According to Flora of West Tropical Africa[FWTA]
Papaveraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954
- Annual, biennial, or perennial herbs with coloured juice, often glaucescent and prickly, or rarely shrubs or small trees; root usually a rhizome or tuber
- Leaves exstipulate, alternate, rarely the floral leaves opposite or whorled, much divided, rarely entire
- Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, hypogynous or rarely perigynous, mostly solitary, fugacious and visited by pollen-eating insects
- Perianth of calyx and corolla, or rarely the latter absent
- Sepals 2, rarely 3, green, falling off separately on the opening of the flower or united into a deciduous calyptra
- Petals showy, 4 or 6, rarely 8 or 12, free, imbricate and often crumpled in the bud, deciduous
- Stamens numerous, rarely few, free, with filiform filaments; anthers mostly nearly as long as the filaments, 2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
- Ovary free, of 2 or more united carpels, 1-celled with parietal placentas, or several-celled by the placentas reaching to the middle Ovules numerous, rarely solitary
- Fruit a capsule, opening by valves or pores
- Seeds small, with minute embryo in fleshy or oily endosperm
According to Neotropikey[NTK]
Edwards, S.L. (2014). Neotropical Papaveraceae.
Habit: annual , biennial or perennial herbs or pachycaulous treelets (Bocconia L.) with orange, yellow, white or watery latex . Leaves usually alternate , occasionally subopposite or whorled (in Fumarioideae), petiolate to sessile , simple , entire to ternately divided ; stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal or axillary , paniculate or racemose, or flowers solitary. Flowers bisexual , actinomorphic (in Papaveroideae) or zygomorphic (in Fumarioideae), often nodding when in bud , sometimes erect ; sepals 2-3, caducous , herbaceous or small, petaloid (in Fumarioideae); petals 4-6; ovary superior , syncarpous, two to many carpellate; stamens usually many, free , arising centripetally or 2 (in Fumarioideae). Fruits one- (Bocconia) to usually many-seeded capsules or nuts (Fumaria L.). Seeds usually small.
Distribution in the Neotropics
Worldwide the Papaveraceae comprise 41 genera and ca. 700 species. Of these ca. 13 genera and ca. 58 species occur in the Neotropics. Representation of genera:
- Argemone L.: (ca. 25 species) mostly from North America and North Mexico, but also with a small centre of diversity in Chile with ca. 7 species, 4 of which do not occur in Mexico. Argemone mexicana L. is the most widespread species and has been recorded in most Central and South America countries and the Caribbean, except Colombia and the Galapagos Islands.
- Bocconia L.: (7 species) along the west coast of South America from Northern Mexico to Northern Argentina, and in the West Indies.
- Chelidonium L.: (1 species) Chelidonium majus L. introduced from Eurasia, only recorded from Peru and Argentina.
- Corydalis DC.: (1 species) Corydalis aurea Willd. North America extending south into Mexico.
- Dendromecon Benth.: (1 species) Dendromecon rigida Benth. in Western North America and Baja California in Mexico.
- Eschscholzia Cham. (3 species) mostly North American but 3 species extend south into Mexico. Eschscholzia californica Cham. also occurs in Ecuador, Argentina and Chile.
- Fumaria L.: (6 species) mostly weeds of Mediterranean origin, extending from Mexico along western Central and South America to Argentina and Chile.
- Glaucium Mill.: (2 species) in Argentina, introduced from Atlantic Europe and Central Asia.
- Hunnemannia Sweet: (2 species) Hunnemannia fumariifolia Sweet is endemic to Mexico and H. hintoniorum Sweet is southern North America, Mexico and Honduras.
- Papaver L. (7 species) mostly from the Northern hemisphere, but several species are widely cultivated.
- Platystemon Benth. (1 species) Platystemon californicus Benth. mainly in North America but extends into adjacent Baja California, Mexico.
- Romneya Harv. (1 species) Romneya trichocalyx Eastw. from adjacent California and Baja California, Mexico.
