1. Convolvulaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

Habit
Herbs, shrubs or leafless parasites, rarely small trees, frequently twining or prostrate, less often erect
Leaves
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, usually simple, entire or often lobed
Flowers
Flowers usually bracteate, axillary or terminal, solitary or in various inflorescences, almost always regular, hermaphrodite save in a very few small genera
Calyx
Sepals 4–5, imbricate, free or joined at the base, often accrescent
Corolla
Corolla sympetalous, variable but often funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, entire or 4–5-lobed, induplicate-valvate or contorted
Androecium
Stamens (3–)4–5, inserted in the corolla-tube, alternating with the lobes; pollen smooth or spinulose
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, entire or 2–4-lobed, of 2–3 carpels, 1–4 (very rarely 3 or 5)-locular Styles 1–2(–3), simple and terminal; stigmas 1–4, variously shaped
Fruits
Fruit usually dry and capsular, rarely a berry or nut-like
Seeds
Seeds 1–4 (rarely 6 or 10), with endosperm
Distribution
This is an extremely natural family and the genera are therefore difficult to limit satisfactorily. I have followed the classification used by van Ooststroom (Flora Malesiana, ser. 1, 4 (4) : 388–512 (1953)) with but few changes. It seems best to do this rather than to attempt to classify the family on different lines from a knowledge of the African genera alone. The original arrangement which is due to Hans Hallier has the drawback of using a pollen-character. In the key which follows, the obligatory use of this character, which is not really difficult to observe, has been left until near the end. It is helpful to remember that genera 1–15 have smooth pollen and the rest have spinous pollen
[FWTA]

Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

Habit
Herbaceous or woody plants, often climbing, juice usually milky
Leaves
Leaves alternate, simple; stipules absent
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic; bracts often forming an involucre
Calyx
Sepals usually free, imbricate, persistent
Corolla
Corolla gamopetalous, mostly funnel-shaped, lobes 5, contorted
Androecium
Stamens 5, inserted towards the base of the corolla-tube and alternate with the lobes; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovary often surrounded by a disk, 1-4-celled; ovules solitary or paired, erect; style terminal
Fruits
Fruit a capsule or fleshy
Seeds
Cotyledons folded or crumpled Seeds sometimes hairy, with rather scanty endosperm and more or less curved embryo
[NTK]

Austin, D.F. (2009). Neotropical Convolvulaceae.

Morphology
Description

Twining herbs, lianas, subshrubs, shrubs, or trees, some species with milky sap; rootstocks sometimes large and tuberous, otherwise fibrous . Leaves usually simple , entire to pinnately lobed or pectinate, some species palmately compound , alternate , stipules absent. Inflorescences solitary in leaf axils or in racemose or paniculate dichasia, some dichasial basally and monochasial above. Flowers small and inconspicuous to large and showy, but usually wilting quickly after opening (mostly within 4-5 hrs), perfect or unisexual (some African species), actinomorphic or slightly irregular; sepals 5, distinct, imbricate , equal or unequal, persistent , occasionally accrescent ; corollas tubular, funnelform, campanulate , urceolate, or salverform, 5- lobed , 5-toothed or ± entire , with plicae (areas folded in bud ) and interplicae (unfolded in bud ), usually induplicate and often also convolute in bud ; nectary disc annular or cup-shaped, sometimes 5- lobed , occasionally absent; stamens 5, distinct; filaments inserted on corolla tube base alternate with corolla lobes; anthers dithecal, usually linear or oblong , extrorse or introrse; ovary superior , 2-4(-6)-carpellate, usually with as many cells, placentation basal or basal - axile , ovules 2(4-6) per cell, or ovary 1-celled and ovules 4, these erect , anatropous; style 1, filiform , simple or bifid, or sometimes with 2 distinct styles; stigmas capitate or bilobed, or, when stigmas 2, then linear , ellipsoid , or globose . Fruits capsular, dehiscent by valves, transversely or irregularly, or indehiscent and baccate or nut -like; seeds 1-4(6), often fewer than ovules, glabrous or pubescent , endosperm absent or scanty, cartilaginous , cotyledons usually foliaceous .

