1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Rhipidocladum McClure

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America and Trinidad.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (1), or short (17); pachymorph (17/17). Culms erect (2/14), or geniculately ascending (2/14), or rambling (1/14), or arching (9/14), or leaning (3/14), or scandent (2/14); 200-997-3000 cm long; woody. Culm-internodes alternately elongated and bunched (1/1); terete. Lateral branches dendroid. Branch complement many (15/15); in a clump (3/17), or flabellate (14/17); at the node (15), or subtended by a bare patch above the node (3); with subequal branches (8/8); thinner than stem (5/5). Culm-sheaths persistent (1/4), or deciduous (3/4); auriculate (1/1). Culm-sheath blade linear (1/7), or lanceolate (1/7), or ovate (1/7), or triangular (4/7); as wide as sheath at base (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (12), or erect (6). Ligule an eciliate membrane (9), or a ciliolate membrane (6), or absent (3). Leaf-blade base with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath. Leaf-blades persistent (13), or deciduous at the ligule (5); linear (9), or lanceolate (10), or ovate (1). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (4/4). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins, or with obscure cross veins (1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle (1), or composed of racemes (17); terminal (16), or terminal and axillary (2). Racemes single (17/17); unilateral (11/15), or bilateral (2/15), or paucilateral (2/15); bearing few fertile spikelets (4/17), or many spikelets (13/17); bearing 2 fertile spikelets on each (3/13), or 3-6 fertile spikelets on each (4/13), or 7-10 fertile spikelets on each (5/13), or 11-18 fertile spikelets on each (2/13), or 19-21 fertile spikelets on each (1/13), or 22-25 fertile spikelets on each (2/13). Rhachis flattened (1/2), or semiterete (1/2). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis (1/1); crowded (1/17), or contiguous (12/17), or lax (1/17), or distant (3/17); 2 -rowed (3/3). Spikelets appressed (2/3), or spreading (1/3); solitary (17), or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets sessile (15), or pedicelled (3).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/16), or 1 basal sterile florets (15/16), or 2 basal sterile florets (2/16); 1 fertile florets (1), or 2-3 fertile florets (11), or 4 fertile florets (6), or 5 fertile florets (4), or 6 fertile florets (3), or 7-12 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (5), or lanceolate (3), or oblong (3), or oblanceolate (9); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (3); 8-24.44-120 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (10), or elongated between glumes (1), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (6); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (1/1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0 basal sterile florets (2/16), or 1 basal sterile florets (15/16), or 2 basal sterile florets (2/16); 1 fertile florets (1), or 2-3 fertile florets (11), or 4 fertile florets (6), or 5 fertile florets (4), or 6 fertile florets (3), or 7-12 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (5), or lanceolate (3), or oblong (3), or oblanceolate (9); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (3); 8-24.44-120 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (10), or elongated between glumes (1), or elongated below basal sterile floret (1), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (6); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1). Floret callus glabrous (1/1).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or two (17), or several (2); persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma (15), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (3). Lower glume subulate (6), or linear (4), or lanceolate (5), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); 0.2-0.49-0.7 length of upper glume; chartaceous (4/4); without keels (2/2), or 1-keeled (1/2); 1 -veined (6/10), or 2 -veined (1/10), or 3 -veined (4/10), or 4 -veined (2/10), or 5 -veined (1/10). Lower glume lateral veins absent (6), or distinct (12), or prominent (1). Lower glume surface smooth (17), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/10), or acute (9/10), or acuminate (2/10); muticous (7/12), or mucronate (1/12), or awned (4/12). Upper glume linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or oblong (1), or ovate (10); 0.15-0.5312-0.9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous (15/15); without keels (15/17), or 1-keeled (2/17); 3 -veined (1/12), or 5 -veined (8/12), or 6 -veined (3/12), or 7 -veined (6/12). Upper glume surface smooth (17), or scabrous (1); glabrous (17), or puberulous (1), or pubescent (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (2/16), or acute (6/16), or acuminate (7/16), or setaceously attenuate (2/16); muticous (8), or mucronate (1), or awned (9); 1 -awned (9/9).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (16/16); with palea (2/16), or without significant palea (16/16). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (4/12), or ovate (8/12); 0.6-0.85-1 length of fertile lemma; chartaceous (11/11); 4 -veined (1/8), or 5 -veined (4/8), or 6 -veined (2/8), or 7 -veined (5/8), or 8 -veined (2/8), or 9 -veined (3/8), or 10-11 -veined (1/8); obtuse (1/11), or acute (5/11), or acuminate (6/11); muticous (5/12), or mucronate (2/12), or awned (8/12). Fertile lemma lanceolate (7), or ovate (11); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (15); without keel; 5-9-19 -veined. Lemma midvein eciliate (17), or ciliolate (1). Lemma surface smooth (14), or scaberulous (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (16), or pubescent (1), or hispidulous (1). Lemma margins eciliate (12), or ciliolate (4), or ciliate (3). Lemma apex acute (12/17), or acuminate (4/17), or attenuate (1/17); without ornament (17), or pubescent (1); muticous (5), or mucronate (1), or awned (12); 1 -awned (12/12). Palea 0.5-0.9545-1 length of lemma; 4 -veined (4/6), or 5 -veined (2/6), or 6 -veined (3/6), or 7-8 -veined (1/6), or 10-12 -veined (1/6). Palea keels wingless (17), or winged (1); smooth (17), or scabrous (1); eciliate (6), or ciliolate (12). Palea surface glabrous (15), or puberulous (4). Palea apex dentate (1/1). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (1), or 3 (17); membranous (14/14); glabrous (12), or ciliate (6); obtuse (1/1). Anthers 3. Stigmas 2 (17/17). Ovary unappendaged (15), or umbonate (3); glabrous (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (13/13). Embryo 0.2 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (1/1); 1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    North America (4), or South America (17).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Rhipidocladum McClure appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nee, M. [34559], Brazil K001106369

    First published in Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 9: 101 (1973)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2019). World Checklist of Vascular Plants (WCVP Database) The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0