- Stylomecon G. Taylor (1 species) Stylomecon heterophylla (Benth.) G. Taylor from adjacent California and Baja California, Mexico.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
- Herbs, shrubs or pachycaulous trees.
- Plants with exudate.
- Leaves usually alternate or whorled, simple.
- Fruits usually dehiscent capsules or nuts with parietal placentation.
- Berberidaceae: Shrubs or rarely trees, often spiny, often with yellow wood, without latex. Flowers a trimerous, usually less than 10 mm wide, perianth 3-6 whorls; bracteoles caducous, 3, scale-like; stamens 6, nectries at base of stamens; ovary 3-carpellate, 1 locule. Fruit a berry, 1-10 seeds.
- Lamiaceae: (some superficial similarities to Fumarioideae) cross-section of stem is often quadrangular. Leaves usually opposite, decussate, sometimes whorled. Flowers zygomorphic, usually tubular and 5-merous; corolla usually bilabiate; stamens 2-4. Fruits of 1-4 nutlets.
- Ranunculaceae: Herbs or climbers, without latex. Sepals 5-8+, not caducous, often petal-like; petals 0-50, clawed; gynoecium apocarpous. Fruits achenes or follicles, usually aggregated into a head, less frequently berries.
Key to the Neotropical genera of the Papaveraveae A combination of keys in Kadereit (1993) and Lidén (1993), modified to include only the genera that occur in the Neotropics.
1. Flowers zygomorphic. Sepals 2, petaloid... 2
1. Flowers actinomorphic. Sepals 2-3 usually green and herbaceous... 3
2. Fruit a single-seeded nut. Seeds brown. Style caducous. Stigma two big papillae ... Fumaria
2. Fruit a many-seeded dehiscent capsule. Seeds black. Style persistent. Stigmas usually flattened with marginal papillae ... Corydalis
3. Corolla absent. Fruit a single-seeded capsule. Usually pachycaulous trees, sometimes shrubs ... Bocconia
3. Corolla present. Fruit a many-seeded dehiscent capsule. Usually herbs, sometimes shrubs ... 4
4. Ovary bicarpellate ... 5
4. Ovary with 3-25 carpels ... 9
5. Mature capsules with 10 conspicuous longitudinal veins. Fruit dehisces explosively. Stigmas sessile. Hairs unicellular, when present ... 6
5. Mature capsules without 10 conspicuous longitudinal veins. Fruit dehiscence never explosive. Stigmas on a short style. Hairs multicellular, when present ... 8
6. Evergreen woody shrubs. Leaves undivided ... Dendromecon
6. Annual or perennial herbs. Leaves many-lobed... 7
7. Sepals united ... Eschscholzia
7. Sepals free... Hunnemannia
8. Inflorescence an umbel, flowers supported by small entire bracts ... Chelidonium
8. Flowers solitary ... Glaucium
9. Leaves linear, margin entire. Fruits breaking into 1-seeded mericarps. Carpel tips and stigmas free... Platystemon
9. Leaves pinnately incised or divided. Fruits opening by basipetal valves. Carpel tips united, stigmas of neighbouring carpels confluent ... 10
10. Style distinct. Capsular fruit, the base of the style flattened into a disk at the top of the capsule... Stylomecon
10. Stigmas sessile or on a short style. Capsular fruit without a style or if they have a style, then not flattening into a disk ... 11
11. Sepals with distinct stiff, apical horns. Seeds orbicular. Stigmas usually on a short style... Argemone
11. Sepals without distinct stiff, apical horns. Seeds irregularly angular to ellipsoid or reniform. Stigmas sessile... 12
12. Stigmas linear, fused into a flat to conical disc, sometimes deeply furrowed between the individual stigma s. Ovary clavate to globose. Fruits opening by basipetal pores or short valves below the disc. Seeds reniform... PapaverNotable genera and distinguishing features
12. Stigmas not fused into a disc. Placentae fused into a central column. Ovary ovoid. Fruits opening by basipetal valves up to ½ the length of the fruit. Seeds irregularly angular or ellipsoid... Romneya
- Argemone: Sepals with stiff conspicuous apical horns. (Common name 'Horned Poppy').
