1. Zygophyllaceae R.Br.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Zygophyllaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Habit
Shrubs or herbs woody at the base, rarely trees; branches often jointed at the nodes
Leaves
Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, 2-foliolate or pinnate, rarely 3-foliolate, not gland-dotted; stipules present, persistent, often spinescent
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic
Calyx
Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or rarely connate at the base, imbricate, rarely valvate
Corolla
Petals 4–5, rarely absent, hypogynous, free, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate
Nectaries
Disk mostly present
Androecium
Stamens the same number to three times the number of the petals, often unequal in length; filaments free, often with a scale inside; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile or rarely stipitate, usually 4–5-celled; cells rarely transversely locellate; style simple, short, or stigmas sessile; ovules 2 or more in each cell, axile
Fruits
Fruits various
Seeds
Seeds mostly with some endosperm; embryo as long as the seed, straight or slightly curved
[FTEA]

Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Habit
Perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely annuals; branches opposite, often jointed at the nodes
Leaves
Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly pinnately compound, occasionally simple; leaflets sessile, opposite, epunctate, generally unequal, flat or fleshy and sometimes terete; stipules 2, persistent, leathery, hairy or spinescent
Flowers
Flowers solitary, paired or in axillary cymes, bisexual, regular or rarely zygomorphic; peduncle ebracteate
Calyx
Sepals usually (4-)5, free or rarely basally connate, persistent or deciduous
Corolla
Petals as many as the sepals, free, clawed, twisted in bud
Androecium
Stamens 1-2 as many as the petals in 1-2 whorls, often unequal, outer ones usually opposite the petals, hypogynous; filaments broadened at the base, free, naked or with basal scales; anthers introrse, 2-thecous
Gynoecium
Ovary on a glandular or annular disc, superior, 4-5-locular, with axile placentation; ovules 2-many on each placenta, pendulous; style 1, sometimes very short, rarely absent; stigma 1, simple, variously shaped
Fruits
Fruit capsular or fleshy, sometimes splitting into 5 indehiscent mericarps
Seeds
Seed with or without albuminous endosperm; embryo straight or curved
[FZ]

Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with a woody base) or shrublets or shrubs, with simple hairs
Leaves
Leaves usually opposite, 2- (rarely 1- or 3-) foliolate or pan-pinnate; leaflets entire
Stipules
Stipules present, persistent
Flowers
Flowers solitary or rarely in cymes, actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual, hypogynous
Calyx
Sepals (4) 5, free or connate at the very base, persistent or deciduous, usually imbricate
Corolla
Petals (4) 5, imbricate, rarely contorted or valvate, free, sessile or unguiculate; disk usually present, sometimes provided with extra- and intrastaminal glands
Androecium
Stamens obdiplostemonous, usually twice as many as the petals, with free filaments and 2-thecous introrse anthers
Gynoecium
Ovary usually sessile, syncarpous, 4–5-locular with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style usually simple, terete or angular or furrowed
Fruits
Fruit a capsule or at length breaking up into indehiscent cocci, sometimes winged or provided with tubercles or spines
Seeds
Seeds 1 or more in each loculus; embryo straight or curved; endosperm present (often very scanty) or absent
[FZ]

Balanitaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

Habit
Small trees or shrubs, usually spiny; spines simple or forked
Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, 2-foliolate, petiolate or subsessile; leaflets coriaceous or subsucculent, entire
Flowers
Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, usually scented
Calyx
Sepals 5, free, imbricate, usually caducous
Corolla
Petals 5, imbricate, free, glabrous or variously hairy
Androecium
Stamens 10; anthers 2-thecous and dorsifixed; filaments free, filiform, somewhat broadened towards the base, without appendages
Nectaries
Disk succulent, longitudinally 10-grooved, conical or invertedly cup-shaped or cupular, surrounding the ovary
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, semi-globose, 5-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each loculus
Fruits
Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; endocarp often woody; mesocarp spongy or fibrous; exocarp crustaceous or coriaceous, usually oily
Seeds
Seed without endosperm; cotyledons plano-convex, thick
[FTEA]

Balanitaceae, Martin J.S. Sands. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2003

Habit
Deciduous or semi-evergreen spiny trees or shrubs
Spines
Spines simple or branching, derived from the distal of 2 or more buds, axillary or at a varying supra-axillary interval1
Leaves
Leaves alternate or spirally arranged, either reduced to simple, minute and usually triangular, mostly caducous, exstipulate scale-leaves, or bifoliolate, sessile or petiolate, with a linear or triangular, sometimes persistent, terminal foliole2; stipules caducous or persistent, triangular to filiform, entire
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, sepals and petals free, bisexual, 4–5-merous, rarely solitary, usually in a 2–many-flowered, bracteate, mostly cymose and subumbellate to fasciculate inflorescence, borne at spineless or spiniferous nodes on the stem or spines
Calyx
Sepals imbricate, often reflexed and caducous, one or both margins glabrous, silky-hairy within
Corolla
Petals spreading, sometimes reflexed, usually irregular, bent or contorted at the apex, yellow to green, glabrous outside, glabrous or hairy within
Androecium
Stamens 8–10, free, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed, 2-thecous, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
Nectaries
Disc intrastaminal, annular, succulent, corrugated and minutely papillose, surrounding the base of the ovary
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, hemispherical to ovoid, 4–5-locular, each locule containing 1 pendulous ovule; style simple, terminal, glabrous, stigma small and simple
Fruits
Fruit a 1-seeded drupe on a thickened pedicel; exocarp leathery or brittle, mesocarp variable from pulpy to fibrous and oily, endocarp hard, often woody, splitting distally at germination; seed with plano-convex cotyledons

Images

Zygophyllaceae R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 545. 1814 [19 Jul 1814] (as "Zygophylleae") (1814)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0