1. Amaranthaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[NTK]

Henao, C.A.A. (2009). Neotropical Amaranthaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs, rarely lianas; plants dioecious , polygamous or monoecious Leaves simple , alternate or opposite, estipulate, entire Inflorescence a dense head , loose or spike -like thyrse, spike , raceme or panicle , basically cymose, bracteate; bracts transparent , membranous , white or other colour, subtending one or more flowers.  Flowers small, hermaphrodite or unisexual, sometimes modified into bristles or sterile , usually actinomorphic , bracteolate; sepals (tepals) usually 3-5, rarely fewer, free , scale-like or membranous ; petals absent; stamens usually 3-5, opposite the tepals, free or filaments fused into a tube/cup, anthers 1-2-locular; ovary superior , 2-3-carpellate, 1-locular, placentation basal , 1 style , stigma of variable form.  Fruits few-seeded capsules, nutlets, achenes or berries; seeds black, shiny

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • The list of genera below include the Amaranthaceae genera reported from Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Plants with simple, estipulate leaves with entire margins.
  • Flowers are small, several clustered in inflorescences.
  • A bract and two bracteoles support a flower.
  • Sepals (tepals) present, free; petals absent.
  • Ovary superior, 2-3-carpellate; placentation basal.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Amaranthaceae

1. Leaves alternate — 2
1. Leaves opposite — 7

2. Fruits with many seeds; flowers bisexual — 3
2. Fruits with one seed; flowers bisexual or unisexual — 4

3. Sepals ovate or suborbicular, obtuse; stigmas 3; seeds more than 10 — Pleuropetalum
3. Sepals lanceolate or elliptic, obtuse or acute; stigmas 2-3; seeds less than 10 — Celosia

4. Scandent herbs or lianes; stamen filaments fused into a cup-shape — 5
4. Erect herb; stamen filaments free at the base — 6

5. Fruits indehiscent or irregularly dehiscent; seeds non-arillate — Herbstia
5. Fruits dehiscing by circumsissile lid; seeds arillate — Chamissoa

6. Flowers surrounded by tufts of trichomes; stamens 5, alternating with ligulate or triangular pseudostaminode — Dicraurus
6. Flowers not surrounded by tufts of trichomes; stamens without pseudostaminodes — Amaranthus

7. Flowers or flower glomerules in elongate spikes or in cymes; stigma capitate — 8
7. Flowers or flower glomerules in cylindrical spikes, simple heads or arranged in complex paniculate or racemose structures; stigma penicillate, bilabiate or bifid — 10

8. Presence of modified sterile flowers; pseudostaminodes alternating with the 5 stamens — 9
8. All flowers fertile and bisexual; pseudostaminodes alternating with the 2-5 stamens — Achyranthes

9. Flowers in glomerule or a many-flowered cyme; flowers sterile; bractoles terminating in a hook — Cyathula
9. Flowers in spikes or cymes; flowers: one bisexual and one sterile with hook-shaped projections — Pseudoplantago

10. Inflorescences in glomerules or axillary spikes — 11
10. Inflorescences in simple or composite panicles, racemes or spikes — 13

11. Glomerules few-flowered; pseudostaminodes present; stigma penicillate — Tidestromia
11. Glomerules many-flowered; pseudostaminodes absent; stigma bilabiate — 12

12. Leaves small, in basal rosette, early caduceus; tepals 5, free; stamens adnate to the tepals; gynoecium perigynous — Guilleminea
12. Leaves large, in basal rosette, persistent; tepals 5, connate into a tube; stamens free from the tepals; gynoecium hypogynous — Gossypianthus

13. Sepals basally connate; plants with abundant grey indumentum; fruits with or without appendages — 14
13. Sepals free at base; plants glabrous to densely indumented, but indumentum not grey; fruits without appendages — 15

14. Sepals connate into a tube; fruits winged; flowers shorter than 5 mm — Froelichia
14. Sepals only connate at base; fruits not winged; flowers longer than 8 mm — Frielichiella

