1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Pseudechinolaena Stapf

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms decumbent (1), or prostrate (5); 10-23.33-50 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (4/5), or with aerial roots from the nodes (1/5). Ligule an eciliate membrane (4), or a ciliolate membrane (3). Leaf-blades linear (1), or lanceolate (3), or elliptic (2), or oblong (1), or ovate (1). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (5), or with obscure cross veins (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (5), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1). Racemes borne along a central axis; ascending (5), or spreading (1); unilateral. Rhachis angular (5), or subterete (1). Spikelet packing crowded (1), or contiguous (3), or distant (2). Spikelets solitary (1), or in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile and pedicelled (5), or pedicelled (2); 1 in the cluster (1/5), or 2 in the cluster (4/5); the lower smaller (5/5). Companion sterile spikelets sessile (1/1); 1 in the cluster (1/1). Pedicels oblong (1/1).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent, or rudimentary (1). Companion sterile spikelets absent (5), or rudimentary (1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 1.5-2.566-5.7 mm long; falling entire. Basal sterile spikelets absent, or rudimentary (1). Companion sterile spikelets absent (5), or rudimentary (1).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; gibbous; 1.5-2.566-5.7 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (3), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (3), or oblong (2), or ovate (1); herbaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Lower glume surface smooth (5), or asperulous (2). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (2), or awned (1). Upper glume ovate; gibbous; herbaceous; without keels (3), or 1-keeled (3); wingless (4), or winged on keel (2), or winged on margins (2); 5 -veined (5), or 7 -veined (1). Upper glume surface smooth (5), or tuberculate (1); glabrous (2), or pubescent (2), or setose (4); with tubercle-based hairs (2), or hooked hairs (4). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (1), or caudate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (4), or barren (5); with palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (4); chartaceous (4), or coriaceous (2); 3 -veined (4/5), or 5 -veined (1/5); truncate (1), or obtuse (5). Fertile lemma elliptic (3), or oblong (1), or ovate (2); laterally compressed; gibbous; coriaceous; without keel; 3 -veined (2/3), or 4 -veined (1/3), or 5 -veined (2/3). Lemma margins flat (4), or convolute (2). Lemma apex emarginate (1), or obtuse (1), or acute (4). Palea not rolled (1), or involute (5); coriaceous; without keels.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (5/5).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (1/1); lanceolate (1/2), or ovoid (1/2).
    Distribution
    Africa, or Temperate Asia (1), or Tropical Asia (1), or North America (1), or South America (1).
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annual with trailing culms, often with aerial roots from the nodes
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades lanceolate, sometimes obscurely cross-veined; ligule membranous, truncate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes loosely borne along a central axis; rhachis narrow, bearing spikelets in pairs (but the sessile of each pair often much reduced)
    Spikelets
    Spikelets obliquely ovoid, laterally compressed, often gaping; glumes as long as the spikelet or a little shorter, herbaceous, the lower almost flat and acute to long-awned, the upper gibbous, ± armed with tubercle-based bristles (sometimes also laterally winged), acute; lower floret barren (sometimes ♂), the lemma ovate-oblong, chartaceous to subcoriaceous with herbaceous tip, becoming thinly membranous on margins and near the base, the palea convolute, chartaceous; upper lemma cartilaginous to subcoriaceous, smooth, shining, without basal appendages, its margins inrolled and broadly clasping the palea, acute; palea acute
    Fruits
    Caryopsis obliquely ellipsoid, flattened on the ventral side.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of slender racemes along a central axis, the spikelets in distant pairs but the sessile of each pair often much reduced.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets laterally compressed.
    Glume
    Glumes 3/4 to as long as spikelet, the inferior acute to awned, the superior gibbous, eventually armed with tubercle-based hooks and sometimes with wings, rarely awned.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma laterally compressed, cartilaginous to coriaceous with flat or involute margins.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Assam, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Pseudechinolaena Stapf appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 9: 494 (1919)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in F.T.A. 9: 494 (1919).
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Bosser in Adansonia 15: 121–137 (1975).
    • in F.T.A. 9: 494 (1919).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Bosser in Adansonia 15: 122 (1975)
    • in F.T.A. 9: 494 (1919)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0