1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Salvia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often aromatic, often viscid with hairs simple, rarely dendroid
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, toothed, lobed, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, rarely spinulose
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal and/or axillary, often a paniculate, spiciform thyrse of distant or congested 1- to many-flowered verticillasters
    Bracts
    Bracts inconspicuous or larger and sometimes coloured, caducous or persistent, rarely spinulose
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles present or not
    Calyx
    Calyx 3-5-lobed, 2-lipped (1 or 3/2), lobes rarely spinescent, tube cylindrical to campanulate, 9-15-nerved, often accrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 4-5-lobed (1-2/3), white to yellow, or purple to bright red or blue, posterior lip often longer, strongly falcate, to almost straight or flattened, entire or emarginate, anterior lip often with broader median lobe, tube sometime
    Stamens
    Stamens 2 fertile, with posterior pair vestigial or absent, anterior pair included to long-exserted, filaments usually short, thecae usually 1 by abortion, sometimes 2, connective elongate, often longer than filament, usually articulated at junction of fi
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes usually unequal
    Disc
    Disc 4-lobed, anterior lobe often larger
    Fruits
    Nutlets trigonous, ovoid or suborbicular, abscission scar small, mucilaginous or not.
    Note
    2n =12, 14, 16, 18, 14, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 30, 32, 34, 36, 38, 42, 44, 46, 48, 60, 66, 84, 86, 240.  At least 900 species. The infra-generic classification proposed, especially by Briquet (1897), largely based on staminal structure is out-dated, though t
    Ecology
    Open to forest and montane habitats
    Distribution
    Almost cosmopolitan with main centres of diversity in Southwestern Asia and Central and South America. Introduced to New Zealand, Southwestern and Central Pacific and Northeastern U.S.A.
    [FTEA]

    Lamiaceae (Labiatae), A.J. Paton, G. Bramley, O. Ryding, R.M. Polhill, Y.B. Harvey, M. Iwarsson, F. Willis, P.B. Phillipson, K. Balkwill, C.W. Lukhoba, D.F. Otieno, & R.M. Harley. Salvia, RM Polhill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often aromatic
    Stem
    Stems quadrangular, with simple or elsewhere rarely dendroid hairs, often with sessile glands or glandular hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves simple to lobed or dissected, some sometimes crowded at base of stem, often petiolate below and ± sessile above
    Flowers
    Flowers in a thyrse, 1–numerous in congested to well-spaced verticils; bracts usually distinctly smaller than leaves; bracteoles present or absent
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate to tubular, ± distinctly 2-lipped; posterior lip 3-fid or entire; anterior lip 2-lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla white to yellow, or purple to bright red or blue, 2-lipped; posterior lip hooded; anterior lip 3-lobed, straight or deflexed, with middle lobe broader
    Stamens
    Fertile stamens 2, the posterior pair vestigial or absent; anterior pair included to long-exserted, the filaments usually short, but the connective much extended, filament-like and separating the thecae; posterior theca always large and fertile; anterior theca smaller, fertile, sterile or replaced by a hatchet-shaped tip
    Ovary
    Ovary deeply 4-lobed; style gynobasic, 2-lobed, the anterior lobe usually much longer
    Fruits
    Nutlets trigonous, ovoid to rounded, with a small scar at or near the base, often producing mucilage when wetted.