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Aniseia Choisy: S. Florida (adventive) to southern South America (southern Mexico, Mesoamerica, Cuba, Jamaica, Hispanola to Tobago, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyanas, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay).
  • Argyreia Lour.: (native to Old World; widely cultivated in Americas, not naturalized).
  • Bonamia Thouars:  (Mexico to Brazil, Peru).
  • Calycobolus Willd. ex Roem. & Schult.:  (Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Peru, Bolivia, Brazil).
  • Convolvulus L.: (Mexico, Mesoamérica, Venezuela, Ecuador, Brasil, Antilles, south to Chile and Uruguay).
  • Cressa L.: (Utah to Arizona & New Mexico, Baja California to San Luis Potosí, Mesoamérica, Ecuador, Perú, Chile, Argentina).
  • Dichondra Forst. & Forst. f.:  (California, Arizona, New Mexico, Sonora & Chihuahua to Oaxaca, Mesoamérica, Antilles, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina).
  • Dicranostyles Benth.:  (Costa Rica to Brazil and Bolivia).
  • Evolvulus L.: (southern United States south to Brazil and Bolivia).
  • Hewittia Wight & Arn.:  (Jamaica, introduced).
  • Ipomoea L.: (southern United States to Chile, Uruguay).
  • Iseia O'Donell:  (Mesoamérica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Perú, Brasil, Paraguay, Argentina, Trinidad, Tobago).
  • Itzaea Standl. & Steyerm.: (Veracruz, Mexico to Nicaragua).
  • Jacquemontia Choisy:  (Arizona, Florida, Baja California Sur & Sonora to Veracruz, Oaxaca, Mesoamérica, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Brasil, Argentina).
  • Lysiostyles Benth.:  (Guyanas, Brazil).
  • Maripa Aubl.: (Chiapas, Mexico south to Peru and Brazil).
  • Merremia Dennst. ex Endl.:  (southern United States, Mesoamérica; Colombia, Venezuela, Guayanas, Ecuador, Perú, Brasil, Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, Antillas).
  • Odonellia K.R.Robertson:  (Tamaulipas, Oaxaca, Veracruz, Mexico through Mesoamérica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Perú).
  • Operculina Silva Manso: (Mexico through Mesoamérica, south to Brazil).
  • Petrogenia I.M.Johnst.(Mexico).
  • Porana Burm.f. (Mexico).
  • Poranopsis Roberty (cultivated and naturalized from Asia).
  • Stictocardia Hallier f. (native to Old World; widely cultivated in Americas, naturalized in Florida, the Caribbean, South America).
  • Tetralocularia O'Donell (Bolivia, Colombia, Brazil, French Guiana, Suriname);
  • Turbina Raf. (naturalized in Florida and Texas; Mexico, Mesoamérica, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Perú, Brasil, Bolivia, Paraguay).
  • Xenostegia D.F.Austin & Staples (Puerto Rico, naturalized).
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Alternate leaves.
  • Stipules absent.
  • Milky sap or latex usually present (sometimes inconspicuous).
  • Chorisepalous.
  • Actinomorphic.
  • Sympetalous.
  • Plaited corolla,
  • Filaments adnate to corolla.
  • Ovarysuperior.
  • Erectsessile ovules with basal to axile placentation.
  • Folded cotyledons.
  • Bicollateral vascular strands are present.
Key differences from similar families

Solanaceae similar, but has:

  • Synsepalous calyx.
  • Sometimes zygomorphic corollas.
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Fruits (dehiscent, indehiscent, number of valves).
  • Trichomes (stellate in many Jacquemontia and a few Ipomoea ).
  • Pollen (colpate, polycolpate, porate; surface spinulose [visible with 10x magnification] or microspinulose [visible only in light or SEM microscopy]).
Notable genera and distinguishing features
  • Aniseia & Calycobolus: Two outer sepals larger than inner three; fruits dehiscent in Aniseia, indehiscent in Calycobolus.
  • Convolvulus: Stigmas linear.
  • Cressa: Subshrub, haline sites, white flowers.
  • Dichondra:  Creeping stems; leaves kidney-shaped; flowers inconspicuous.
  • Evolvulus: 2 separate styles each with 2 clavate stigmas.
  • Jacquemontia: Stigmas oblong-flattened; fruits with >8 valves or valve segments; often with stellate trichomes.
  • Merremia & Operculina: Fruits capsular in Merremia, operculate in Operculina; pollen smooth, 3-multiple colpate.
  • Ipomoea: Pollen spinulose (visible with 10x magnification), pantoporate (requires microscope).
  • Turbina: Fruits chartaceous, indehiscent, typically 1-seeded.
General Description
Number of genera
  • 26 genera (see Distribution above).
Status

See distribution

Literature
Important literature

Austin, D. F. and Zosimo Huaman (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45:3-38

Austin, D. F. and Rosangela Simão Bianchini (1998). Additions and corrections in American Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 47:833-838.

