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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.
Senna sp.


M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008]

For references, see under Cassia.
Morphology General Habit
Unarmed trees, shrubs or herbs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate, often with globose to clavate or cylindrical glands on petiole and/or rhachis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Flowers in few- to many-flowered racemes, without bracteoles
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 5, imbricate
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 10; filaments straight, shorter than or not over twice as long as the basifixed anthers which are dehiscent by apical pores or short slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods terete or compressed, indehiscent or ± tardily dehiscent, valves not twisting
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds ± compressed, often with a closed areole on each face.
About 280 species, pantropical, most numerous in the New World, some extending into temperate regions.


Leguminosae, R.K. Brummitt, A.C. Chikuni, J.M. Lock & R.M. Polhill. Flora Zambesiaca 3:2. 2007

Morphology General Habit
Trees, shrubs or woody herbs, unarmed (in the Flora area).
Morphology Leaves
Leaves paripinnate; leaflets opposite or subopposite; stipules various but often persistent and prominent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence racemose or paniculate; bracts often prominent but usually falling at or before anthesis; bracteoles absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx lobes 5, equal or subequal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 5, yellow.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 10, all with almost straight filaments which are not more than twice the length of their anther; anthers basifixed, dehiscing by terminal pores only.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary stipitate, curved; ovules numerous; stigma terminal or subterminal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Pods cylindrical, flattened or winged, often transversely septate inside, tardily dehiscent (not elastically) or indehiscent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds numerous, areolate.


Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)


Tribe Cercideae is basally branching in the Leguminosae (Bruneau et al., 2001; Herendeen et al., 2003a), as predicted by Wunderlin et al. (1981), and Cercis is the most basally branching genus in the tribe. While much taxonomic work has been carried out on the tribe in the past thirty years (e.g., Larsen et al., 1980, 1984; Wunderlin, 1976, 1979; Wunderlin et al., 1981, 1987; Zhang, 1995; Vaz, 2003; Vaz & Tozzi, 2003), few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses and inter- and intra-generic relationships are still largely unresolved with the exception of Cercis (Hao et al., 2001; Davis et al., 2002b).

Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981) divided the tribe into two subtribes, Cercidinae and Bauhiniinae, based on seed, floral and fruit characters. Walpers (1842) had already down-ranked Bauhinieae Benth. (1840) to subtribal status, thus the combination Bauhiniinae (Benth.) Wunderlin (1979) is superfluous. Polhill (1994) kept the Cercideae unchanged with two subtribes and five genera. While the Cercidinae contains three small distinct genera, Cercis, Griffonia and Adenolobus, the Bauhiniinae houses the monospecific Madagascan genus Brenierea and the large, diverse pantropical genus Bauhinia sens. lat. which has been segregated into as many as twenty-six genera by various authors (Wunderlin, 1976).

