1. Portulacaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Portulacaceae, Sylvia M. Phillips. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, occasionally soft-wooded shrubs or small trees, usually with most parts rather succulent
Leaves
Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, entire; nodal and axillary scales and/or hairs sometimes present
Inflorescences
Inflorescence cymose, sometimes reduced to a solitary axillary flower, or congested into a raceme-like panicle or terminal head of sessile flowers surrounded by an involucre of leaf-like bracts
Flowers
Flowers regular
Calyx
Sepals 2, slightly unequal, the outer overlapping both margins of the inner, free or basally connate
Corolla
Petals (3–)4–5(–12), free or basally connate, sometimes adnate to the ovary base, usually conspicuous but fugacious
Androecium
Stamens 3–numerous, often adherent to the petals
Gynoecium
Ovary superior or (in Portulaca) partly inferior, with 2–5 carpels, unilocular, placentation free-central or basal, ovules few to many; style simple; stigma capitate or branched
Fruits
Fruit a capsule, circumscissile or dehiscing longitudinally, rarely indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds 1 to many on long persistent funicles, black or brown with a pale aril (in Flora area), often glossy or with a metallic sheen, embryo curved, testa smooth or concentrically ornamented
[FZ]

Portulacaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often succulent
Leaves
Leaves sessile or petiolate, opposite or alternate; stipules scarious or modified into many or few hair-like axillary appendages or absent
Flowers
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, variously racemose, paniculate or cymose or solitary
Calyx
Sepals 2, imbricate, free or united at the base
Corolla
Petals 4–6 (in all African genera), imbricate, free or connate up to half-way or more, often fugacious
Androecium
Stamens as many as the petals or more numerous, free or adnate to the petals
Gynoecium
Ovary superior or half inferior, 1-locular or partially divided into several loculi near the base; placentation basal; ovules 1-?; style simple or variously divided
Fruits
Fruit a capsule dehiscing by longitudinal valves or circumscissile, very rarely an indehiscent nutlet
[NTK]

Coelho, A.O.-P. (2009). Neotropical Portulacaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annual or perennial herbs, shrubs or small trees, sometimes with thickened and succulent stem base, caudex or underground storage; roots swollen and tuberous in several species. Stipules absent but hairs, bristles or scales present in leaf-axils of many species, these generally interpreted as reduced stipules,  axillary pubescence copious in some species. Leaves alternate or occasionally opposite, sometimes in the form of perfoliate umbrella-like structures (Montia L.); petioles poorly defined; blades flattened to terete , normally glabrous , sometimes succulent , base usually narrow, margins entire . Inflorescences of solitary flowers or paniculate, but commonly described as dichasia converting distally into monochasia, monochasia frequently straightened to resemble racemes or spikes, axes sometimes reduced, resulting in condensed head -like inflorescences. Flowers actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic (Montia), bisexual or rarely unisexual, small to large and showy, short-lived, often cleistogamus; sepals usually 2 (-3) or many (Lewisia Pursh), imbricate , persistent or deciduous (Talinum Adans.); petals (2-) 5 (12 or rarely more), free or sometimes connate at base; stamens 1 (Monocosmia Fenzl) - numerous, opposite petals, often grouped in bundles when numerous, filaments usually free , sometimes fused basally to perianth base, anthers basifixed, longitudinally dehiscent ; pollen spinose, endexine poorly developed; gynoecium syncarpous,  ovary superior or inferior or semi-inferior (Portulaca L.), carpels (2) 3 (8), 1-locular throughout or initially plurilocular and becoming 1-locular distally (Portulaca), style cleft to various lengths, branches and/or stigmas as many as carpels; placentation basal or free -central, ovules 1-many, mostly campylotropous. Fruits dry capsules dehiscing circumscissilely or by longitudinal valves (3-6), valves in some genera longitudinally involute . Seeds (1) 3- numerous, cochleate - reniform to angular or rounded , testa often distinctly sculptured; sarcotesta present, surrounding seed ; embryo slightly curved to almost circular, endosperm absent or almost absent; perisperm often abundant.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • The Portulacaceae are cosmopolitan, with 25-30 genera and 450-500 species. Most genera and species occur in the west of North America, South America and Africa with some representatives in Europe and Asia.
  • In tropical America and the bordering regions there are about 11 genera and probably 170 species.