Austin, D. F. (2004). Convolvulaceae Pp. 113-115 In: Smith, N. P., S. A. Mori, Andrew Henderson, Dennis Wm. Stevenson, and Scott V. Heald. (2004). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Princeton, NJ, New York Botanical Garden and Princeton University Press. [including references to revisions of several genera and groups]

Hallier, H. (1893). Versuch einer natürlichen Gliederung der Convolulaceen auf morphologischer und anatomischer Grundlage. Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte un Pflanzengeographie 16: 453-591.

McDonald, J. A. (1991). Origin and diversity of Mexican Convolvulaceae. Anales del Instituto de Biológia de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Série Botánica 62(1): 65-82.

McDonald, J. A. and T. J. Mabry (1992). Phylogenetic systematics of New World Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) based on chloroplast DNA restriction site variation. Plant Systematics and Evolution 180: 243-259.

Stefanovic, Sasa, D. F. Austin, and Richard G. Olmstead. (2003). Classification of Convolvulaceae: A phylogenetic approach. Systematic Botany 28(4)91-806.

[FZ]

Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Habit
Herbs or shrubs, rarely small trees, frequently twining or prostrate, less often erect, provided with diverse sorts of glandular and eglandular hairs, besides simple, 2-armed or stellate hairs
Leaves
Leaves alternate, exstipulate, usually simple, entire or toothed to often lobed
Flowers
Flowers often large and showy, usually bracteate, axillary or terminal, solitary or in various inflorescences, almost always regular, bisexual save in a very few small genera, 5-merous as to the calyx, corolla and androecium (4-merous in Hildebrandtia)
Calyx
Sepals imbricate, sometimes unequal, generally free or connate at the base, often accrescent
Corolla
Corolla sympetalous, variable but often funnel-shaped or salver-shaped, entire or 4–5-lobed, induplicate-valvate or contorted
Androecium
Stamens as many as and alternate with lobes or connate members of the corolla, inserted in the corolla tube; filaments often unequal; anthers tetrasporangiate or dithecal, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen smooth or spinulose
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, entire or 2–4-lobed, of 2(3–5) carpels united, (1) 4 (3–5)-locular, usually with an annular nectary-disk around the base; styles 1–2 (3) mostly terminal; stigmas 1–4 variously shaped; ovules 2 per carpel (rarely many in Humbertia), basal or basal-axile, erect, anatropous
Fruits
Fruit usually dry, a loculicidal (or sometimes irregularly dehiscent) capsule, or less often indehiscent and baccate or nut-like
Seeds
Seeds 1–4 (rarely 6 or 10) with endosperm; embryo large, straight or curved, with 2 plicate, often bifid cotyledons, embedded in a hard, often cartilaginous endosperm
[FZ]

Cuscutaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

Habit
Twining parasitic, usually glabrous herbs, almost without chlorophyl, annual or rarely perennial in the tissues of the host, attached by means of numerous haustoria; free-living for a brief period after germination until attachment to the host is accomplished; hairs, when present, mostly unicellular or bicellular, not glandular
Stem
Stems usually terete and slender to filiform, often whitish, yellowish or reddish; the vascular system somewhat reduced, without internal phloem, and vessel segments with simple perforations
Leaves
Leaves reduced to minute scales or absent
Inflorescences
Inflorescences lax or compact cymose clusters
Flowers
Flowers small, sessile or shortly pedicelled, 5-merous or less often 4-merous, rarely 3-merous, as to the calyx, corolla and androecium
Calyx
Calyx lobed or parted with sepals united at the base, each one with a single vascular trace
Corolla
Corolla usually white or pink, lobed; lobes united into a tube at the base, shorter or longer than the tube, often patent or reflexed; the tube inside usually with a whorl of thin fringed scales opposite to and below the stamens
Androecium
Stamens inserted at the throat and alternating with the corolla-lobes; filaments often short; anthers often broadly elliptic, tetrasporangiate and dithecal, opening by longitudinal slits; pollen smooth
Gynoecium
Ovary 2 (3)-locular, each loculus with 2 ovules, erect on basal axile (or intruded-parietal) placentas, anatropous; base of the ovary at least sometimes nectariferous; styles 2, terminal, distinct or connate into a single column; stigmas capitate or linear
Fruits
Fruit an ovoid or subglobose capsule, opening irregularly, or circumscissile near the base, or indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds 4 or less, subglobose or angular, often granular, almost invariably glabrous; embryo scarcely differentiated, straight, filiform, sometimes enlarged at one end; cotyledons absent or rudimentary
[NTK]

