According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Vitaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993
- Predominantly climbing herbs or lianes, but sometimes erect or trailing herbs, shrubs or small trees, occasionally distinctly succulent; tendrils often present, leaf-opposed or arising from the peduncle
- Leaves alternate, simple or digitately compound, rarely pedate, entire or toothed, stipulate
- Flowers regular, usually hermaphrodite, mostly in much-branched cymes
- Calyx entire or 4–6-lobed
- Petals 4–6, free or cohering at apex, valvate
- Stamens 4–6, opposite the petals; filaments free; anthers 2-thecous, medifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
- Disk intrastaminal, annular or of separate glands
- Ovary superior, 2-locular, each locule with 2 erect ovules; style short or slender; stigma subulate to capitate
- Fruit a 1–4-seeded berry
- Seeds ovoid, often pointed at one end; endosperm copious, sometimes ruminate
According to Neotropikey[NTK]
Lombardi, J.A. (2009). Neotropical Vitaceae.
Lianas or rarely shrubs; rhaphides usually present in all parts, roots sometimes adventitious (many Cissus L.); stems rarely forming aerial tubers (some Cissus), or short, woody and subterranean (some shrubby species), sometimes with hard or soft emergences; tendrils usually present, leaf-opposed, with 0 or more branches, adhesive discs sometimes present. Pearl- glands present (many Cissus). Stipules present, usually small, caducous , sometimes persistent , rarely transformed into turgid spines, sometimes forming dilated structure embracing entire node . Leaves alternate , simple or compound . Inflorescences leaf-opposed or terminal , rarely axillary , cymose with a central flower terminating each axil , or racemose without terminal flowers, sometimes with 1-2 tendril -like branches; bract and bracteole small, sometimes nectar secreting, the bract subtending each branch. Flowers actinomorphic , small, bisexual , sometimes unisexual (plants monecious or polygamous, and flowers functionally staminate, some Ampelocissus Planch. and Vitis L.); flower buds ellipsoid , oval, or conical, sometimes spherical or cylindrical; sepals 4-5, fused, calyx usually truncate , rounded , or rarely lobed (some Cissus) at base; petals 4-5, valvate , distinct or connate at base, or distally coherent and calyptra-like (Vitis), caducous at anthesis, rarely persistent (some Cissus); androecium with 4-5 stamens, minute, distinct; intrastaminal disc present, adnate to ovary (Cissus and Ampelocissus), free and ring-like (Ampelopsis Rich.), of separated glands (Vitis), or absent (Parthenocissus Planch.), sometimes the outer border projected above, forming small cup (some Cissus); gynoecium syncarpous, the ovary superior , the carpels 2, the locules 2, the style simple , the stigma minute, entire ; ovules 2 per locule . Fruits berries, spherical or ellipsoid , the epicarp thin and chartaceous or thick and crustaceous ( ellipsoid fruits), the mesocarp fleshy and juicy, the endocarp adherent to seed testa, more fibrous than mesocarp , fleshy and juicy. Seeds 1(2-4), the testa variously ribbed and grooved with two ventral intrusions into endosperm (foveae), dorsal chalaza usually present (except in most Cissus); endosperm ruminate , 3- lobed , corneous, the embryo minute.
Distribution in the Neotropics
- Ampelopsis - Mexico, Guatemala.
- Ampelocissus - Mexico, Mesoamerica, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola.
- Cissus - Mexico, Mesoamerica, Caribbean, South America.
- Vitis - Mexico, Mesoamerica, Colombia, Ecuador.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
- Leaf-opposite tendrils and/or inflorescences.
- Valvate petals with opposite stamens.
- Stipules present, caducous or persistent.
- 4-merous flowers.
- Intrastaminal disc or separate glands.
- Leaf-opposite tendrils and/or inflorescences (axillary in Cucurbitaceae and Sapindaceae).
- Ampelocissus - stigma entire, panicles or thyrses, disc adnate to ovary, associate tendrils in inflorescences present, adhesive discs absent, cobwebby hairs present.
- Ampelopsis - lianas, stigma entire, panicles or thyrses, disc only adnate to ovary base, associate tendrils in inflorescences absent but inflorescence branches sometimes tendril -like, adhesive discs absent, cobwebby hairs absent.
- Cissus - stigma entire, cymes, disc adnate to ovary, associate tendrils in inflorescences absent, adhesive discs present or absent, cobwebby hairs absent.
- Parthenocissus (CULTIVATED) - stigma entire, panicles or thyrses, disc absent, inflorescences with associate tendrils, adhesive discs present, cobwebby hairs absent.
- Tetrastigma (CULTIVATED) - stigma 4-lobed, panicles or thyrses, 'disc' composed by separate glands, inflorescences with associate tendrils, adhesive discs absent, cobwebby hairs present or absent.
- Vitis - stigma entire, panicles or thyrses, 'disc' composed of separate glands, inflorescences with associate tendrils, adhesive discs absent, cobwebby hairs present or absent.
- General Description
Number of genera
13 genera worldwide (6 in Neotropics):
- Tetrastigma Planch.
- Ampelocissus (Native)
- Ampelopsis (Native)
- Cissus (Native, Cultivated, Naturalised)
- Parthenocissus (Cultivated)
- Tetrastigma (Cultivated)
- Vitis (Native, Cultivated)
- Some native species have economic potential; fruits of Mesoamerican Ampelocissus are used by local people for vinegar preparation and as table fruit. The berries of some South American Cissus (e.g. C. stipulata Vell. and C. trigona Willd. ex Schult. & Schult. f., which have the biggest fruits of all Neotropical species) are reported as sweet in Herbarium labels, whereas the small-fruited species usually have unpleasant fruits, filled with stinging raphides.