15. Stigma penicillate; staminodes ligulate or triangular, apex acute or divided, alternating with the filaments; inflorescences of dense heads or spikes — Alternanthera
15. Stigma bilabiate or bifid; staminodes present or absent, not like Alternanthera ; inflorescences of heads, spikes or panicles — 16

16. Stigma bilabiate or broadly emarginated — 17
16. Stigmas bifid — 18

17. Inflorescences of heads; trichomes straight, surrounding the flowers — Pfaffia
17. Inflorescences in long racemes; trichomes S-shaped, surrounding the flowers — Hebanthe

18. Filaments fused into a tube; inflorescences with or without foliolose bracts — 19
18. Filaments only fused at base; inflorescences without foliolose bracts — 20

19. Inflorescences subtended by 2 foliolose bracts; flowers not surrounded by straight trichomes — Gomphrena
19. Inflorescences without foliolose bracts; flowers surrounded by straight trichomes — Pseudogomphrena

20. Inflorescences in globose or cylindrical spikes or heads; flowers bisexual, not surrounded by trichomes; pseudostaminodes absent ... 21
20. Inflorescences of racemes; flowers bi- or unisexual, with or without trichomes; pseudostaminodes present or absent — 22

21. Plants creeping; leaves fleshy, linear or lanceolate; stamens 5 — Blutaparon
21. Plants erect; leaves not fleshy nor linear or lanceolate; stamens 2 — Lithophila

22. Flowers unisexual with 5 tepals — 23
22. Flowers bisexual with 4 tepals — Woehleria

23. Flowers not surrounded by trichomes; pseudostaminodes absent; erect herbs; staminate flowers with 1-2 stamens — Irenella
23. Female flowers completely surrounded by a rim of trichome; pseudostaminodes short, triangular; erect herbs or climbing; staminate flowers with 1-5 functional stamens and one rudimentary gynoecium — Iresine

General Description
Status
  • Native.
Notes on delimitation
  • The Amaranthaceae is considered sister to the Chenopodiaceae with which it is sometimes also united (Giannasi et al. 1992, Rettig et al. 1992, Cuénoud et al. 2002).  Recent molecular studies using the markers rbcL and matK resolve Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae as sister to the Achatocarpaceae (Manhart & Rettig 1994, Savolainen et al. 2000a, Cuénoud et al. 2002, Hilu et al. 2003) and with morphological data (Rodman 1994).
Number of genera
  • 1. Achyrantes L.
  • 2. Alternanthera Forssk.
  • 3. Amaranthus L.
  • 4. Blutaparon Raf.
  • 5. Celosia L.
  • 6. Chamissoa Kunth
  • 7. Cyathula Blume
  • 8. Dicraurus Hook.f.
  • 9. Froelichia Moench
  • 10. Froelichiella R.E.Fr.
  • 11. Gomphrena L.
  • 12. Gossypianthus Hook.
  • 13. Guilleminea Kunth
  • 14. Hebanthe Mart.
  • 15. Herbstia Sohmer
  • 16. Iresine P.Browne
  • 17. Irenella Suess.
  • 18. Lithophila Sw.
  • 19. Pfaffia Mart.
  • 20. Pleuropetalum Hook.f.
  • 21. Pseudogomphrena R.E.Fr.
  • 22. Pseudoplantago Suess.
  • 23. Woehleria Griseb.
Literature
Important literature

AGUDELO-H., C.A. 2008. Amaranthaceae. Flora de Colombia No. 23. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Bogotá D.C. Colombia. 138 p.

AGUDELO-H., C.A. 2008. Amaranthaceae. In: Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela (Hokche, O., P.E. Berry & O. Huber, eds.), pp. 10-14. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. Caracas.

BORSCH, T. 2001. Amaranthaceae. In: Stevens, W.D., C. Ulloa, A. Pool & O.M. Montiel (eds.), Flora de Nicaragua vol. Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 56-83.

BURGER, W. 1983.  Amaranthaceae. Fl. Costaricensis. Fieldiana, Bot. 13:142-180.

CUÉNOUD, P., V. SAVOLAINEN, L.W. CHATROU, M. POWELL, R.J. GRAYER & M.W. CHASE. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S RDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK  DNA sequences. American Journal of Botany 89(1): 132-144.

