1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Vitex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or occasionally lianas, the stems mostly 4-angled, glabrous to densely hairy
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3, (1–)3–7-foliolate, mostly petiolate; leaflets entire, toothed or lobed, often glandular
    Inflorescences
    Cymes mostly dichasial, short and dense to open and spreading, sessile or pedunculate, the bracts often well developed; cymes sometimes aggregated into thyrsoid or lax panicles
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate to tubular, (3–)5(–6)-lobed or toothed or nearly truncate
    Corolla
    Corolla white and/or coloured, mostly shades of blue, lilac or mauve, ± zygomorphic; tube shortly cylindrical to long-tubular or ± funnel-shaped; limb spreading, ± 2-lipped, the upper lip 2-fid, the lower 3-fid
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted in the tube, mostly exserted
    Pistil
    Ovary at first ± 2-locular, later usually 4-locular, with single ovule in each locule; style terminal, filiform, shortly bifid
    Fruits
    Drupes fleshy with hard 4-celled endocarp; fruiting calyx usually accrescent, plate-like or cupular
    Seeds
    Seeds without endosperm.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves usually digitately compound with 3-8 leaflets but sometimes unifoliolate, sometimes in whorls
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary or terminal, a dichasial cyme, sometimes compound into a thyrse or panicle, flower blue, yellow, white to purple
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or tubular, 3-5-lobed, or truncate, actinomorphic to weakly 2-lipped
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibular, zygomorphic, 5-lobed, 2-lipped, tube straight or curved
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, attached near base of tube; usually exserted, thecae dorsifixed, divergent
    Pollen
    Pollen 3-colpate
    Ovary
    Ovary bicarpellate, carpels 2-locular and 2-seeded
    Style
    Style terminal with stigma-lobes short, equal
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, with hard pyrene, 4-seeded.
    Note
    2n = 12, 16.  Approximately 250 species
    Distribution
    In Old and New World tropics, few in temperate regions. Introduced to Southern U.S.A.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Habit
    Shrubs or trees, more rarely scrambling lianes, deciduous or evergreen, bark smooth or vertically fissured Shrubs or trees, more rarely scrambling lianes, deciduous or evergreen, bark smooth or vertically fissured.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous, included or exserted from the corolla tube; filaments broadened at the base, glabrous or with glandular or eglandular hairs Stamens 4, didynamous, epipetalous, included or exserted from the corolla tube; filaments broadened at the base, glabrous or with glandular or eglandular hairs.
    Ovary
    Ovary initially c. 2-locular, later 4-locular, with a single ovule in each locule, gland-dotted or not, glabrous or apically hairy; style terminal, filiform, bifid, shortly or distinctly exserted ( V. schliebenii )
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe or a nut with a hard 4-locular endocarp; fruiting calyx firm and ± cupular to saucer-shaped below the drupe, or enlarged chartaceous campanulate about the nut Fruit a drupe or a nut with a hard 4-locular endocarp; fruiting calyx firm and ± cupular to saucer-shaped below the drupe, or enlarged chartaceous campanulate about the nut.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–4, oblong to obovoid, without endosperm. Seeds 1–4, oblong to obovoid, without endosperm.
    Note
    Often missing from field notes are details of leaf, flower and fruit colour – which changes at maturity and on drying Herbarium collections of the widespread, and usually polymorphic, African species (e.g. V. doniana, V. ferruginea, V. fischeri, V. madiensis, V. mombassae, V. payos) are abundant. In contrast the southern African taxa (V. zeyheri, V. obovata, V. harveyana) are less well represented and need further research to fully understand their variation. Often missing from field notes are details of leaf, flower and fruit colour – which changes at maturity and on drying. It is also very useful to have a description of the bark and general observations on the habit of the plant. Pieper treated the African species as belonging to two subgenera, namely the subgenera Vitex and Holmskioldiopsis , and such infrageneric classification is retained here.  Both subgenera are represented in the Flora Zambesiaca area with species 1–13 belonging to subgenus Vitex and species 14 and 15 to subgenus Holmskioldiopsis W. Piep.  Species 1 (and V. zanzibarensis and V. trifolia ) belong to section Vitex [ Terminales Briq.], and species 2–13 to section Axillares Briq. of the subgenus Vitex.