- Cissus verticillata (L.) Nicolson & C.E.Jarvis subsp. verticillata has the widest geographic and altitudinal distribution of all the Neotropical species. It occurs in almost all American countries, except Canada and Chile, at altitudes ranging from sea level to 2,500 m. In Brazil it is the only species under intense pharmacological study because of its reported medicinal properties. It is also cultivated around the world as an ornamental, although it is a potential weed, as in the Florida orange groves.
Lombardi, J. A. 1995. Typification of names of South American Cissus (Vitaceae). Taxon 44: 193-206.
Lombardi, J. A. 1997. Types of names in Ampelocissus and Cissus (Vitaceae) referring to taxa in the Caribbean, Central and N. America. Taxon 46: 423-432.
Lombardi, J. A. 2000. Vitaceae - Gêneros Ampelocissus, Ampelopsis e Cissus. Flora Neotropica monograph 80: 1-250.
Lombardi, J. A. 2001. Vitaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Anderson (eds.), Opera Botanica. Series B. Flora of Ecuador 67: 1-36.
Lombardi, J. A. 2004. Vitaceae, In: N. Smith, S. A. Mori, A. Henderson, D. W. Stevenson & S. V. Head (eds.), Flowering Plant of the Neotropics: 394-396. Princeton, Princeton University Press.
Rossetto, M., B. R. Jackes, K. D. Scott & R. J. Henry. 2002. Is the genus Cissus (Vitaceae) monophyletic? Evidence from plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA. Systematic Botany 27: 522-533.
Soejima, A & J. Wen. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of the grape family (Vitaceae) based on three chloroplast markers. American Journal of Botany 93: 278-287.
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Vitaceae, H. Wild and R. B. Drummond. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966
- Erect trailing or climbing perennial herbs, climbing shrubs or rarely small trees
- Leaves alternate, simple or digitately compound or rarely pedate, margin variously toothed or rarely entire; stipules petiolar; tendrils present or absent, leaf-opposed or arising from the peduncle
- Flowers actinomorphic, usually bisexual
- Calyx subentire or 4–6-lobed
- Petals 4–6, free, valvate
- Stamens 4–6, opposite the petals; filaments free; anthers 2-locular, medifixed with longitudinal dehiscence
- Disk intrastaminal, annular or of separate glands
- Ovary superior, 2-locular; ovules 2 in each loculus; style short; stigma subulate to capitate
- Fruit baccate, with 1–4 seeds
- Seeds with copious sometimes ruminate endosperm
According to Flora Zambesiaca under the synonym Leeaceae[FZ]
Leeaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966
- Trees, shrubs or shrublets, rarely somewhat sarmentose
- Leaves alternate, pinnate, bipinnate or occasionally tripinnate; stipules petiolar, often caducous; tendrils absent
- Inflorescences leaf-opposed, of spreading much-branched cymes
- Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual
- Calyx cupular, 5-lobed
- Corolla 5-lobed, lobes joined at base, becoming reflexed
- Stamens 5, opposite the petals, inflexed in bud but exserted and erect in the open flower, borne between the truncate-emarginate lobes of a tube adnate to the base of the corolla-tube and possessing a downward deflexed sleeve of tissue arising at about its middle (a complicated structure considered to be derived from the fusion of the filaments and distinguishing the family from the Vitaceae, which have free filaments); anthers 2-locular, dorsifixed, with ± longitudinal dehiscence
- Disk apparently absent
- Ovary superior, 3–8-locular with 1 anatrapous ovule in each loculus; style cylindric; stigma subcapitate
- Fruit depressed-subglobose, 3–8-lobed
- Seeds 3–8, laterally compressed and triangular in transverse section; endosperm ruminate
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Leeaceae[FTEA]
Leeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1993
- Trees, shrubs or woody-based herbs, occasionally creeping or scrambling; stems armed (not in Africa) or unarmed
- Leaves 1- or 3-foliolate or 1–4-pinnate, usually imperfectly imparipinnate; leaflets crenate to serrate-dentate with glandular lobes; stipules narrowly sheathing, ± persistent, or large, obovate and caducous
- Cymes leaf-opposed, lax or condensed
- Flowers hermaphrodite, regular, 4–5-merous
- Calyx campanulate; lobes triangular, glandular at apex
- Corolla-lobes valvate, joined at base and adnate to androecium
- Sterile Parts
- Staminodial tube divided into upper and lower parts, the upper of 4–5 connate thickened lobes with thinner sinuses over which the filaments pass, the lower collar-like, usually free
- Filaments flattened, alternating with the staminodial lobes; anthers 2-thecous, introrse, usually joined
- Ovary discoid, 4–6(–10)-locular, with 1 anatropous ovule per locule; style short with slightly thickened stigma
- Fruit a depressed-subglobose berry
- Seeds triangular-ovate in section; endosperm ruminate; embryo linear
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Ampelidaceae[FWTA]
Ampelidaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958
- Climbing shrubs or small trees or herbs from a perennial rootstock, with nodose or jointed stems, often with watery juice
- Leaves alternate or the lower sometimes opposite, simple or digitately or bipinnately compound, often pellucid-punctate; stipules usually present
- Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, actinomorphic, small, in leaf-opposed spikes, racemes, cymes or panicles; peduncles often cirrhose
- Calyx small, entire or toothed
- Petals 4–5, free or united, valvate
- Stamens 4–5, opposite the petals
- Disk present within the stamens
- Ovary 2–6-celled, cells 1–2-ovuled; style short
- Fruit baccate
- Seeds with copious sometimes ruminate endosperm and small embryo
First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 267. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.