    Note
    Salvia is pollinated by both insects and birds and has one of the most elaborate pollination mechanisms in the family. The flowers have only 2 stamens, normally with a single fertile theca and a much-elongated connective that often articulates with the relatively short filament. The anterior theca forms a sterile appendage that usually acts as a lever, tapping the pollen directly on to the back of the pollinator. Small cleistogamous flowers sometimes occur in S. merjamie. A number of species have been grown in gardens and, particularly in the case of S. coccinea, sometimes occur as escapes and tend to become naturalised.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrub, apparently gynodioecious, strongly aromatic, with simple hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, hastate, rugose, crenulate, densely hairy beneath
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, a compact, spiciform thyrse of many-flowered, sessile verticillasters
    Bracts
    Bracts lanceolate, caducous
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles absent
    Flowers
    Flowers very shortly pedicellate
    Calyx
    Calyx ± 3-lobed, 2-lipped (1/2), posterior lip sometimes obscurely 3-lobed, anterior lip shorter with triangular lobes, tube cylindrical, 8-11-veined, lips connivent in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla small, 2-lipped, 5-lobed (2/3), white, lips spreading, anterior lip longer, with median lobe larger than laterals, tube short, exannulate
    Stamens
    Stamens 2, posterior pair absent, anterior pair weakly exserted, thecae 2, elongate, curved, slightly divergent
    Stigma
    Stigma lobes subequal, slightly flattened
    Disc
    Disc fleshy, reddish orange, with anterior lobe longer
    Fruits
    Nutlets elongate, triquetrous, apiculate, smooth, pale brown, abscission scar small, elongate, not mucilaginous.
    Note
    One species, D. hastata Boiss. & Heldr. Ex Benth.
    Ecology
    Montane, among rocks
    Distribution
    Southwestern Turkey.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrubs, sometimes gynodioecious, strongly aromatic, with simple and dendroid hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves linear to lanceolate, revolute, entire, sessile
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences as short, 5-15-flowered racemes in axils of upper leaves
    Bracts
    Bracts inconspicuous; bracteoles absent
    Flowers
    Flowers pedicellate
    Calyx
    Calyx 2-lipped, 3 or 5-lobed (1-3/2), campanulate to infundibuliform, widening above, posterior lip curved upwards, triangular, tube 11-12-nerved, accrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla strongly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (2/3), violet to white, posterior lip with lobes spreading, anterior lip with lateral lobes, shorter, median lobe rounded, concave, toothed, tube short, exannulate
    Stamens
    Stamens 2, posterior pair absent or rudimentary, anterior pair long-exserted, ascending, much shorter in male-sterile flowers
    Anthers
    Anthers elongate, with single fertile theca separated by an elongate, downward curving connective from the sterile theca represented by small, tooth-like appendage, connective not articulating with filament and appearing continuous
    Style
    Style curved, exserted
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes short, unequal
    Disc
    Disc 4-lobed, anterior lobe largest
    Fruits
    Nutlets ovoid, smooth, abscission scar large with central pore, not mucilaginous, pseudostrophiolate.
    Note
    2n = 24.  Three species, with natural hybrids.
    Distribution
    In the Mediterranean region and Caucasus. Introduced to Eastern Europe and South-Central U.S.A
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrub, strongly aromatic, white-canescent with glandular and eglandular simple and dendroid hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves small, simple, margin undulate
    Flowers
    Flowers shortly pedicellate, borne singly in axils of leaf-like bracts
    Bracts
    Bracts leaf-like
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles 2, inconspicuous
    Calyx
    Calyx 2-lipped, 5-lobed (3/2), lips subequal, posterior with lobes shorter, subequal, tube ± cylindrical at first, strongly accrescent, broadly campanulate in fruit, membranous, lobes spreading
    Corolla
    Corolla large, indistinctly 2-lipped, 5-lobed (2/3), blue-violet, throat and tube white; lips spreading, anterior lip with lobes rounded, tube cylindrical, included in calyx-tube, annulate within
    Stamens
    Stamens with anterior pair fertile, exserted, posterior pair staminodal, shortly exserted, thecae 2, elongate, curved, slightly unequal, connective inconspicuous
    Style
    Style exserted
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes flattened
    Disc
    Disc not seen
    Fruits
    Nutlets obovoid, weakly subtrigonous, smooth, mucilaginous when wet.
    Note
    2n =40, 42.  One species, Z. majdae Rech. f. & Wendelbo.
    Ecology
    Open mountain slopes
    Distribution
    Southern Iran (Saharo-Sindian region).