Of the 11 tropical and subtropical American genera:

  • Calandrinias.l. (Calandrinia Kunth, Baitaria Ruiz & Pav. and Cistanthe Spach) is found throughout the Andes.
  • Monocosmia Fenzl is restricted to north Argentina and Chile.
  • Mona O. Nilsson is restricted to Colombia and Venezuela.
  • Lenzia Philippi is an endemic of Chile.
  • Talinaria Brandegee and Talinopsis A.Gray are restricted to Mexico.
  • Talinum Adans. s.l. is found throughout tropical America.
  • Portulaca L. is cosmopolitan.
Diagnostic
Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Calandrinias.l.: sepals persistent, stylefree and capsules indehiscent.
  • Portulaca: inferior or semi inferior ovary; circumscissile capsules.
  • Talinum: sepals deciduous.
Key differences from similar families
  • Portulacaceae are characterized by the presence of the herbs succulent, leaves alternate or apparently opposite, flowers with 2 sepals and 5 petals and fruit capsules. Sometimes they can be confused with Aizoaceae (herbs succulent and fruit capsules) but they have the leaves opposite, less often alternate; flowers with 3-8 tepals and fruit capsules loculicidal, rarely septicidal or circumscissile.
Other important characters
  • Leaves alternate or apparently opposite and simple.
  • Flowers usually with 2 sepals; petals usually 5; locule 1; placentation basal or free -central.
Useful tips for generic identification

See below.

Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Herbs, shrubs or subshrubs, often succulent.
  • Hairs or scales present in leaf-axils.
  • Fruits capsules, dehiscing circumscissilely or by longitudinal valves.
  • Seeds often distinctly sculptured.
General Description
Status
  • Most of genera are endemic to the Neotropics.
  • Portulaca is cosmopolitan.
  • Talinum occurs in America and Africa.
General notes
  • Some species are widespread as weeds.
  • Portulacagrandiflora Hook. is cultivated in numerous colour forms including double flowers.
  • Portulacaoleracea L. was formerly cultivated as a salad and spice plant.
  • Talinumtriangulare (Jacq.) Willd. is cultivated as a salad plant.
Number of genera

Eleven Neotropical genera:

  • Calandrinia (Calandrinia) (10 species)
  • Calandrinia (Cistanthe) (25 species)
  • Calandrinia ( Baitaria) (40 species)
  • Grahamia Gill. (1 species)
  • Lenzia (1 species)
  • Lewisia (2 species)
  • Mona (1 species)
  • Monocosmia (1 species)
  • Montia (12 species)
  • Portulaca (40 species)
  • Talinopsis (1 species)
  • Talinum (14 species)
  • Talinaria (1 species)
Notes on delimitation
  • The Portulacaceae were placed in the Caryophyllales by Cronquist.
  • The family is one of those strongly nested among the other betalain-producing families of the Caryophyllideae and as currently circumscribed is closely allied with the Cactaceae, Basellaceae and Didieraceae.
  • The close alliance of Cactaceae with Portulacaceae has been demonstrated with morphological data (hairs or scales present in leaf-axils) and molecular data.
Literature
Important literature

APG II, 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 141(4): 399-436.

Applequist, W.L. and Wallace, R.S. 2001. Phylogeny of the Portulacaceous Cohort Based on ndhF Sequence Data. Syst. Bot. 26 (2): 406-419.

Behnke, H.D. and Mabry, T.J. 1994. (eds.) Caryophyllales Evolution and Systematics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 334 pp.

Carolin, R.C. 1987. A review of the family Portulacaceae. Aust. J. Bot. 35: 383-412.

Carolin, R.C. 1993. Portulacaceae, pp. 544-555. In: K. Kubitzki, J.B. Rhower and V. Bittrich (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, vol. II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Coelho, A.A.de O.P. and Giulietti, A.M. 2006. Revisão Taxonômica das Portulaca L. (Portulacaceae) no Brasil. Tese de doutorado. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Botânica. Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brasil. 196pp.

Eggli, U. and Hartmann, H.E.K. 2002. Portulacaceae, pp. 370-433. Illustrated Handbook of Succulent Plants. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Eliasson, U. 2004. Portulacaceae, pp. 310-312. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S.V. (eds). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Judd, W.S., Campbell, S.C., Kellogg, E.A. and Stevens, P.F. 1999. Portulacaceae, pp. 248-250. Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland.

Legrand, C.D. 1962. Las Especies Americanas de Portulaca. An. del Mus. de Hist. Nat. de Montevideo 7(3): 9-147.

Nyananyo, B.L. 1990. Tribal and generic relationship in the Portulacaceae (Centrospermae). Feddes Repertorium 101:237-241.

[FWTA]

Portulacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Herbs or undershrubs, often, succulent; leaves alternate or opposite, with scarious or setose stipular appendages
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, hermaphrodite, solitary or variously cymose or racemose
Calyx
Sepals 2, imbricate, free or united at the base
Corolla
Petals 4–6, imbricate, free or connate at the base, soon falling
Androecium
Stamens as many as and opposite the petals or more numerous, free; anthers 2-celled
Gynoecium
Ovary superior or half-inferior, 1-celled with basal placenta; ovules 1 to many; style usually variously divided
Fruits
Fruit a capsule dehiscing by valves or by a transverse split (circumscissile), rarely a nut and indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds globose-reniform; embryo surrounding the copious mealy endosperm

Images

Portulacaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 312. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (as "Portulaceae") (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0