1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Sorghastrum Nash

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is America, Tropical & S. Africa.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (2), or perennial (18). Rhizomes absent (14), or short (3), or elongated (3). Culms erect (14/16), or geniculately ascending (1/16), or decumbent (1/16), or rambling (1/16), or scandent (1/16); slender (1/2), or weak (1/2); 30-130.9-300 cm long; without nodal roots (1/3), or with prop roots (1/3), or rooting from lower nodes (2/3). Culm-internodes terete (1/1). Culm-nodes constricted (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (2/2). Leaf-sheaths open for most of their length (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (18), or erect (2). Ligule an eciliate membrane (17), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (19); herbaceous (19), or coriaceous (1); stiff (2), or firm (18).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme. Panicle open (17), or contracted (3). Primary panicle branches not whorled (19), or whorled at lower nodes (1). Racemes bearing a triad of spikelets (15), or few fertile spikelets (15), or many spikelets (2); 1 fertile spikelets on each (14/16), or 2 fertile spikelets on each (12/16), or 3 fertile spikelets on each (7/16), or 4-7 fertile spikelets on each (2/16), or 8-15 fertile spikelets on each (1/16). Rhachis evident (18), or obsolete (2); tough (2), or fragile at the nodes (18). Spikelet packing contiguous (17/18), or lax (1/18). Rhachis internodes indefinite (1/18), or filiform (17/18). Rhachis internode tip oblique (1/1). Spikelets ascending (1/1); in pairs (17), or in threes (14). Fertile spikelets sessile, or sessile and pedicelled (2); 1 in the cluster, or 2 in the cluster (2). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 0 in the cluster (2), or 1 in the cluster (17), or 2 in the cluster (14). Pedicels filiform.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (19), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); dorsally compressed; 3.5-6.137-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (2), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (15), or oblong (2), or cuneate (1), or linear (2); pubescent (7), or pilose (9), or bearded (4); base obtuse (16), or acute (1), or pungent (3); attached obliquely (1/1). Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (19), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); dorsally compressed; 3.5-6.137-11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (2), or with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (15), or oblong (2), or cuneate (1), or linear (2); pubescent (7), or pilose (9), or bearded (4); base obtuse (16), or acute (1), or pungent (3); attached obliquely (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets (1/1); firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or oblong (17), or ovate (2); chartaceous (2), or coriaceous; without keels; 7-8 -veined (13/17), or 9 -veined (17/17). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (18). Lower glume surface smooth (19), or asperulous (1); glabrous (1), or pubescent (12), or pilose (7), or villous (1); without hair tufts (19), or with an apical beard (1). Lower glume apex entire (19), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); truncate (17/17). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or oblong (17), or ovate (1); chartaceous (2/14), or coriaceous (14/14); without keels (19), or 1-keeled (1); 3 -veined (1/15), or 5 -veined (14/15). Upper glume surface smooth (19), or asperulous (1); glabrous, or pubescent (1). Upper glume apex acute (14/14).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or oblong (19); hyaline; 2 -veined (19), or 3 -veined (1). Fertile lemma oblong; hyaline; without keel; 1-2 -veined (1/15), or 3 -veined (13/15). Lemma surface smooth (19), or asperulous (1); glabrous (19), or pilose (1). Lemma margins eciliate (4), or ciliolate (16). Lemma apex entire (2), or dentate (2), or lobed (16); 2 -fid (18/18); incised 0.2 of lemma length; muticous (2), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (2), or from a sinus (18); straight (5), or geniculate (9), or bigeniculate (11). Column of lemma awn glabrous (3/18), or hispidulous (14/18), or pubescent (2/18). Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (17/17). Anthers 3 (15/15). Stigmas 2 (1/1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); oblanceolate (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (6), or Australasia (1), or North America (9), or South America (13).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials; culms hollow
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear; ligule scarious
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal panicle, the primary branches semi-verticillate, dividing into flexuous peduncles bearing short fragile racemes (these sometimes reduced to a single sessile spikelet); internodes filiform, ciliate
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse to pungent, without a conspicuous beard (except S. pogonostachyum);lower glume coriaceous, brown, broadly convex across the back; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate (entire in S. pogonstachyum), with a straight or geniculate awn, rarely awnless Pedicelled spikelet reduced to a filiform ciliate barren pedicel somewhat shorter than the sessile spikelet, but this sometimes bearing a spikelet which is then similar to the sessile.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus obtuse to pungent, without a conspicuous beard (except S. pogonostachyum);lower glume coriaceous, brown, broadly convex across the back; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma hyaline, bidentate (entire in S. pogonstachyum), with a straight or geniculate awn, rarely awnless
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet reduced to a filiform ciliate barren pedicel somewhat shorter than the sessile spikelet, but this sometimes bearing a spikelet which is then similar to the sessile.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, the subdivided primary branches bearing short racemes, these sometimes reduced to triads.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet callus obtuse or pungent (with involucral hairs in S. pogonostachyum); inferior glume coriaceous, convex, keeled at the apex; superior glume broadly convex; superior lemma mostly entire, sometimes bilobed, awned. Pedicelled spikelets usually reduced to a barren pedicel, but present and bisexual in S. pogonostachyum and S. fuscescens.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Louisiana, Maine, Malawi, Mali, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Namibia, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ecuador, Madagascar, Peru, Suriname

    Sorghastrum Nash appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9254], Brazil K001106140

    First published in N.L.Britton, Man. Fl. N. States: 71 (1901)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Britton, Man. Fl. North U.S. 71 (1901).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Britton, Man. Fl. N. States: 71 (1901).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Britton, Man. Fl. North. U.S.: 71 (1901)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0