- Bocconia: Pachycaulous trees 2-6 m tall. Calyx of 2 sepals, corolla absent. Fruit single-seeded.
- Eschscholzia: Sepals fused. Gynoecium bicarpellate. Fruits with 10 conspicuous longitudinal ribs, dehiscing explosively.
- Fumaria: Glabrous. Flowers zygomorphic. Stigma with two large papillae. Fruit a single-seeded nut.
- Hunnemannia: Sepals free. Gynoecium bicarpellate. Fruits with 10 conspicuous longitudinal ribs, dehiscing explosively.
- Papaver: Stigmas sessile, linear, arranged into a conical or flat disc. Fruit a capsule dehiscing from pores or short valves just below the stigmatic disc.
- General Description
- The exudates of Papaver somniferum L. and P. bracteatum Lindl. to a lesser extent, are used to make pharmaceuticals such as codeine, opium, morphine and heroine.
- Many other species of Papaveraceae are used in herbal medicine and considered cure alls, treating wide ranging ailments from removing warts to making sedatives, expectorants or purgatives.
- The latex of both Argemone and Bocconia can be used as dyes.
- Papaveraceae are widely cultivated as ornamentals.
- Papaveraceae is mainly a northern temperate family. Some species such as Eschscholzia californica Cham. (Californian Poppy) have been introduced as ornamentals to many areas of the Neotropics. However some genera such as Hunnemannia and Argemone are native. Hunnemannia has one species endemic to eastern Mexico and the other with a slightly wider distribution spreading into North America and south into Honduras.
- In the APG III classification system (Stevens, 2001 onwards) the three families Papaveraceae, Fumariaceae and Pteridophyllaceae (monotypic and endemic to Japan) that used to comprise the order Papaverales (Cronquist 1981; Dahlgren 1989) are now all included within Papaveraceae. Additionally, in the APG III system Papaverales are not considered to be an order, and the Papaveraceae are placed in the order Ranunculales (Steven 2001 onwards).
- 41 genera (see Distribution in the Neotropics above).
Grey-Wilson, C. 2000. Poppies: The Poppy Family in the Wild and in Cultivation. B.T. Batsford, London.
Kadereit, J.W. 1993. Papaveraceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J.G. & Bittrich, V. (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular plants vol. II, pp. 494-506. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lidén, M. 1993. Fumariaceae. In: Kubitzki, K., Rohwer, J.G. & Bittrich, V. (eds.). The Families and Genera of Vascular plants vol. II, pp. 310-318. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Lidén, M. 1995. Papaveraceae. In: G. Harling & L. Anderson (eds) Flora of Ecuador 69. 1-13. Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg.
Stein, B.A. 2001. Papaveraceae. In: Stevens, W.D., Ulloa Ulloa, C., Pool, A., Montiel, O.M. (eds.). Flora de Nicaragua vol. 85(III), pp. 1911-1913.Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
Stevens, P. F. 2001 onwards. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/.
Thornton-Wood, S.P. 2011 Papaveraceae. Flora Mesoamericana, vol. 2(1). http://www.tropicos.org/docs/meso/papaveraceae.pdf
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Papaveraceae, G. L. Lucas (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962
- Annual, biennial or perennial herbs, rarely shrubs, and only 1 tree genus (Bocconia L.), with white, yellow or orange coloured latex
- Leaves alternate or rarely whorled, exstipulate, entire to much divided (palmately, pinnately etc.)