While many of the Bauhinia segregates are based on minor morphological differences, others are distinguished morphologically by a suite of characters. Britton and Rose (1930), in their account of the Caesalpiniaceae for the North American Flora, divided Bauhinia into several segregate genera, including Schnella Raddi which here is treated as a synonym of Phanera, but might prove to be distinct as indicated in recent molecular analyses by Forest (unpublished data). Britton and Killip (1936) recognised Schnella as distinct from Bauhinia in Colombia. De Wit (1956), treating ‘Malaysian Bauhinieae’, recognised Bracteolanthus, Lysiphyllum, Gigasiphon, Piliostigma, Lasiobema and Phanera as separate genera and this was largely followed by subsequent flora writers in Africa and New Guinea (e.g., Brenan, 1967; Coetzer & Ross in Ross, 1977; Verdcourt, 1979). Others have retained a more inclusive Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987), e.g., Macbride (1943: 207–220) for Peru; Larsen et al. (1980) for the Flora of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam; Larsen et al. (1984) for the Flora of Thailand; Chen (1988) for China, and Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) in Flora Malesiana. Zhang (1995) published a morphological cladistic analysis of the series of Bauhinia sens. lat., but few species of Bauhinia have been included in molecular studies. It remains equivocal as to whether Bauhinia sens. lat. is monophyletic, but preliminary molecular results indicate that some elements should be reinstated as distinct genera (Bruneau et al., in prep.; Forest, unpubl.). This runs contrary to the findings of Larsen & Larsen in Hou et al. (1996) who concluded “that Bauhinia in the sense of Linnaeus, Bentham, De Candolle, Taubert and Hutchinson is an evolutionary unit and a very natural genus”. Larsen and Larsen also noted that Bauhinia sens. lat. presents a reticulate pattern of variation across its pantropical range (this apparently conflicting somewhat with its status as a “natural genus”). While this is undoubtedly true if the genus is considered as all-inclusive, recent studies of legume distributions in general (Schrire et al., this volume and 2005) have revealed repeated patterns of generic distribution which appear to be duplicated by at least some of the segregates of Bauhinia. If these segregates are recognised as distinct genera (as several are in this treatment) then the reticulate pattern of variation of Bauhinia is far less pronounced. More sampling at the species level in molecular analyses and more morphological studies are needed across the full pantropical range of Bauhinia sens. lat. before inter- and intra-generic relationships are clearly resolved. In the current account genera that have been recognised as distinct from Bauhinia in at least one flora treatment that post-dates De Wit (1956) have been treated as separate genera, especially where these are supported by the preliminary results from a chloroplast trnL (intron and spacer) sequence analysis (Forest, unpubl.). The reader’s attention is also alerted to the detailed infra-generic division of Bauhinia by Wunderlin et al. (1987) in their reorganisation of the Cercideae which also forms a sound basis for sampling in future studies.

Palynological studies of Bauhinia (Larsen, 1975; Schmitz, 1977; Ferguson & Pearce, 1986) have all stressed the considerable variation in pollen morphology within the genus sens. lat. and there are clear correlations between pollen exine ornamentation, floral morphology and pollination. It remains to be seen just how closely these correspond to evolutionary relationships of species. Nevertheless, Schmitz (1977) made several new combinations in segregate genera of Bauhinia based on palynological type. These included new names in Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Pauletia, Perlebia and Phanera (Pauletia and Perlebia here considered as synonyms of Bauhinia). Zhang (1995), who analysed morphologically the series of Bauhinia proposed by Wunderlin et al. (1987), concluded that while some supraspecific segregates of the genus were supported, none of the subgenera appeared to be monophyletic. Several realignments were proposed.

The Cercideae as presented here includes 12 genera and (322)–335–(348) species. This treatment differs from Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) and Polhill (1994) in that Barklya, Gigasiphon, Lasiobema, Lysiphyllum, Phanera, Piliostigma and Tylosema are considered distinct from Bauhinia. While some of these may well be reincluded in Bauhinia after further study, yet other genera may be reinstated from within Bauhinia. Bracteolanthus, treated as distinct by De Wit (1956), is here included in Lysiphyllum following Wunderlin et al. (1987), while Barklya, considered congeneric with Bauhinia by Wunderlin (1979) and Wunderlin et al. (1981, 1987) is considered distinct following George (1998b) and Forest (unpublished data). The reinstatement of Lasiobema appears least well supported (Forest, unpubl.).