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrubs, strongly aromatic, often viscid with dendroid and simple hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves entire to laciniate or bipinnatisect
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, often axillary, forming a paniculate thyrse of distant, 2- to 6-flowered verticillasters
    Bracts
    Bracts caducous
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles inconspicuous
    Flowers
    Flowers ± sessile, sometimes dimorphic due to heterostyly
    Calyx
    Calyx indistinctly 5-lobed, 2-lipped (3/2), lips subequal, anterior with lobes short, deltoid, tube cylindrical, 10-nerved, often densely hairy
    Corolla
    Corolla 2-lipped, 5-lobed (4/1) violet-blue to white, posterior lip spreading to reflexed, anterior lip shorter, entire, acute, tube cylindrical, annulate within
    Stamens
    Stamens 2 with 2 staminodes, anterior stamens fertile, ± included in long-styled, or long-exserted in short-styled plants, declinate, thecae 2, elongate, parallel, connective small, staminodes borne on posterior lip of corolla
    Style
    Style included or exserted, declinate
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes flattened
    Disc
    Disc weakly 4-lobed, anterior lobe longest
    Fruits
    Nutlets elongate, rounded at apex, smooth, abscission scar small, elongate, not mucilaginous.
    Note
    2n = 20.  About seven species
    Distribution
    Southwestern Asia: Iran, Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Kashmir, Northern India to Tibet
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Shrub, gynodioecious (possibly dioecious in m. strobilifera benth.), strongly aromatic, with simple and dendroid hairs (dendroid hairs glandular in m. strobilifera)
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, hastate to rounded, rugose, margins serrulate to subentire
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal and axillary, a compact and 4-angled or interrupted spiciform thyrse of many-flowered, sessile verticillasters
    Bracts
    Bracts ovate-acuminate, caducous or persistent
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 2-lipped, ± 3-lobed (1/2), posterior lip broader, subentire or obscurely 3-lobed, lobes connivent, anterior lip shorter, tube cylindrical, 9-11-veined, calyx erect or spreading in fruit, with lips open
    Corolla
    Corolla small, 2-lipped, 4-5-lobed (1-2/3), white or pale lilac, anterior lip usually longer than posterior, tube straight, annulate or exannulate
    Stamens
    Stamens 2 fertile, posterior pair absent or staminodal (in m. bengalensis (koenig ex roxb.) benth.), anterior pair exserted, except in female flowers, thecae 2, elongate, curved, divergent and often slightly unequal, connective inconspicuous
    Stigma
    Stigma-lobes unequal or subequal, flattened
    Disc
    Disc 4-lobed
    Fruits
    Nutlets elongate, oblong-apiculate or obovoid-elliptic smooth, mucilaginous or not.
    Distribution
    Two species, M. strobilifera in Northern India, M. bengalensis in Arabia, Yemen, Ethiopia and cultivated in Indian subcontinent.
    [LKGF]
    Use
    Especially the Mediterranean S. officinalis L. widely used as potherb, also many ornamentals, such as S. microphylla Kunth and S. splendens Sellow & Nees from the New World.
    [LKGF]
    Use
    Rosmarinus officinalis L. has been widely cultivated since antiquity as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burundi, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, France, Free State, Galápagos, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Manchuria, Maryland, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Azores, Bermuda, British Columbia, Central American Pac, Cook Is., Delaware, Denmark, Fiji, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, Indiana, Khabarovsk, Lesser Sunda Is., Maine, Manitoba, Marquesas, Masachusettes, Michigan, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, Northern Territory, Norway, Ontario, Pennsylvania, Québec, Rhode I., Society Is., Sweden, Tonga, Vermont, Virginia, West Virginia, Wyoming

    Salvia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Turrill, W.B. [K535], Greece 2780.000
    Rico, L. [1172], Bolivia K000295014
    Buijsman, M. [11], Indonesia K000856919
    Buijsman, M. [78], Indonesia K000856920
    Smith, J.J. [452], Indonesia K000856918
    McDonald [4877], Indonesia K000856921
    Christenhuis, M.J.M. [6771], USA K000696720

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 23 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Drew, B.T. & al. (2017). Salvia united: The greatest good for the greatest number Taxon 66: 133-145.
