1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Bothriochloa Kuntze

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (31), or short (1), or elongated (2). Stolons absent (33), or present (2). Culms erect (21/26), or geniculately ascending (15/26), or decumbent (1/26), or rambling (1/26); robust (2/3), or slender (1/3); 7-79.69-200 cm long; firm (33), or wiry (1); rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (1/7), or channelled (4/7), or elliptical in section (2/7). Lateral branches lacking (6/13), or sparse (7/13), or ample (4/13), or fastigiate (1/13). Ligule an eciliate membrane (15), or a ciliolate membrane (17), or a ciliate membrane (2). Leaf-blades filiform (1), or linear (32), or lanceolate (2); stiff (2), or firm (32); without exudate (33), or pruinose (1); without scent (32), or aromatic (2). Leaf-blade midrib conspicuous (1/1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle with branches tipped by a raceme (2), or composed of racemes (33); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes paired (1/33), or digitate (23/33), or borne along a central axis (11/33); not compacted (31/33), or in a multilateral false spike (2/33); erect (2/33), or ascending (31/33), or spreading (1/33); bearing 5-12 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Rhachis tough (1), or fragile at the nodes (33); flattened (33/33). Rhachis internodes indefinite (1), or filiform (1), or linear (31), or oblong (1). Rhachis internode tip transverse (33/33); cupuliform (2/2). Raceme-bases brief (29), or filiform (3), or linear (3). Spikelets in pairs (33/33). Fertile spikelets sessile (33/33); 1 in the cluster (33/33). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (33/33); 1 in the cluster (33/33). Pedicels filiform (1), or linear (32), or oblong (1); with a translucent median line (also present in internodes).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (6), or well-developed (28); persistent (1/3), or separately deciduous (2/3). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (19), or oblong (4), or ovate (8); dorsally compressed; 2.49-4.863-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (1), or with accessory branch structures (33). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/24), or pilose (12/24), or bearded (11/24); base obtuse (33/33); attached transversely (33/33).
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by single glumes (6), or well-developed (28); persistent (1/3), or separately deciduous (2/3).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (8), or elliptic (19), or oblong (4), or ovate (8); dorsally compressed; 2.49-4.863-9 mm long; falling entire; deciduous from the base (1), or with accessory branch structures (33). Spikelet callus pubescent (1/24), or pilose (12/24), or bearded (11/24); base obtuse (33/33); attached transversely (33/33).
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; similar to fertile lemma in texture (1), or firmer than fertile lemma (33). Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (24), or oblong (1), or ovate (8); membranous (1/33), or chartaceous (6/33), or cartilaginous (23/33), or coriaceous (3/33); without keels; 5-8-18 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins obscure (1), or distinct (33). Lower glume surface convex (1), or flat (32), or concave (1); smooth (31), or asperulous (1), or scabrous (2); without pits (25), or pitted (15); glabrous (11), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (3), or pilose (19), or villous (3). Lower glume apex entire (31), or dentate (4); 2 -fid (4/4); emarginate (2/9), or truncate (5/9), or obtuse (1/9), or acute (4/9). Upper glume lanceolate (30), or elliptic (4); 1-keeled (33/33); 3 -veined (7/7). Upper glume surface smooth (32), or asperulous (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/8), or acute (4/8), or acuminate (4/8); muticous (30), or mucronate (4).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6/30), or oblong (24/30), or ovate (1/30); hyaline; 0 -veined (3/4), or 1-3 -veined (1/4); obtuse (1/3), or acute (2/3). Fertile lemma linear (32), or oblong (2); hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined (1/3), or 3 -veined (2/3). Lemma surface glabrous (33), or pubescent (1). Lemma margins eciliate, or ciliolate (1). Lemma apex entire (31), or lobed (3); 2 -fid (3/3); incised 0.25-0.29-0.33 of lemma length; muticous (2), or awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn apical (31), or from a sinus (3); straight (3), or geniculate (31). Palea present (6), or absent or minute (29); 0.25-0.29-0.33 length of lemma; hyaline (3/6), or membranous (3/6). Palea apex erose (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (2/2). Anthers 1 (1/29), or 3 (28/29).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (3/3); ellipsoid (1/4), or ovoid (1/4), or obovoid (1/4), or oblanceolate (1/4).
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Africa (5), or Temperate Asia (5), or Tropical Asia (11), or Australasia (9), or Pacific (5), or North America (13), or South America (18).
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Perennials.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of few- to many-jointed pedunculate racemes, these digitate or subdigitate; racemes simple or the lower ones sparsely branched, without homogamous pairs; sessile and pedicelled spikelets similar in size and shape or the pedicelled reduced and smaller, always differing in sex; rhachis internodes and pedicels linear-filiform, with a translucent longitudinal groove.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet callus obtuse; inferior glume mostly cartilaginous, broadly convex to slightly concave, sometimes with 1–3 circular pits on the back, acute at the apex; superior lemma forming the hyaline base to its awn, entire (rarely bilobed; not in the Flora Zambesiaca area). Pedicelled spikelet male or neuter.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennials; leaf-blades flat, sometimes aromatic; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of digitate or subdigitate racemes, sometimes paniculate with a long central axis; racemes with more than 8 sessile spikelets, without homogamous pairs; internodes and pedicels linear, with a hyaline median line
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, sometimes with 1–3 circular pits, acute; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire (in East Africa), with a glabrous awn Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile or smaller.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet dorsally compressed; callus very short, rounded; lower glume broadly convex to slightly concave on the back, abruptly rounded on the flanks, sometimes with 1–3 circular pits, acute; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper lemma entire (in East Africa), with a glabrous awn
    Fruits
    Caryopsis oblong, slightly dorsally compressed
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet much like the sessile or smaller.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Corse, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Aruba, Bahamas, Belize, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Easter Is., Guyana, Hawaii, Kermadec Is., Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Nauru, Netherlands Antilles, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Palestine, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, St.Helena, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is.

    Bothriochloa Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11080], Thailand K000620542
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11080], Thailand K000620543
    Clayton, W.D. [4637], Brazil K001068728
    Burchell, W.J. [3783], Brazil K001068725
    Burchell, W.J. [3793], Brazil K001068726
    Burchell, W.J. [4621-33], Brazil K001068727

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 762 (1891)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Rev. Gen. Pl. 762 (1891).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 762 (1891).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Rev. Gen. PL 2: 762 (1891)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/