One of three genera in subtribe Cassiinae; see under Cassia for comments on phylogenetic placement. In arid areas in Australia taxonomic distinctions are blurred by polyploidy, hybridisation and apomixis (Randell & Barlow, 1998b)
Trees, shrubs or herbs (some monocarpic)
Arid scrubland, rocky hillsides and deep desert sands, deciduous woodland, thorn woodland (including caatinga), wooded grassland (savanna and cerrado), few in Amazonian forest; some endemics on limestone (especially in Madagascar), coastal tropical and su
206 spp. native to the New World (c. 45 spp. restricted to C and N America, 10 spp. in the Greater Antilles [including 6 endemic in Cuba], c. 30 restricted to NW South America [Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru], 3 restricted to the Guianas and Venezuela, c. 28 in southern S America [Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, including 8 spp. endemic in Chile], 5 spp. endemic in Bolivia, c. 20 spp. restricted to SE Brazil and 13 to NE Brazil, c. 25 spp. widespread across S America, and c. 25-30 on either side of the Panama isthmus [either disjunctly or widespread] ), c. 18-20 spp. native to Africa (many in Somalia-Masai E and NE Africa [including 2 extending to Socotra; 1 sp. endemic on Socotra and 3 extending to the Middle East and Asia], others more widespread in dryland phytochoria), 9 spp. endemic in Madagascar, 3 spp. indigenous in Malesia, 3 spp. restricted to India, 1 sp. in Myanmar [Burma] and Thailand (and possibly also native in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam); 33 spp. endemic in Australia plus 16 endemic so-called 'form taxa'; c. 3-5 spp. widely cultivated and of unknown certain origin

Senna alexandrina Mill. (= Cassia senna L.), or true senna is well-known as a laxative; many species are multi-purpose shrubs with numerous medicinal uses, especially as purgatives; S. alata (L.) Roxb. is universally used against parasitic skin diseases; timber of some species is used in construction and for charcoal; occasionally seeds are roasted and ground as a coffee substitute, less often used as fish poisons and for tanning leather; many are ornamentals and shade trees widely introduced throughout the tropics; for a detailed account of uses in W Africa see Burkill (1995)

Native to:

Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Colombia, Comoros, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kentucky, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Aldabra, Arkansas, Ascension, Belgium, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Canary Is., Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Congo, Cook Is., Cyprus, Gabon, Georgia, Gilbert Is., Hainan, Inner Mongolia, Kazan-retto, Kermadec Is., Korea, Laccadive Is., Line Is., Louisiana, Madeira, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Mauritius, Mississippi, Missouri, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, New Guinea, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niue, Norfolk Is., Ogasawara-shoto, Primorye, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Seychelles, Solomon Is., South Carolina, South China Sea, Spain, St.Helena, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Tuamotu, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Wallis-Futuna Is.