    • Garcia Peña, M.R. (2007). Personal communication on Lamiaceae 1 MEXU, Mexico.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 5: 456.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 7: 235 (2004)
    • Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 33: 1–121 (1974)
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 15 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 23 (1753)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • Hedge in Davis (ed.) Flora of Turkey 7: 400-461 (1982), rev. reg.
    • Hedge, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 33: 1-121 (1974), rev. reg.
    • Arischrada Pobed., Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 9: 247 (1972).
    • Epling, Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 25, 1: 95-188 (1938), rev. reg.
    • Epling, Rep. Spec. Nov. Beih. 110: 1-383 (1938-9), rev. reg.
    • Pycnosphace Rydb., Fl. Rocky Mts.: 747 (1917)., (1918).
    • Audibertiella Briq., Bull. Herb. Boissier 2: 73 (1894).
    • Ramona Greene, Pittonia 2: 235 (1892).
    • Sphacopsis Briq., Lab. Alp. Mar. 1: 184 (1891).
    • Polakia Stapf, Denkschr. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Wien. Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 50: 43 (1885).
    • Aethiopis Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 134 (1869).
    • Gallitrichum Fourr., Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon, n.s., 17: 134 (1869).
    • Aethyopys (Benth.) Opiz, Seznam: 11 (1852).
    • Drymosphace Opiz, Seznam: 38 (1852).
    • Hemisphace Opiz, Seznam: 50 (1852).
    • Plethiosphace Opiz, Seznam: 75 (1852).
    • Salviastrum Scheele, Linnaea 22: 584 (1849).
    • Rhodochlamys Schauer, Linnaea 20: 706 (1847).
    • Leonura Usteri ex Steud., Nomencl. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 25 (1841).
    • Fenixanthes Raf., Autik. Bot.: 122 (1840).
    • Aitopsis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 91 (1837).
    • Belospis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 90 (1837).
    • Calosphace Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 91 (1837).
    • Codanthera Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 90 (1837).
    • Crolocos Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Elelis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Enipea Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Epiadena Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Euriples Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Flipanta Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Glutinaria Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Hematodes Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Hemistegia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 89 (1837).
    • Kiosmina Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Larnastyra Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Lesemia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 91 (1837).
    • Megyathus Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Melligo Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 92 (1837).
    • Oboskon Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Ormiastis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Ormilis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Piaradena Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 91 (1837).
    • Pleudia Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Rhodormis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 93 (1837).
    • Sobiso Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Terepis Raf., Fl. Tellur. 3: 94 (1837).
    • Benth., Lab. Gen. et Sp.: 190 (1833)
    • Leonia Cerv. in P.de La Llave & J.M.de Lexarza, Nov. Veg. Descr. 2: 6 (1825).
    • Stenarrhena D.Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal.: 111 (1825).
    • Jungia Heist. ex Moench, Methodus: 378 (1794), nom. illeg.
    • Covola Medik., Staatsw. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Oek. Ges. 1: 227 (1791).
    • Melinum Medik., Staatsw. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Oek. Ges. 1: 200 (1791).
    • Schraderia Medik., Philos. Bot. 2: 40 (1791).
    • Stiefia Medik., Staatsw. Vorles. Churpf. Phys. Oek. Ges. 1: 200 (1791).
    • Jungia Heist. ex Fabr., Enum.: 47 (1759).
    • Horminum Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754), nom. illeg.
    • Sclarea Mill., Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4 (1754).
    • Salvia L., Sp. Pl. 1: 23 (1753)
    • Audibertia Benth., Edwards's Bot. Reg. 17: t. 1469 (1831), (1832), nom. illeg. non Audibertia Benth. (1829).

    Sources

    Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0