    Distribution
    A genus of more than 200 species, mainly in the Old and New World tropics and a few in temperate areas.  Earlier authors, such as Pieper (Africa) and Moldenke (global), recognized many more species than are generally accepted today.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, rarely in whorls of 3, digitately compound with (1)3–7 leaflets, usually petiolate; leaflets entire or variously dentate or crenate, often with yellow gland-dots and aromatic; petiolules present or absent. Leaves opposite, rarely in whorls of 3, digitately compound with (1)3–7 leaflets, usually petiolate; leaflets entire or variously dentate or crenate, often with yellow gland-dots and aromatic; petiolules present or absent
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, mostly of dichasial cymes, occasionally of cymes aggregated into lax panicles, slender or sturdy; bracteoles inconspicuous, linear, narrowly-lanceolate or narrowly-spathulate. Inflorescences terminal or axillary, mostly of dichasial cymes, occasionally of cymes aggregated into lax panicles, slender or sturdy; bracteoles inconspicuous, linear, narrowly-lanceolate or narrowly-spathulate
    Calyx
    Calyx hemispherical, campanulate or obconical, 5-lobed (4-lobed in V. schliebenii), toothed or truncate, persistent and ± accrescent in fruit. Calyx hemispherical, campanulate or obconical, 5-lobed (4-lobed in V schliebenii ), toothed or truncate, persistent and ± accrescent in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla ± zygomorphic (regular in V.schliebenii); tube usually creamy-white, straight or curved, shortly cylindrical to infundibuliform; limb blue lilac mauve or pale yellow (V. chirindensis), upper lip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, (limb 4-lobed in V.schliebenii), spreading, the lower-lip median lobe usually larger than the laterals and sometimes more strongly coloured. Corolla ± zygomorphic (regular in V. schliebenii ); tube usually creamy-white, straight or curved, shortly cylindrical to infundibuliform; limb blue lilac mauve or pale yellow ( V chirindensis ), upper lip 2-lobed, lower lip 3-lobed, (limb 4-lobed in V. schliebenii ), spreading, the lower-lip median lobe usually larger than the laterals and sometimes more strongly coloured
    Pistil
    Ovary initially c. 2-locular, later 4-locular, with a single ovule in each locule, gland-dotted or not, glabrous or apically hairy; style terminal, filiform, bifid, shortly or distinctly exserted (>i>V.>i>schliebenii).
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrub or liana
    Leaves
    Leaves simple
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, in dichotomous or trichotomous cymes, flower white with yellow blotches on anterior lip
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, entire or sinuate-lobate with lobes subequal
    Corolla
    Corolla 5-lobed, 2-lipped
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, didynamous, inserted near base of tube, little exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary 4-locular, each locule with 1 ovule, but with only one locule developing
    Fruits
    Fruit a drupe with one pyrene, 1-seeded by abortion.
    Note
    One species, Paravitex siamica Fletcher
    Distribution
    Thailand.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Trees or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves digitately compound, leaflets 3-6 (-7), usually petiolulate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, cymose, compound, much-branched, flower white to pale yellow
    Calyx
    Calyx truncate or 4-lobed, persistent
    Corolla
    Corolla hypocrateriform, 4-lobed, ± 2-lipped, lobes sub-equal
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, inserted at base of tube, slightly exserted, thecae divergent
    Ovary
    Ovary bicarpellate, 4-locular, 1 ovule in each locule
    Style
    Style terminal, with 2 short, unequal stigmatic lobes
    Fruits
    Fruit a small drupe, pyrene hard, 4-celled.
    Note
    Five species
    Distribution
    Philippines to Celebes, New Guinea, Australia and Fiji.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Tree or shrub
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, lobed or palmately trifoliolate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, cymose, lax, few-flowered, flower yellow
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, 4-lobed, 2-lipped
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibular, zygomorphic, 4-lobed, lobes subequal, weakly 2-lipped
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, equal in length, inserted at middle of tube, exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, 1-2 ovules per locule
    Style
    Style terminal with stigma lobes short, bifid
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, globose, remaining undivided.
    Note
    One species, Tsoongia axilliflora Merr.