Senna Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2009 Vargas, C. [9818], Peru K000556674
Jan 1, 1989 Maas, P.J.M. [6646], Amazonas K000841202
Jan 1, 1985 Thomas, D.W. [3311 A], Cameroon K000092598
Pennington, R.T. [40], Bolivia 35772.020
Rico, L. [1465], Bolivia K000295383
Rico, L. [1180], Bolivia K000295021
Rico, L. [1466], Bolivia K000295353
Delprete, P.G. [10092], Goiás K000841209
Saavedra, M.M. [474], Goiás K000841212
Campelo, M.J. [64], Pernambuco K000841217
Campelo, M.J. [32], Pernambuco K000841218
Saar, E. [5256], Bahia K000841219
Lowe, J. [4033], Amazonas K000841237
Vilela, U.U.A. [16], Brazil K000841240
Barros, M. [2260], Brazil K000841243
Azevedo, M.L.M. [1346], Bahia K000841246
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841248
Mansano, V.F. [344], Rio de Janeiro K000841253
Forzza, R.C. [4082], Bahia K000841255
Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841257
Queiroz, L.P. [10672], Bahia K000841259
Claussen, P. [163], Rio de Janeiro K000841261
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1300], Goiás K000841273
Torres, Luis [s.n.], Venezuela K000556671
Jameson [738], Peru K000556678
Ruiz, J. [1697], Peru K000556683
Cornejo, X. [5857], Ecuador K001134357
Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134363
Valenzuela, L. [5052], Peru K001134572
Vásquez, R. [23904], Peru K001134575
Díaz, Camilo [8296], Peru K001134576
Vásquez M. Rodolfo [34931], Peru K001134582
Catatayud, G. [4506], Peru K001134587
Vásquez, R. [31685], Peru K001134598
Valenzuela, L. [10580], Peru K001134601
Calatayud, G. [4189], Peru K001134604
Graham, J.G. [4104], Peru K001134817
Vasquez, R. [18638], Peru K001134824
Valenzuela, L. [4766], Peru K001134837
Vásquez, R. [30922], Peru K001134932
Vásquez, R. [29665], Peru K001134940
Vasquez, R. et al [28281], Peru K001134941
Valenzuela, L. Suclli, E. [1552], Peru K001134942
Valenzuela, L. [6062], Peru K001134946
Rojas, R. [2728], Peru K001134950
Lawrence, A. [70], Bolivia K001134956
Mendoza, M. [1026], Bolivia K001134999
Monteagudo, A. [14043], Peru K001134599
Galiano, W. [6733], Peru K001134820
Ball, J. [s.n.], Chile K001259297
Rojas, R. [3036], Peru K001134938
Forzza, R.C. [4582], Goiás K000841254
Nascimento, M.S.B. [604], Maranhão K000841266
s.coll. [56], Ecuador K001134359
Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134996
Laurênio, A. [227], Pernambuco K000841268
Stahl, B. [7102], Ecuador K000556672
Cornejo, X. [5594], Ecuador K001134362
Farfán, J. [1247], Peru K001134935
Wood, J.R.I. [21152], Bolivia K001105193
Valenzuela, L. [2119], Peru K001134934
Plowman, T. [6406], Peru K001134453
Lima, H.C. [2914], Espírito Santo K000841215
Tschá, M.C. [91], Pernambuco K000841264
Monteagudo, A. [4974], Peru K001105404
Calatayud, G. [2947], Peru K001134832
Meneces, Elias [387], Bolivia K001105593
Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105591
van der werff, H. [20721], Peru K001134834
Killeen, T. [6878], Bolivia K001105408
Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105403
Nelson, B.W. [934], Amazonas K000841216
Galiano, W. [5715], Peru K001134849
Heringer, E.P. [4170], Brazil K000841235
Davis, E.W. [550], Colombia K000556666
Huamantupa, I. [4748], Peru K001134836
Valenzuela, L. [6482], Peru K001134945
Plowman, T. [14217], Peru K000556679
Gay, M. Cl. [s.n.], Chile K001259296
Botelho, M.B. [5], Brazil K000841271
Foster, P.F. [762], Bolivia K001105409
Thomas, W.W. [11524], Bahia K000841214
Jeffrey, C. [2372] K001134450
Bernardi, L. [16425], Peru K000556677
Vasquez, R. [20082], Peru K001134952
Lozano, R. [1272], Bolivia K001105411
Wood, J.R.I. [10504], Bolivia K001105195
Díaz, Camilo [6919], Peru K001134929
Heringer, E.P. [7166], Brazil K000841234