Every, J.L.R. (2010). Neotropical Cuscutaceae.

Morphology
Description

Herbaceous , stem -twining parasitic vines; root system very short lived; stem filiform , yellow, red or orange in colour. Leaves reduced, spirally arranged, simple , sessile , scale-like, glabrous , mostly achlorophyllous; extra-floral nectaries sometimes present. Inflorescence axillary , cymose,  spicate or in heads. Flowers regularly symmetrical, bisexual , bracteate or not, disk present; sepals 3-5, imbricate , persistent ; petals 3-5, imbricate , gamopetalous; corona fimbriate , alternating with stamens; stamens 5(-10), adnate to and alternating with the petals; anthers adnately fixed or +/- versatile, dehiscing by full-length longitudinal slits; ovary superior , syncarpous, carpels 2, locules (1-)2(-4), styles 1-3, separate to connate . Fruit a long-beaked capsule (rarely indehiscent ). Seeds 1-6, embryo coiled, acotyledonous.

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Can be found throughout the Neotropics growing in mesophytic habitats - particularly along streams and in areas associated with anthropogenic ecosystems. Occasionally found in halophytic areas (Cuscuta salina Engelmann).
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Brightly coloured stem -twining parasite.
  • Terrestrial root system short-lived.
  • Inflorescenceaxillary.
  • Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic.
  • Perianth parts imbricate.
  • Superiorovary.
  • Seedlings acotyledonous.
Key differences from similar families
  • Differs from Convolvulaceae in that Cuscuta L. is often chlorophyll-lacking and parastic, has a withering terrestrial root system which is short-lived, and no internal phloem.
  • Has similarities with species of the genus Cassytha Miller of Lauraceae, such as its parasitic tendencies, but can be distinguished by Cassytha's greater numbers of floral parts.
General Description
Number of genera
  • One: Cuscuta, with approximately 50 species.
Status
  • Native and introduced via shipments of commercial seed.
General notes
  • Also known as Dodder and Devil's Guts, members of the Cuscutaceae are regarded as some of the worst weeds in the world. Attaching to their agricultural hosts through haustoria and twining around their victims they steal light and nutrients from valuable crops.
Notes on delimitation
  • Commonly included as one of the twelve sub -families of the Convolvulaceae, including in the most recent angiosperm classification undertaken by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APGIII, 2009).
Literature
Important literature

Costea, M. 2007 onwards. Digital Atlas of Cuscuta. http://www.wlu.ca/page.php?grp_id2147&p=8968

Heide-Jørgensen, H.S. 2008. Parasitic Flowering Plants. 438 pp. Brill, Leiden.

Kuijt, J. 1969. The Biology of Parasitic Flowering Plants. 246 pp. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Maas, P. J. M. & Westra, L. Y. Th. 2005. Convolvulaceae. 358 pp. Neotropical Plant Families. 3rd ed.

Musselman, L.J. 2004.  Cuscutaceae. In: Smith, N., Mori, S.A., Henderson, A., Stevenson, D.W. and Heald, S. . (eds.). Flowering Plants of the Neotropics. Pp. 124-5. The New York Botanical Garden, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Nickrent, D.L. 1998-onwards. The Parasitic Plant Connection. http://www.parasiticplants.siu.edu/.

Staples, G.W. & Brummitt, R.K. 2007. Convolvulaceae. In: Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (eds.). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Pp 108 - 110. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Stevens, P.F. 2008. Convolvulaceae: Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 9 onwards. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

Yunker, T.G. 1932. The genus Cuscuta. Mem.Torrey bot. Club 18: 113-331.

Yunker, T.G. 1965. Cuscuta. N. Amer. Fl., ser. 2, 4: 1-51.

Images

Convolvulaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 132. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/