1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Abutilon Mill.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Biennial to perennial (rarely annual) erect or occasionally spreading herbs or shrubs, variously pubescent, usually with stellate hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, usually more or less ovate in outline with cordate base.
    Flowers
    Flowers generally yellow to orange, rarely white, mauve or purple, small to medium-sized, axillary, solitary or fascicled, rarely 2–4-nate on a common peduncle, sometimes on short axillary leafy side-shoots, sometimes aggregated in terminal and lateral leafy pseudo-panicles; pedicels usually articulated in the upper half often near the apex.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx with a cupular to campanulate tube; lobes 5, distinct, semi-orbicular to lanceolate, usually acute to acuminate.
    Corolla
    Petals 5, connate at the base and adnate to the base of the staminal tube, usually conspicuously longer than the calyx and in open flowers usually spreading to rotate, generally obovate with a narrow subunguiculate often ciliate basal portion.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube divided at the apex into many filaments, dilated below, glabrous or stellate-pubescent; free parts of filaments terete; anthers reniform.
    Carpels
    Carpels 5 to c. 40, 3–9-ovulate, in a circle around a distinct torus and joined to form a subglobose gynoecium; style-branches as many as the carpels, terete, filiform or clavate; stigmas simple to somewhat capitate.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose or turbinate to hemispherical or almost disk-shaped, often truncate, depressed or umbilicate at the apex; mericarps 5 to many, laterally compressed, follicular, (1) 2–3 (9)-seeded, separating from the ultimately conical or subcylindric and usually more or less produced or dilated to capitate torus and usually dehiscing by the ventral suture, ultimately grey or brown to black, oblong to subrectangular, reniform or more or less semi-orbicular, rounded to truncate at the base and rounded, truncate or acute at the apex, muticous to mucronate, apiculate or awned at the upper dorsal (outer) angle or at the apex, the ventral side with a usually distinct retrorse tooth which originally fitted over and against the apex of the torus.
    Seeds
    Seeds reniform, often unequally so and more or less comma-shaped, glabrous, puberulous or stellate-tomentose, smooth, finely pitted or minutely papillose to verruculose; embryo curved; cotyledons folded; endosperm scanty.
    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Habit
    Herbs or shrubs or rarely small trees, mostly erect but a few prostrate or subscandent.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum stellate and often simple as well
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate or less often subsessile; lamina mostly cordate at base
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in leaf axils or fascicled or less often 2–6 on a common peduncle, sometimes forming terminal leafy or leafless panicles; peduncles usually articulated near apex (the upper part perhaps to be looked on as a pedicel?)
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx absent
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-lobed
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or orange (sometimes with a red to purple centre), or white (often with a dark centre) or pink, mauve or purple; petals 5, joined at the extreme base and adnate to base of the staminal tube, longer than the calyx
    Stamens
    Staminal tube usually stellate-pubescent
    Carpels
    Carpels 5–± 40, 2–9-ovulate, joined to form a subglobose or broadly cylindrical ovary; style-branches as many as the carpels
    Fruits
    Fruits subglobose, broadly cylindrical or barrelshaped, often deeply depressed in centre; mericarps laterally much compressed, apiculate or awned and usually with retrorse tooth on the ventral margin, usually dehiscing apically, (1–)2–3(–9)-seeded
    Seeds
    Seeds usually irregularly reniform, glabrous to tomentose, smooth or variously papillate or pitted
    Note
    Many are very distinct but there are several very difficult complexes, the taxonomy of which is far from resolved. Several species are widely cultivated but I have seen only three specimens from East Africa namely A.   hybridum Hort., Gitonga 114, Njoro Plant Breeding Station, 20 June 1971 and Graham Bell 6, Closeburn, Nairobi, 3 Mar. 1952. Jex-Blake (Gard. E. Afr. ed. 4: 102 (1957)) mentions A. darwinii Hook. f., A. hildebrandtii (see page 137), A. insigne Planch., A. megapotamicum (Spreng.) St. Hil. & Naudin, A. striatum Lindl. (now known as A. pictum (Hook. & Arn.) Walp.), A. venosum Walp., [ Gillett 22753, Closeburn Nurseries, Nairobi, 15 Dec. 1979] and A. vitifolium (Cav.) Presl (sometimes placed in a separate genus as Corynabutilon vitifolium (Cav.) Kearney. #

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    French Guiana

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Albania, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Gilbert Is., Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Howland-Baker Is., Hungary, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Manchuria, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Oklahoma, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Altay, Amur, Austria, Bermuda, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chagos Archipelago, Connecticut, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, East Aegean Is., Fiji, France, French Guiana, Georgia, Germany, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Irkutsk, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Korea, Louisiana, Madeira, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Niue, North Carolina, North Dakota, North European Russi, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Portugal, Primorye, Rhode I., Sardegna, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Tennessee, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Vermont, Virginia, Wake I., Washington, West Siberia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Abutilon Mill. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Chautems, A. [28], Brazil K001217388
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Ecuador K000201180
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Ecuador K000201181
    Gay, J. [s.n.] K001217379
    Gay, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001217381
    Dusén, P. [16975], Brazil K001217385
    Robert, A. [480/b], Brazil K001217382
    Satabie, B. [195], Cameroon K000105324
    Prance, G.T. [10063], Brazil K001217391
    Lobb [s.n.], Brazil K001217395
    Rambo, B. [42412], Brazil K001217383
    Glaziou, A. [14504], Brazil K001217384
    Buzato, S. [27025], Brazil K001217390
    Buzato, S. [26299], Brazil K001217392
    Buzato, S. [27026], Brazil K001217393
    Buzato, S. [27198], Brazil K001217394
    Fraga, C.N. [2558], Brazil K001217380
    Mynssen, C.M. [1001], Brazil K001217387
    Burchell [6187], Brazil K001217389

    First published in Gard. Dict. Abr. ed. 4: s.p. (1754)

    Accepted by

    • Takeuchi, C. & Lopes Esteves, G. (2012). Synopsis of Abutilon (Malvoideae, Malvaceae) in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Phytotaxa 44: 39-57.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 1: 183.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gard. Dict. Abridg. ed. 4 (1754).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Lundellia 5: 79–118 (2002)
    • V.E. 3 (2): 370–374 (1921)
    • Boll. Ort. Soc. Palermo N.S. 1: 71–102 (1915)
    • Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genève 7: 24 (1902)
    • J. Bot. 31: 71–76, 267–272, 334–338, 361 (1893)
    • Adans., Fam. 2: 398 (1763)
    • Gardn. Dict. abr. ed. 4 (1754)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

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