Revilla, Juan [2653], Peru K000556687
Valenzuela, L. [4244], Peru K001134830
Meirelles, J.E. [554], Rio de Janeiro K000841252
Giulietti, A.M. [13665], Minas Gerais K000841258
Stahl, B. [7297], Ecuador K000556673
Rojas, R. [2341], Peru K001134939
Silva, B.R. [1427], Minas Gerais K000841256
Calatayud, G. [1384], Peru K001134839
Paz R., C. [156], Bolivia K001105546
Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556667
Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556676
Vasquez, R. [21017], Peru K001105395
Wood, J.R.I. [11023], Bolivia K001135000
Rojas, Rocio [5832], Peru K001134603
Valenzuela, L. [1888], Peru K001134943
Valenzuela, L. [5294], Peru K001134835
Valenzuela, L. [3586], Peru K001134927
Valenzuela, L. [5169], Peru K001134928
Bautista, H.P. [584], Minas Gerais K000841236
Huamantupa, I. [8558], Peru K001134594
Vásquez, R. [23996], Peru K001134838
Andrade, I.M. [166], Pernambuco K000841267
s. coll. [572 (middle digit may be wrong)], Ecuador K001134360
Ortiz [1164], Peru K001134574
Rico, L. [2052], Mexico K000266026
Seidel, R. [1991], Bolivia K001105191
Perea, J. [0168], Peru K001134845
Huamantupa, I. [3260], Peru K001134846
Pennington, T.D. [17535], Peru K001105596
Cornejo, X. [5826], Ecuador K001134358
Valenzuela, L. [7339], Peru K001134828
Foronda, Ivan Linneo [979], Bolivia K001105536
Soto, D. [1217], Bolivia K001105192
Bezerra, M. [10], Bahia K000841247
Cavalcanti, T.B. [1607], Goiás K000841249
Rojas, Rocio [5776], Peru K001134595
Valenzuela, L. [6121], Peru K001134847
Valenzuela, L. [5831], Peru K001134831
Heringer, E.P. [3710], Brazil K000841230
Savatier, Lud. [1/46], Peru K001134451
Huaylla, H. [1022], Bolivia K001105537
Edwards. K. S. [465], Venezuela K000556668
Smith, David [5709], Peru K000556684
Rojas, R. [3968], Peru K001105196
Wood, J.R.I. [16671], Bolivia K001105198
Delprete, P.G. [10196], Goiás K000841211
Farfán, J. [289], Peru K001134936
Vásquez M., Rodolfo [33935], Peru K001134606
Wood, J.R.I. [10730], Bolivia K001105194
Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001134365
Lehmann [s.n.], Colombia K001134455
Huamantupa, I. [10402], Peru K001134602
Stork, H.E. [11382], Peru K001134454
Suclli, E. [2696] K001134833
Vásquez M., Rodolfo [34383], Peru K001134607
Lopes, M.M.M. [862], Bahia K000841226
Foster, Robin B. [10634], Peru K000556685
Valenzuela, L. [10820], Peru K001134591
Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105399
Semir, J. [2097], Minas Gerais K000841232
Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134818
Klitgaard, B.B. [545], Ecuador K001134364
Valenzuela, L. [8404], Peru K001134592
Heringer, E.P. [4162], Brazil K000841231
Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105406
Monteagudo M., A. [11798], Peru K001134841
Vásquez, R. [26037], Peru K001134840
Soto, A. [492], Bolivia K001134957
Chatrou, L.W. [459], Bolivia K001105547
Pennington, T.D. [17161], Peru K001105595
Rojas, R. [2898], Peru K001134844
Queiroz, L.P. [3832], Bahia K000841208
Galiano, W. [5721], Peru K001134933
Suclli, E. [1935], Peru K001134577
Harley, R.M. [54689], Bahia K000841227
Valenzuela, L. [8025], Peru K001134608
Villarouco, F.M.O. [150], Pernambuco K000841269
van der werff, H. [17514], Peru K001134951
Oliveira, C.A.M. [15], Pernambuco K000841251
Huamantupa, I. [10473], Peru K001134579
Suclli, Efrain [1562], Peru K001134597
Huamantupa, I. [3051], Peru K001134829
Monteagudo, A. [4932], Peru K001105405
Huamantupa, I. [10156], Peru K001134578
Lawrence, A [176], Bolivia K001134955
Wood, J.R.I. [20533], Bolivia K001134997
Meirelles, J.E. [387], Amazonas K000841210
Huaylla, H. [696], Bolivia K001134998
Ratter, J.A. [6865], Pará K000841239
Valenzuela, L. [3012], Peru K001134825
Semir, J. [5046], Minas Gerais K000841233
