1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Arthraxon P.Beauv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World to Central Asia.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Slender annuals; culms geniculate, often trailing and rooting at the decumbent nodes; internodes pilose.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf sheaths slightly inflated; ligule membranous; leaf laminas slightly cordate and semi-amplexicaul at the base, pilose with bulbous-based hairs at least below, usually becoming ciliate.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes in subdigitate groups, slender, ± exserted from the spatheoles; peduncles longer or shorter than the racemes, erect at maturity; internodes and pedicels delicate, filiform, long-ciliate on both margins.
    Spikelets
    Sessile spikelet laterally compressed, with silvery-white appressed hairs at the base, the callus short, truncate; inferior glume chartaceous to coriaceous, rounded on the back, with or without lateral keels; inferior floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; superior floret fertile; fertile lemma bifid almost to the base and with a glabrous, geniculate sub-basal awn; anthers 2.Pedicelled spikelet absent or much reduced.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials with slender, often trailing, culms
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades broad, commonly lanceolate, cordate and amplexicaul at the base; ligule membranous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of slender subdigitate racemes, their internodes filiform to linear
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet laterally compressed; callus truncate; lower glume chartaceous to coriaceous, rounded on the back, with or without lateral keels, often scabrid or muricate; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper floret with hyaline subentire lemma bearing a glabrous geniculate awn from low down on the back
    Fruits
    Caryopsis terete
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet variable, from as large as the sessile to quite suppressed. Sessile spikelet laterally compressed; callus truncate; lower glume chartaceous to coriaceous, rounded on the back, with or without lateral keels, often scabrid or muricate; lower floret reduced to a hyaline lemma; upper floret with hyaline subentire lemma bearing a glabrous geniculate awn from low down on the back
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet variable, from as large as the sessile to quite suppressed.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (20), or perennial (3). Rhizomes absent (22), or short (1). Stolons absent (22), or present (1). Culms erect (2/22), or geniculately ascending (4/22), or decumbent (7/22), or rambling (13/22); slender (6/8), or weak (2/8); 5-41.5-200 cm long; firm (22), or wiry (1); rooting from lower nodes (9/9). Lateral branches lacking (1/5), or sparse (2/5), or ample (3/5). Ligule an eciliate membrane (3), or a ciliolate membrane (17), or a ciliate membrane (2), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blades lanceolate (22), or ovate (15); firm (17), or flaccid (6).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes single (4), or paired (10), or digitate (20), or borne along a central axis (1). Rhachis fragile at the nodes; angular (1/1). Rhachis internodes filiform (13), or linear (12). Spikelets solitary (2), or in pairs (21). Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster (21/21). Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled (21/21); 1 in the cluster (21/21). Pedicels filiform (12/22), or linear (9/22), or reduced to a stump (1/22).
    Spikelets
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (2), or represented by barren pedicels (11), or represented by single glumes (2), or well-developed (9). Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (20), or elliptic (2), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (20), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (2); 0.8-5.191-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (22), or square (1); glabrous (7/16), or pubescent (9/16), or pilose (1/16), or bearded (1/16); base truncate (19/21), or obtuse (2/21); attached transversely.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets absent (2), or represented by barren pedicels (11), or represented by single glumes (2), or well-developed (9).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear (2), or lanceolate (20), or elliptic (2), or ovate (1); laterally compressed (20), or subterete (1), or dorsally compressed (2); 0.8-5.191-10 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus brief (22), or square (1); glabrous (7/16), or pubescent (9/16), or pilose (1/16), or bearded (1/16); base truncate (19/21), or obtuse (2/21); attached transversely.
    Glume
    Glumes exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (22), or elliptic (1), or ovate (1); chartaceous (20), or coriaceous (3); without keels (17), or 2-keeled (6); 2-4 -veined (1/17), or 5 -veined (4/17), or 6 -veined (3/17), or 7 -veined (11/17), or 8 -veined (3/17), or 9 -veined (6/17), or 10-11 -veined (1/17). Lower glume lateral veins obscure (2), or distinct (21); intercarinal veins distinct (1/1). Lower glume surface convex (22), or flat (1); smooth (5), or asperulous (2), or scabrous (10), or spinose (7), or muricate (2); glabrous (21), or pubescent (1), or pilose (1), or villous (1). Lower glume apex entire (22), or dentate (1); 2 -fid (1/1); obtuse (1/10), or acute (7/10), or acuminate (1/10), or attenuate (1/10). Upper glume lanceolate; membranous (3), or chartaceous (20); with undifferentiated margins (22), or hyaline margins (1); 1-keeled; 3 -veined (15/16), or 4-5 -veined (2/16), or 7 -veined (1/16). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (21), or ciliolate (1), or ciliate (1). Upper glume surface smooth (20), or scabrous (3); glabrous (21), or pilose (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (1/22), or acute (21/22), or setaceously attenuate (1/22); muticous (22), or awned (1); 1 -awned (1/1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (6), or oblong (17); hyaline; 0 -veined (10/18), or 2 -veined (8/18), or 3 -veined (1/18); obtuse (10/10). Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (17), or oblong (4), or ovate (1); hyaline; without keel; 0 -veined (1/22), or 1 -veined (20/22), or 2 -veined (1/22). Lemma apex entire (16), or dentate (3), or lobed (5); 2 -fid (8/8); acute (18/18); muticous (2), or awned (22); 1 -awned (22/22). Principal lemma awn dorsal (22/22); geniculate (22/22). Palea present (2), or absent or minute (21). Palea surface glabrous (1/2), or pubescent (1/2).
    Flowers
    Anthers 2-3 (12).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (18/18); linear (2/5), or fusiform (1/5), or ellipsoid (1/5), or oblong (2/5); isodiametric (1/1).
    Distribution
    Africa (6), or Temperate Asia (14), or Tropical Asia (19), or Australasia (2), or Pacific (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Assam, Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Japan, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nigeria, North Caucasus, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Xinjiang, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amur, Arkansas, Costa Rica, Delaware, District of Columbia, El Salvador, Florida, Georgia, Great Britain, Guatemala, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Nicaragua, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Puerto Rico, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Venezuela, Virginia, West Virginia

    Arthraxon P.Beauv. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8833], Nepal K001128316
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8833], Myanmar K001128317
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8834], Myanmar K001128318
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8836], Nepal K001128322
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8838], Nepal K001128324
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8835], Myanmar K001128319
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8835], Myanmar K001128320
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8835], Myanmar K001128321
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8837] K001128323
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8833] K001128314
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8833] K001128315
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8828], Nepal Batratherum K001128309
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8830], Nepal Batratherum K001128311
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8831], Nepal Batratherum K001128312
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8832], Nepal Batratherum K001128313
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8831], Nepal Batratherum K001132265
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8827] Batratherum K001128307
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8828], India Batratherum K001128308

    First published in Ess. Agrostogr.: 111 (1812)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 162 (1917).
    • Ess. Agrost. III, t. 11, f. 6 (1812)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Rheedea 3: 101 (1993).
    • van Welzen in Blumea 27: 255–300 (1981)
    • Roberty in Boissiera 9: 293–296 (1960).
    • Ess. Agrostogr.: 111, fig.11/6 (1812).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ess. Agrost.: 111, fig. 11/6 (1812)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0