1. Bignoniaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FZ]

Bignoniaceae, M. A. Diniz. Flora Zambesiaca 8:3. 1988

Habit
Trees and shrubs, sometimes straggling (sometimes climbers, very rarely herbaceous), mostly unarmed, not lactiferous
Stipules
Stipules absent, rarely with pseudostipules (external scales of axillary shoots) well developed, sometimes foliacepus
Leaves
Leaves usually opposite, rarely verticillate or alternate, imparipinnate or bipinnate (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), 1-jugate or simple, sometimes the terminal leaflet replaced by a tendril (not in Flora Zambesiaca area)
Flowers
Flowers zygomorphic, usually showy and in several-flowered terminal or axillary panicles or racemes, sometimes reduced to a fascicle or solitary flower
Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous of various shapes, usually 5-dentate or -lobed or almost truncate or spathaceously split
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous bilabiate or not, with a conspicuous campanulate, infundibuliform or tubular tube and 5-lobed, limb usually imbricate in aestivation
Androecium
Stamens epipetalous, usually 4, didynamous with l posticous staminode, not so often 5 equal stamens, very rarely 2 (not in Flora Zambesiaca area) adnate to the corolla tube, included or exserted; filaments slender, often dilated at the base; anthers 2-thecous, rarely l-thecous (not in Flora Zambesiaca area), usually widely divergent or divaricate, dehiscing longitudinally
Nectaries
Disk hypogynous, nectariferous, annual or tubular, sometimes absent
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, syncarpus 2-carpellary, typically bilocular with axile placentation or unilocular and with parietal placencation (Kigelia); ovules numerous in each locule, anatropous; style 1, terminal with bilamellate stigma
Fruits
Fruit usually capsular, dehiscing by 2 loculicidal or septicidal valves, perpendicular or parallel to the septum, or fleshy and indehiscent (Kigelia)
Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed and winged in the species with capsular fruits, wingless seeds in the species with fleshy fruits, without endosperm; embryo usually flat; cotyledons flattened, rarely folded, foliaceous
[FWTA]

Bignoniaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Trees or shrubs, sometimes scandent, very rarely herbs
Leaves
Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly compound, digitate or pinnate, sometimes the terminal leaflet tendril-like (but not in the native genera of W.Africa); stipules absent, pseudostipules present in some genera
Flowers
Flowers often showy, hermaphrodite, more or less zygomorphic
Calyx
Calyx campanulate, closed or open in bud, truncate or 5-toothed, sometimes spathaceous
Corolla
Corolla with 5 imbricate lobes sometimes forming 2 lips, the upper of 2, the lower of 3 lobes
Androecium
Anthers connivent in pairs or rarely free, 2-celled, opening lengthwise; staminode representing the fifth stamen often short, sometimes absent, often 3 present when only two stamens Stamens alternate with the corolla-lobes, only 4 or 2 perfect
Nectaries
Disk usually present
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 2-celled with 2 placentas in each cell or 1-celled with parietal bifid placentas Style terminal, 2-lipped; ovules numerous
Fruits
Fruit capsular or fleshy and indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds often winged, without endosperm; embryo straight
[FTEA]

Bignoniaceae, Sally Bidgood, Bernard Verdcourt, Kaj Vollesen. Cobaeaceae, Bernard Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

Habit
Trees, shrubs or woody climbers, rarely (not native in Flora area) perennial or shrubby herbs.
Leaves
Leaves opposite, pinnate, bipinnate, digitately 2–3-foliolate or (not native in Flora area) simple, terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril.
Stipules
Stipules absent but pseudostipules often developed and sometimes foliaceous.
Flowers
Flowers large and showy, bisexual, in several to many-flowered terminal or axillary racemes or panicles, or in fascicles, or solitary on dwarf shoots.
Calyx
Calyx gamosepalous, 5-toothed or -lobed to almost truncate or splitting spathaceously.
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, from almost symmetric to strongly bilaterally symmetrical; tube campanulate to infundibuliform or cylindrical; limb 5-lobed.
Stamens
Stamens 4, didynamous or (more rarely) subequal, adnate to the corolla tube, included or exserted, staminode often present.
Anthers
Anthers 2-thecous (rarely 1-thecous), usually divergent, dehiscing longitudinally.
Disc
Disk usually conspicuous, annular or tubular.
Ovary
Ovary superior, 2-carpellate, 2-locular with axile placentation or ( Kigelia) unilocular with parietal placentation.
Ovules
Ovules numerous in each locule.
Style
Style one, terminal.
Stigma
Stigma bilobed.
Fruits
Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by 2 loculicidal or septicidal valves, perpendicular or parallel to the septum, or ( Kigelia) fleshy and indehiscent.
Seeds
Seeds numerous, compressed and winged in species with capsular fruits, wingless in species with indehiscent fruits.

Images

Bignoniaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 137. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0