Klitgaard, B.B. [402] K001134356
Vásquez, R. [23916], Peru K001134826
Melo, M.R.C.S. [43], Pernambuco K000841263
Ferreira, V. [5], Brazil K000841242
Rojas, Rocio [5812], Peru K001134605
Killeen [5439], Bolivia K001134993
Birschel [s.n.], Venezuela K000556669
Parada, G.A. [114], Bolivia K001105544
Graham, J.G. [4876], Peru K001134819
Forzza, R.C. [4063], Minas Gerais K000841220
Glaziou, A. [12616], Rio de Janeiro K000841238
Valenzuela, L. [2485], Peru K001134944
Barbosa, Cesar [8406], Colombia K000556664
Arroyo, L. [3265], Bolivia K001134995
Cornejo, X. [2734], Ecuador K001134361
Ortiz [579], Peru K001134571
Pennington, T.D. [17565], Peru K000556688
Rojas [2891], Peru K001134937
Arroyo, L. [3259], Bolivia K001105407
Vásquez, R. [32400], Peru K001134600
Ortiz V., E. [554], Peru K001134827
Valenzuela, L. [4143], Peru K000556689
Saldias, M. [5315], Bolivia K001105535
Kersten, R.A. [1100], Tocantins K000841213
Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105397
Rico, L. [2016], Mexico K000266002
Monteagudo, A. [3531], Peru K001105402
Valenzuela, L. [11773], Peru K001134589
Valenzuela, L. [3964], Peru K001134842
Pinto, G.C.P. [83/82], Minas Gerais K000841229
Galiano, W. [4676], Peru K001134931
Mendes, J.R.S. [2], Brazil K000841244
Woytkowski, Felix [54], Peru K000556680
Parada, G.A. [55], Bolivia K001105197
van der werff, H. [20761], Peru K001134821
Meneces, Elias [391], Bolivia K001105592
Pereira, R.J.L. [12], Brazil K000841245
JDG [722; 460; 186 respectively, 722 associated with Ju], Peru K000556686
Rojas, R. [3892], Peru K001134573
Saldias, M. [3471], Bolivia K001105550
Claussen, P. [168], Rio de Janeiro K000841260
Calatayud, G. [4083], Peru K001134583
Vásquez, R. [29667], Peru K001134949
Rojas, Rocio [5720], Peru K001134593
Valenzuela, L. [6709], Peru K001134843
Castellanos, A. [22714], Rio de Janeiro K000841223
Vásquez, R. [21030], Peru K001134822
Souza, V. [441], Espírito Santo K000841262
Monteagudo, A. [3516], Peru K001134848
Killeen, T. [4119], Bolivia K001105410
Lawrence, S.A. [s.n.], Bolivia K001134954
Triana, J. [s.n.], Colombia K001134457
Hatschbach, G. [74570], Mato Grosso do Sul K000841221
Heringer, E.P. [17698], Goiás K000841224
Rodal, M.J.N. [449], Pernambuco K000841265
Pennington, T.D. [17961 (4770)], Peru K000556675
Lima, H.C. [2973], Espírito Santo K000841225
Tschá, M.C. [585], Pernambuco K000841270
Mendonça, R.C. [4170], Goiás K000841222
Tunqui, Santiago [1106], Peru K001134953
Heringer, E.P. [6527], Brazil K000841228
Peterson, P.M. [12651], Bolivia K001105594
Rojas, Rocio [5719], Peru K001134580
Vásquez, R. [24308], Peru K001105396
Guillén, R. [1730], Bolivia K001105545
Ratter, J.A. [7322], Goiás K000841241
Perea, J. [2024], Peru K001134948
Fuentes, A. [1896], Bolivia K001105534
Galiano, W. [6312], Peru K001105394
Lozano, R. [1459], Bolivia K001105538
Rojas, R. [0922], Peru K001105400
Vásquez, R. [26098], Peru K001105398
Harley, R.M. [54463], Bahia K000841272
Ortiz V., E. [1330], Peru K001134930
Barrier, S. [1254], Peru K001105401
Thomas, W.W. [11641], Bahia K000841250
Monteagudo, Abel [16209], Peru K001134585
Huamán, M. [171], Peru K001134596
Plowman, T. [6485], Peru K001134452
Perea, J. [1576], Peru K001134947
Vásquez, R. [22374], Peru K001134823

First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

Accepted by

  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.


Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gard. Dict., abr.ed. 4, 3 (1754).
  • Irwin & Barneby in Polhill & Raven, Adv. Legume Syst. 1: 97–106 (1981)
  • in Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 35: 1–918 (1982).

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia

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