    Distribution
    China to Southeastern Asia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Line Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Rwanda, Samoa, Sardegna, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Ascension, Bahamas, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., El Salvador, Florida, Mississippi, New Mexico, Texas

    Vitex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2005 Netherlands Indies Forestry Service [bb20284], Indonesia K000826668
    Jan 1, 2004 Aban, G. [93016], Malaysia K000826832
    Jan 1, 2004 Lütjeharms, W.J. [4655], Indonesia K000826664
    Jan 1, 2004 J.C. [1667], Malaysia K000270329
    Jan 1, 2004 J.C. [1667], Malaysia K000826662
    Jan 1, 2004 Tanghilisan [120], Indonesia K000826833
    Jan 1, 2003 Kanehira, R. [14138], Indonesia K000183104
    Jan 1, 2003 Vidal, S. [3446], Philippines K000183107
    Jan 1, 2003 Vidal, S. [3448], Philippines K000183108
    Jan 1, 2003 Schlechter, R. [17762], Papua New Guinea K000183231
    Jan 1, 2003 Barbon [1807], Philippines K000183109
    Jan 1, 2003 Gaerlan [10605], Philippines K000183110
    Oct 1, 1951 Lanjouw, J. [2662], Suriname K001220280
    17185.000
    Du Puy, B. [MB158], Madagascar 57370.000
    Harris, D.J. [973], Central African Republic 63388.000
    Andau, D. [1182], Malaysia K000705688
    Daly, D.C. [12206], Brazil K001220279
    Rosário, C.S. [1924], Suriname K001220281
    Salleh, I. [15348] K000705690
    Soibeh, D. [790], Malaysia K000705689
    Julius, A. [56284], Malaysia K000853643

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 638 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • de Lima, C.T. & França, F. (2009). Flora da Bahia: Vitex Tour. ex L. Lamiaceae Sitientibus Sérrie Ciências Biológicas 9: 225-244.
    • de Kok, R. (2008). The genus Vitex (Labiatae) in the Flora Malesiana region, excluding New Guinea Kew Bulletin 63: 17-40.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5 & 6 (1955—58).
    • Pieper in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 62, Beibl. 141 (as "142"): 1—91 (1928)
    • —F.T.A. 5: 315
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Harley et al. in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 195 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII : 195 (2004).
    • Kew Bull. 56 : 189–207 (2001).
    • Sales in Kew Bull. 56: 189–207 (2001).
    • Bothalia 26 : 141–151 (1996) [with full citations of the Moldenke series of papers on Vitex ].
    • Bredenkamp & Botha in Bothalia 26: 141–151 (1996) [with full citations of the Moldenke series of papers on Vitex].
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 50–68 (1992).
    • Verdcourt in F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 50–68 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon, ed. Dassanayake 4 : 348 (1983).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon, ed. Dassanayake 4: 348 (1983).
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5 & 6 (1955–1958)*
    • Phytologia 5 & 6 (1955–1958)*
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62 , Beibl. 141 [‘142’]: 1–91 (1928).
    • Pieper in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 62, Beibl. 141 [‘142’]: 1–91 (1928).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 285 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 638 [‘938’](1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 348 (1983) (full generic synonymy)
    • Moldenke in Phytologia 5–6 (1955–1958)
    • Pieper in E.J. 62, Beibl. 141 (‘142’): 1–91 (1928)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 285 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 635 (1753)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Munir, J. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 10(1): 31-80 (1987), reg. rev.
    • Neorapinia Moldenke, Phytologia 5: 225 (1955).
    • Pistaciovitex Kuntze in T.E.von Post & C.E.O.Kuntze, Lex. Gen. Phan.: 442 (1903).
    • Varangevillea Baill., Hist. Pl. 11: 116 (1892).
    • Agnus-castus Tourn. ex Carrière, Rev. Hort. 42: 415 (1871).
    • Rapinia Montrouz., Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Lyon, Sect. Lett. 10: 243 (1860), nom. illeg.
    • Macrostegia Nees in A.P.de Candolle, Prodr. 11: 218 (1847).
    • Casarettoa Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 91 (1844).
    • Ephialis Banks & Sol. ex A.Cunn., Ann. Nat. Hist. 1: 461 (1838).
    • Psilogyne DC., Biblioth. Universelle Genève 17: 132 (1838).
    • Wallrothia Roth, Nov. Pl. Sp.: 317 (1821).
    • Pyrostoma G.Mey., Prim. Fl. Esseq.: 219 (1818).
    • Tripinnaria Pers., Syn. Pl. 2: 173 (1807), nom. superfl.
    • Chrysomallum Thouars, Gen. Nov. Madagasc.: 8 (1806).
    • Allasia Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 84 (1790).
    • Tripinna Lour., Fl. Cochinch.: 391 (1790).
    • Nephrandra Willd., Cothen. Disp. Veg.: 8 (1790).
    • Limia Vand., Fl. Lusit. Bras. Spec.: 42 (1788).
    • Mailelou Adans., Fam. Pl. 2: 200 (1763).
    • Vitex L., Sp. Pl. 2: 638 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0