According to Flora of West Tropical Africa[FWTA]
Zygophyllaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958
- Shrubs or herbs woody at the base, rarely trees; branches often jointed at the nodes
- Leaves opposite or alternate, simple, 2-foliolate or pinnate, rarely 3-foliolate, not gland-dotted; stipules present, persistent, often spinescent
- Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic or zygomorphic
- Sepals 5, rarely 4, free or rarely connate at the base, imbricate, rarely valvate
- Petals 4–5, rarely absent, hypogynous, free, imbricate or contorted, rarely valvate
- Disk mostly present
- Stamens the same number to three times the number of the petals, often unequal in length; filaments free, often with a scale inside; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
- Ovary superior, sessile or rarely stipitate, usually 4–5-celled; cells rarely transversely locellate; style simple, short, or stigmas sessile; ovules 2 or more in each cell, axile
- Fruits various
- Seeds mostly with some endosperm; embryo as long as the seed, straight or slightly curved
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Zygophyllaceae, M. Nabil El Hadidi (Faculty of Science, Cairo University). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985
- Perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely annuals; branches opposite, often jointed at the nodes
- Leaves opposite, rarely alternate, mostly pinnately compound, occasionally simple; leaflets sessile, opposite, epunctate, generally unequal, flat or fleshy and sometimes terete; stipules 2, persistent, leathery, hairy or spinescent
- Flowers solitary, paired or in axillary cymes, bisexual, regular or rarely zygomorphic; peduncle ebracteate
- Sepals usually (4-)5, free or rarely basally connate, persistent or deciduous
- Petals as many as the sepals, free, clawed, twisted in bud
- Stamens 1-2 as many as the petals in 1-2 whorls, often unequal, outer ones usually opposite the petals, hypogynous; filaments broadened at the base, free, naked or with basal scales; anthers introrse, 2-thecous
- Ovary on a glandular or annular disc, superior, 4-5-locular, with axile placentation; ovules 2-many on each placenta, pendulous; style 1, sometimes very short, rarely absent; stigma 1, simple, variously shaped
- Fruit capsular or fleshy, sometimes splitting into 5 indehiscent mericarps
- Seed with or without albuminous endosperm; embryo straight or curved
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Zygophyllaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963
- Annual or perennial herbs (sometimes with a woody base) or shrublets or shrubs, with simple hairs
- Leaves usually opposite, 2- (rarely 1- or 3-) foliolate or pan-pinnate; leaflets entire
- Stipules present, persistent
- Flowers solitary or rarely in cymes, actinomorphic, bisexual or rarely unisexual, hypogynous
- Sepals (4) 5, free or connate at the very base, persistent or deciduous, usually imbricate
- Petals (4) 5, imbricate, rarely contorted or valvate, free, sessile or unguiculate; disk usually present, sometimes provided with extra- and intrastaminal glands
- Stamens obdiplostemonous, usually twice as many as the petals, with free filaments and 2-thecous introrse anthers
- Ovary usually sessile, syncarpous, 4–5-locular with 2 or more pendulous ovules in each loculus; style usually simple, terete or angular or furrowed
- Fruit a capsule or at length breaking up into indehiscent cocci, sometimes winged or provided with tubercles or spines
- Seeds 1 or more in each loculus; embryo straight or curved; endosperm present (often very scanty) or absent
According to Flora Zambesiaca under the synonym Balanitaceae[FZ]
Balanitaceae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963
- Small trees or shrubs, usually spiny; spines simple or forked
- Leaves spirally arranged, 2-foliolate, petiolate or subsessile; leaflets coriaceous or subsucculent, entire
- Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic, usually scented
- Sepals 5, free, imbricate, usually caducous
- Petals 5, imbricate, free, glabrous or variously hairy
- Stamens 10; anthers 2-thecous and dorsifixed; filaments free, filiform, somewhat broadened towards the base, without appendages
- Disk succulent, longitudinally 10-grooved, conical or invertedly cup-shaped or cupular, surrounding the ovary
- Ovary superior, semi-globose, 5-locular with 1 pendulous ovule in each loculus
- Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; endocarp often woody; mesocarp spongy or fibrous; exocarp crustaceous or coriaceous, usually oily
- Seed without endosperm; cotyledons plano-convex, thick
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Balanitaceae[FTEA]
Balanitaceae, Martin J.S. Sands. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2003
- Deciduous or semi-evergreen spiny trees or shrubs
- Spines simple or branching, derived from the distal of 2 or more buds, axillary or at a varying supra-axillary interval1
- Leaves alternate or spirally arranged, either reduced to simple, minute and usually triangular, mostly caducous, exstipulate scale-leaves, or bifoliolate, sessile or petiolate, with a linear or triangular, sometimes persistent, terminal foliole2; stipules caducous or persistent, triangular to filiform, entire
- Flowers actinomorphic, sepals and petals free, bisexual, 4–5-merous, rarely solitary, usually in a 2–many-flowered, bracteate, mostly cymose and subumbellate to fasciculate inflorescence, borne at spineless or spiniferous nodes on the stem or spines
- Sepals imbricate, often reflexed and caducous, one or both margins glabrous, silky-hairy within
- Petals spreading, sometimes reflexed, usually irregular, bent or contorted at the apex, yellow to green, glabrous outside, glabrous or hairy within
- Stamens 8–10, free, glabrous; anthers dorsifixed, 2-thecous, dehiscing by longitudinal slits
- Disc intrastaminal, annular, succulent, corrugated and minutely papillose, surrounding the base of the ovary
- Ovary superior, hemispherical to ovoid, 4–5-locular, each locule containing 1 pendulous ovule; style simple, terminal, glabrous, stigma small and simple
- Fruit a 1-seeded drupe on a thickened pedicel; exocarp leathery or brittle, mesocarp variable from pulpy to fibrous and oily, endocarp hard, often woody, splitting distally at germination; seed with plano-convex cotyledons
- Balanites Delile
- Bulnesia Gay
- Guaiacum Plum. ex L.
- Kallstroemia Scop.
- Kelleronia Schinz
- Larrea Cav.
- Melocarpum (Engl.) Beier & Thulin
- Metharme Phil. ex Engl.
- Miltianthus Bunge
- Morkillia Rose & J.H.Painter
- Neoluederitzia Schinz
- Pintoa Gay
- Plectrocarpa Gillies ex Hook. & Arn.
- Porlieria Ruiz & Pav.
- Roepera A.Juss.
- Seetzenia R.Br.
- Sericodes A.Gray
- Sisyndite E.Mey. ex Sond.
- Tribulopis R.Br.
- Tribulus L.
- Viscainoa Greene
- Zygophyllum L.
First published in Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 545. 1814 [19 Jul 1814] (as "Zygophylleae") (1814)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0