1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Cortaderia Stapf

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Central & S. Tropical America to Subantarctic Islands.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (19), or short (1). Culms erect (6/6), or geniculately ascending (1/6); robust (2/2); 20-127.7-300 cm long. Lateral branches lacking (12/12). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blades persistent, or deciduous with part of sheath attached (1); herbaceous (15), or coriaceous (5); stiff (8), or firm (12). Leaf-blade apex muticous (18), or pungent (2).
    Inflorescences
    Gynodioecious (male, in this context, indicating the bisexual state), or dioecious (4). Inflorescence a panicle; exserted (14), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (9). Panicle open (13), or contracted (6), or spiciform (1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled (4/4). Pedicels filiform (2/2). Male inflorescence terminal (1/1); similar to female (17/17); a panicle (13/13). Male spikelets resembling female (8/13), or distinct from female (5/13).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (6), or 3-4 fertile florets (14), or 5 fertile florets (10), or 6 fertile florets (6), or 7 fertile florets (3), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or oblong (1), or cuneate (11); laterally compressed; 7-13.46-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident (13), or elongated (7); pubescent (1), or pilose (10), or bearded (9).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 fertile florets (6), or 3-4 fertile florets (14), or 5 fertile florets (10), or 6 fertile florets (6), or 7 fertile florets (3), or 8 fertile florets (2), or 9-10 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (7), or oblong (1), or cuneate (11); laterally compressed; 7-13.46-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus evident (13), or elongated (7); pubescent (1), or pilose (10), or bearded (9).
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (17), or reaching apex of florets (4), or exceeding apex of florets (2); thinner than fertile lemma (1), or similar to fertile lemma in texture (19); parallel to lemmas (9), or gaping (11). Lower glume linear (6), or lanceolate (15); 0.75-0.9513-1.1 length of upper glume; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); without keels (18/18); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined (18), or 2 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (4). Lower glume lateral veins absent (18), or obscure (2), or distinct (2). Lower glume surface smooth (12), or asperulous (8). Lower glume apex entire, or dentate (8); 2 -fid (8/8); obtuse (2/18), or acute (8/18), or acuminate (3/18), or attenuate (6/18). Upper glume subulate (1), or linear (6), or lanceolate (14); 0.66-1.36-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); without keels (17/17); 0 -veined (1), or 1 -veined (18), or 2 -veined (2), or 3 -veined (4). Upper glume surface smooth (12), or asperulous (8). Upper glume apex entire (18), or dentate (9); 2 -fid (9/9); obtuse (2/17), or acute (7/17), or acuminate (3/17), or attenuate (6/17).
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear (2), or lanceolate (14), or ovate (6); hyaline (9), or membranous (11); without keel; 3 -veined (12/19), or 4 -veined (4/19), or 5 -veined (9/19), or 6 -veined (2/19), or 7 -veined (4/19). Lemma midvein extending to apex (1/1). Lemma lateral veins less than two thirds length of lemma (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (11), or scaberulous (9); glabrous (1), or pilose (1), or villous (8), or plumose (10). Lemma margins eciliate (12), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (6). Lemma apex entire (8), or dentate (2), or lobed (11); 2 -fid (12/13), or 3 -fid (1/13); incised 0.25-0.4333-0.6 of lemma length; acuminate (9/15), or attenuate (4/15), or setaceously attenuate (2/15); muticous (7), or mucronate (1), or awned (15); 1 -awned (12/15), or 3 -awned (3/15). Principal lemma awn apical (10/15), or from a sinus (5/15); straight (12/15), or curved (2/15), or geniculate (1/15). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (2/2). Palea 0.3-0.6419-2 length of lemma; hyaline (10), or membranous (10); 2 -veined (18/18). Palea keels smooth (16), or scabrous (4); eciliate (6), or ciliolate (13), or villous (1). Palea surface glabrous (10), or pubescent (1), or pilose (10). Palea apex entire (1/5), or dentate (5/5). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy; glabrous (11), or ciliate (9). Anthers 3 (15/15).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (15/15). Hilum elliptic (1/1).
    Male
    Male inflorescence terminal (1/1); similar to female (17/17); a panicle (13/13). Male spikelets resembling female (8/13), or distinct from female (5/13).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (2), or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (2), or North America (1), or South America, or Antarctica (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Guyana, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Azores, Brazil Northeast, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China Southeast, Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Free State, Georgia, Great Britain, Hawaii, Honduras, Italy, Jawa, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Libya, Louisiana, Madeira, Mexico Central, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, New Jersey, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Oregon, Philippines, Portugal, Queensland, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, South Australia, South Carolina, Spain, Taiwan, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, Western Australia, Yugoslavia

    Cortaderia Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 22: 396 (1897)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0