- Flowers usually solitary, conspicuous and large, bisexual, regular, hypogynous
- Sepals 2–3, imbricate, usually free or calyptrate, caducous
- Petals (4–)6(–12), more rarely absent, imbricate, arranged in l–2(–3) whorls, crumpled in bud
- Stamens free, usually numerous, spirally arranged, rarely 4 and cyclic ; anthers 2-celled with longitudinal dehiscence
- Stigmas opposite or alternate with placentas Ovary superior, usually unilocular, more rarely with 2 to several locules ; ovules numerous ; placentation parietal
- Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by valves or pores, rarely indehiscent
- Seeds small, numerous, with minute embryo and copious, usually oily, endosperm
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Papaveraceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960
- Annual, biennial or perennial herbs (rarely shrubby), usually with white or yellowish latex, with alternate, exstipulate leaves
- Flowers actinomorphic, bisexual, usually hypogynous
- Sepals 2–3, imbricate, free or calyptrate, caducous
- Petals 4–6 (12) free, imbricate, fugacious
- Stamens usually numerous
- Ovary syncarpous, 1-locular with parietal placentas (rarely multilocular or spuriously 2-locular) and numerous ovules
- Fruit usually a capsule dehiscing by valves or pores
- Seeds small, numerous; endosperm oily
According to Flora Zambesiaca under the synonym Fumariaceae[FZ]
Fumariaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960
- Herbs, sometimes climbing, with alternate or radical, exstipulate, usually finely divided leaves
- Flowers in racemes or spikes, rarely solitary, usually zygomorphic, bisexual, hypogynous
- Sepals 2 (rarely 0), caducous
- Petals 4 (6 or more), one or both of the outer ones spurred or saccate, inner ones often cohering at the apex
- Stamens 6, perhaps to be regarded as 2 tripartite elements, the central branch of each bearing a 2-thecous anther and each lateral branch a 1-thecous anther
- Ovary 1-locular, usually with 2 parietal placentas, each with 1–? anatropous ovules
- Fruit a capsule or nutlet
- Seeds with copious endosperm
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Fumariaceae[FTEA]
Fumariaceae, G. L Lucas (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962
- Annual or perennial herbs, erect, straggling or climbing ; sap watery
- Leaves radical or alternate or more rarely subopposite, usually much dissected, sometimes ending in a branched tendril
- Stipules absent
- Flowers either in terminal or leaf-opposed racemes, sometimes spicate, rarely solitary, bisexual, usually irregular
- Sepals 2, small, often caducous
- Petals 4(–6 or more), if former then imbricate in 2 pairs and often connate at base, with 1 or both the outer pair spurred ; inner pair often united at their apex
- Stamens either 4 free and opposite the petals, or 6 united into two groups of 3 by wing-like appendages of the filament to give a thin acuminate membrane surmounted by the 3 anthers
- Ovules 1-many Ovary unilocular, superior, with 2 parietal placentas ; style filiform ; stigma lobed or entire
- Fruit a nutlet or capsule
- Seeds 1–many
- Adlumia Raf. ex DC.
- Arctomecon Torr. & Frém.
- Argemone L.
- Bocconia Plum. ex L.
- Canbya Parry ex A.Gray
- Capnoides Tourn. ex Adans.
- Cathcartia Hook.f.
- Ceratocapnos Durieu
- Chelidonium L.
- Corydalis DC.
- Cryptocapnos Rech.f.
- Cysticapnos Mill.
- Dactylicapnos Wall.
- Dendromecon Benth.
- Dicentra Barkh. ex Bernh.
- Dicranostigma Hook.f. & Thomson
- Discocapnos Cham. & Schltdl.
- Ehrendorferia Fukuhara & Lidén
- Eomecon Hance
- Eschscholzia Cham.
- Fumaria Tourn. ex L.
- Fumariola Korsh.
- Glaucium Mill.
- Hunnemannia Sweet
- Hylomecon Maxim.
- Hypecoum Tourn. ex L.
- Ichtyoselmis Lidén & T.Fukuhara
- Lamprocapnos Endl.
- Macleaya R.Br.
- Meconella Nutt.
- Meconopsis Vig.
- Papaver L.
- Platycapnos (DC.) Bernh.
- Platystemon Benth.
- Platystigma Benth.
- Pseudofumaria Medik.
- Pteridophyllum Siebold & Zucc.
- Roborowskia Batalin
- Romneya Harv.
- Rupicapnos Pomel
- Sanguinaria Dill. ex L.
- Sarcocapnos DC.
- Stylophorum Nutt.
- Trigonocapnos Schltr.
First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 235. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.