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  1. Family: Rosaceae Juss.
    1. Rubus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Mountains.


    Rosaceae, R. A. Graham. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1960

    Shrubs or scramblers, erect or with long, ± arching sterile shoots (turions) arising from the base and rooting if and when touching the ground
    Stems pruinose or not, armed in tropical East African species with prickles, glabrous varying to villous or tomentose, sometimes abundantly covered with ± reddish bristly hairs or stipitate glands
    Leaves of tropical East African species petiolate, stipulate, simple, trifoliate, imparipinnate, quinnate or septenate
    Flowers perigynous
    Calyx-lobes 5, clasping, spreading or reflexing, connate near the base
    Petals 5, often much reduced or absent
    Stamens many, the filaments commonly glabrous
    Carpels many, each containing two ovules, aggregated into a head
    Fruit consisting of many one-seeded drupes crowded together on an enlarged or elongated receptacle, which may or may not come away when ripe.

    Rosaceae, E. J. Mendes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Prickly shrubs, sometimes glandular (but rarely so in the F.Z. area); stems scrambling, trailing or occasionally prostrate, often becoming thick and woody and hollow with age.
    Leaflets with serrated margins, glabrous to densely hairy. Leaves alternate, petiolate, stipulate, trifoliolate, imparipinnate with 2–3(4) pairs of lateral leaflets, or the uppermost leaves sometimes simple.
    Stipules filiform, linear or obovate, free or adnate to the base of the petiole.
    Flowers sometimes solitary, more usually in dense or open many-flowered inflorescences borne at and near the ends of branches. Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, slightly perigynous.
    Perigynous zone (= calyx-tube) shallowly cup-shaped; calyx segments 5, equal, longer than calyx-tube.
    Petals 5, alternating with sepals, inserted on margin of perigynous cup, conspicuous or inconspicuous, or sometimes absent.
    Stamens ∞, inserted on rim of cup.
    Carpels many (c. 15–100 +), borne on a spongy elongate receptacle, developing into drupelets, the fruit usually sweet and edible.
    Ovules 2, one of them aborting.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Ascension, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, Florida, France, Free State, Føroyar, Gabon, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Solomon Is., South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Chile South, Galápagos, Jamaica, Juan Fernández Is., Mauritius, Rodrigues, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Rubus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Verdcourt, B. [4407], United Kingdom 29932.000
    Verdcourt, B. [4408], United Kingdom 29940.000
    Bullock, A.A. 16103.000
    Coode, M.J.E. [6286], Indonesia 55437.000
    Baretto, G. [s.n.], Hong Kong 73436.000
    Stirton, C.H. [9797], South Africa 49810.000
    Stirton, C.H. [9796], South Africa 50105.000
    Albury [ACW2350], Turkey 54714.000
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132343
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132344


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 492 (1753)


    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Kew Bull. 1938: 177–187.
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux. 13: 267–276 (1935)
    • Gustafsson in Arkiv. för Bot. 26A, 7: 1–68 (1934)
    • —F.T.A. 2: 374

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 218 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 492 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 218 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 492 (1753)


    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.