monocot.org

    General Description
    HABIT : evergreen, robust to gigantic herbs (to 4m), rhizome thick, subterranean, spreading, terminal shoot forming massive banana-like pseudostem formed by the lower part of petiole sheaths. LEAVES : several in terminal crown. PETIOLE : very long, free apical part relatively short, sheath extending for most of petiole length. BLADE : very large, subtriangular to sagittate, acute; basal ribs well-developed, primary lateral veins pinnate, forming submarginal collective vein very near to margin, 3-4 marginal veins also present, secondary lateral and higher order venation densely parallel-pinnate. INFLORESCENCE : 1-2 in each floral sympodium. PEDUNCLE : erect, bent downwards in fruit. SPATHE : erect, constricted between tube and blade, tube convolute, oblong-ellipsoid, green, persistent, blade longer than tube, narrowly boat-shaped, acuminate, gaping at anthesis, cream-coloured, marcescent, later deciduous. SPADIX : shorter than spathe, sessile, free, differentiated into 4 zones, basal female zone with cuneiform staminodes scattered between gynoecia, separated from male zone by narrower zone of sterile male flowers, male zone thicker, subcylindric-conoid, terminal zone composed of sterile male flowers. FLOWERS : unisexual, perigone absent. MALE FLOWER : 4-6-androus, stamens connate, synandrium truncate, connective very broad, thecae lateral, sessile, dehiscing by short longitudinal slit. POLLEN : inaperturate, ellipsoid, medium-sized (mean 45 µm.), exine subverrucate or obscurely foveolate or punctate. LOWER STERILE MALE FLOWERS : synandrodium truncate, subhexagonal becoming narrowly rhomboid to trapezoid towards male zone. UPPER STERILE MALE FLOWERS : composed of 3-6 obpyramidal, truncate staminodes, irregularly connate or merely crowded together. FEMALE FLOWER : gynoecia surrounded by irregularly scattered, obpyramidal, truncate staminodes, ovary shortly ovoid to globose, 1-locular, ovule 1(-2), orthotropous, funicle thick, short, placenta basal, style very shortly attenuate, stigma rather broad, shallowly 3-6-lobed. BERRY : borne in subcylindric, pendent infructescence enclosed in persistent spathe tube, berries very large, compressed-obovoid to -globose, bright yellow, pericarp fleshy. SEED : large, compressed-obovoid, testa thin, ± smooth, embryo very large, plumule exceptionally well-developed with several leaf primordia, endosperm absent.
    Habitat
    Tropical wetland habitats; helophytes, freshwater swamps, along rivers, coastal lagoons in brackish water, forming huge populations.
    Distribution
    Tanzania (Is.), W. Indian Ocean.
    Diagnostic
    Giant helophytes (to 4 m) forming extensive colonies with massive banana-like pseudostem formed by petiole sheaths; leaf blade sagittate, submarginal collective vein present together with 3-4 distinct marginal veins, fine venation parallel-pinnate; peduncle bent downwards in fruit; flowers unisexual, perigone absent; male flower a truncate synandrium; berries large, yellow. Differs from Peltandra in massive pseudostem of petiole sheaths, longer sterile zone between male and female zones and Madagascan range (also naturalized in Pemba, Zanzibar and Mascarene Islands).
    [FTEA]

    Araceae, S.J. Mayo. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Robust, perennial, erect, fleshy, rooted, freshwater aquatic herbs with irritant sap, forming large colonies; true stem an underground rhizome
    Leaves
    Leaves several, forming rosulate crown at apex of massive banana-like pseudostem formed by imbricate leaf-sheaths; petiole massive, succose; sheath very broad, extending almost to non-pulvinate apex; blade sagittate; main side veins evanescent before reaching margins, finer venation striate, parallel to primary lateral veins
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences erect, appearing with leaves, much shorter than leaves, pendent in fruit Spathe constricted centrally, basal part convolute, forming persistent fleshy tube, apical part expanded, erect, acuminate, eventually deciduous Spadix differentiated into 4 zones: basal pistillate part with cuneiform staminodes scattered between pistils; lower sterile part with compressed prismatic sterile flowers (synandrodia); central part fertile, staminate; terminal sterile appendix bearing free to irregularly connate sterile flowers
    Flowers
    Flowers unisexual, lacking perigon, densely congested Staminate flower a fleshy, prismatic, truncate synandrium of 4–8 connate stamens; anthers lateral, dehiscing by oblique apical slits
    Male
    Staminate flower a fleshy, prismatic, truncate synandrium of 4–8 connate stamens; anthers lateral, dehiscing by oblique apical slits
    Pistil
    Pistil shortly ovoid; ovary unilocular, with 1–2 orthotropous basal ovules; stigma subsessile, 3–6-lobed
    Fruits
    Berries 1–2-seeded, borne in large subellipsoid infructescence surrounded by persistent spathe-tube
    Seeds
    Seeds large, globose, lacking endosperm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Tanzania

    Typhonodorum Schott appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Oesterr. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 70 (1857)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Frodin, D.G. (2002). World Checklist and Bibliography of Araceae (and Acoraceae): 1-560. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    CATE Araceae
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2008. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bogner in Fl. Madag. 31:22 (1975)
    • Engl. in E.P. 64: (IV. 23Dc): 69 (1915)
    • in Oest. Bot. Wochenbl. 7: 70 (1857)

    Sources

    CATE Araceae
    Haigh, A., Clark, B., Reynolds, L., Mayo, S.J., Croat, T.B., Lay, L., Boyce, P.C., Mora, M., Bogner, J., Sellaro, M., Wong, S.Y., Kostelac, C., Grayum, M.H., Keating, R.C., Ruckert, G., Naylor, M.F. and Hay, A., CATE Araceae, 17 Dec 2011.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0