DUKE, J. A. 1961. Amaranthaceae. In: R. E. Woodson, Jr., et al., (eds.). Fl. Panama. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 48:6-50

ELIASSON, U. H. 1987. Amaranthaceae. In: G. Harling & L. Andersson (eds.). Fl. Ecuador vol. 28, pp.1-138. Department of Systematic Botany, University of Gothenburg.

GIANNASI, D.E., G. ZURAWSKI, G.H. LEARN & M.T. CLEGG. 1992. Evolutionary relationships of the Caryophyllidae based on comparative rbcL sequences. Systematic Botany 17:1-15.

HENRICKSON, J. 1987. A Taxonomic Reevaluation of Gossypianthus and Guilleminea (Amaranthaceae). Sida 12(2):307-337.

MARCHIORETTO, M. S., P. G. WINDISCH & J. C. DE SIQUEIRA 2002. Os géneros Froelichia Moench e Froelichiella R. E. Fries (Amaranthaceae) no Brasil. Pesquisas, Bot. 52:7-46.

MEARS, J. A. & W. T. GILLIS 1977. Gomphrenoideae (Amaranthaceae) of the Bahama Island. Jour. Arnold Arb. 58:60-66.

MEARS, J. A. 1967. Revision of Guilleminea (Brayulinea) including Gossypianthus (Amaranthaceae). Sida 3(3):137-152.

MORROS, M.E., TRUJILLO B. & PONCE M. 1990. Descripción del género Amaranthus L. con 3 nuevos registros para Venezuela y consiguiente clave para las especies. Ernstia 58-60:45-51.

MÜLLER K. & T. BORSCH. 2005. Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae based on matK/trnK sequence data - Evidence from Parsimony, Likelihood, and Bayesian analyses. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92:66-102.

PEDERSEN, T.M. 1967. Stud. in South American Amaranthaceae. Darwiniana 14(2-3):430-462.

PEDERSEN, T.M. 1976. Stud. sobre Amaranthaceae Suramericanas II. Darwiniana 20(1-2): 269-303.

ROMERO B., T. A. 1975. Los Géneros Venezolanos de las Amaranthaceae. Agron. Trop. 10 (1-4): 345-401.

RUTTER, R. A. 1990. Cat. de plantas útiles de la Amazonía Peruana. Perú: Ministerio de Educación, Instituto Linguístico de Verano, p. 10-336.

SAUER, J. D. 1967. The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 54(2):103-137.

SIQUEIRA, J. C. 1989. Amaranthaceae. In: Fl. do estado de Goiás. Colecáo Rizzo 12:1-44.

SMITH, L. B. & R. J. DOWNS 1972. Amarantáceas. En: Fl. Illustr. Catarinense 1:1-110.

SOHMER, S. H. 1977.  A revision of Chamissoa. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club., 104: 111 - 126

TOWNSEND, C. C. 1993. Amaranthaceae. In: K. Kubitzki. The Families and Genera of Flowering Plants 2:70-91

 

 

[FZ]

Amaranthaceae, C. C. Townsend. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, rarely trees or lianes
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, entire or nearly so
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a dense head, loose or dense and spike-like thyrse, spike, raceme or panicle, basically cymose, bracteate; bracts hyaline to membranous, stramineous to white, subtending one or more flowers
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual (plants dioecious or monoecious), mostly actinomorphic, usually bibracteolate, frequently in ultimate 3-flowered cymules; lateral flowers of such cymules sometimes sterile, modified into scales, spines, hooks or hairs
Perianth
Perianth uniseriate, membranous to firm and finally indurate, usually falling with the ripe fruit included, tepals free or more or less fused below, frequently more or less pilose or lanate, green to white or variously coloured
Androecium
Stamens isomerous with and opposite the tepals, rarely fewer; filaments free or frequently more or less fused below, sometimes almost completely fused and 5-toothed at the apex with entire or deeply lobed teeth, occasionally some anantherous, alternating with variously shaped pseudostaminodes or not; anthers unilocular or bilocular
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, unilocular; ovules commonly solitary, sometimes more numerous, erect to pendulous, placentation basal; style obsolete to long and slender; stigmas capitate to long and filiform
Fruits
Fruit an irregularly rupturing or circumcissile capsule, rarely a berry or crustaceous, usually with rather thin, membranous walls; seeds round to lenticular or ovoid, embryo curved or circular, surrounding the more or less copious endosperm
[FWTA]

Amaranthaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely undershrubs or climbers; leaves alternate or opposite, simple, exstipulate
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, small, in spikes, heads or racemes, with often scarious bracts and bracteoles, the latter sometimes hooked
Calyx
Sepals 3–5, free or nearly so, imbricate, more or less dry and membranous
Corolla
Petals absent
Androecium
Stamens mostly 5, opposite the sepals, hypogynous; filaments united at the base into a short tube, often with staminodes between; anthers 1–or 2-celled, opening by longitudinal slits
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1-celled; style short or long; stigma capitate or 2–3-fid; ovules solitary or rarely several, on basal funicles
Fruits
Fruit dehiscing by a lid or indehiscent
Seeds
Seeds globose, compressed or ellipsoid, smooth; embryo annular, surrounding the copious endosperm
[FTEA]

Amaranthaceae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs, rarely lianes
Leaves
Leaves simple, alternate or opposite, exstipulate, entire or almost so
Inflorescences
Inflorescence a dense head, loose or spike-like thyrse, spike, raceme or panicle, basically cymose, bracteate; bracts hyaline to white or coloured, subtending 1 or more flowers
Flowers
Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual (plants dioecious or monoecious), mostly actinomorphic, usually bibracteolate, frequently in ultimate 3-flowered cymules; lateral flowers of such cymules sometimes modified into scales, spines, bristles, hairs or hooks
Perianth
Perianth uniseriate, membranous to firm and finally ± indurate, usually falling with the ripe fruit included, tepals free or somewhat fused below, frequently ± pilose or lanate, green to white or variously coloured
Androecium
Stamens as many as and opposite to the petals, rarely fewer; filaments free or commonly fused into a cup at the base, sometimes almost completely fused and 5-toothed at the apex with entire or deeply lobed teeth, some occasionally without anthers, sometimes alternating with variously shaped pseudostaminodes (see note below); anthers 1–2-locular
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, 1-locular; ovules 1-many, erect to pendulous, placentation basal; style very short to long and slender; stigmas capitate to long and filiform
Fruits
Fruit an irregularly rupturing or circumscissile capsule, rarely a berry or crustaceous, usually with thin membranous walls
Seeds
Seeds round to lenticular or ovoid; embryo curved or circular, surrounding the ± copious endosperm
[NTK]

Zappi, D. (2009). Neotropical Chenopodiaceae.

Morphology
Description

Annual , rarely perennial herbs, subshrubs or shrubs, rarely lianas; plants dioecious , polygamous or monoecious Leaves simple , alternate , estipulate, entire to lobed , rarely deeply lobed . Inflorescence racemose or paniculate, cymose, bracteate; bracts transparent , membranous , white, green, red or wine coloured, subtending one or more flowers. Flowers small, hermaphrodite or rarely unisexual, usually actinomorphic , bracteolate; sepals (= tepals) usually 3-5, rarely fewer, free , scale-like or membranous ; petals absent; stamens usually 3-5, opposite tepals, free , anthers 1-2-locular; ovary superior , 2(-3)-carpelate, 1-locular, placentation basal , 1 style , stigma< /A> of variable form.  dehiscent capsules; seeds black, testa shiny.

General Description
Notes on delimitation
  • The Chenopodiaceae is treated as part of a larger, all-encompassing family the Amaranthaceae by some authors (Giannasi et al. 1992, Cuénoud et al. 2002, APG II, 2003, Souza & Lorenzi 2005). 
  • Recent molecular studies using the markers rbcL and matK resolve Amaranthaceae-Chenopodiaceae as sister to the Achatocarpaceae (Kadereit et al. 2003, Cuénoud et al. 2002) and this evidence is supported by existing morphological data.
Number of genera

1. Beta L. - Beta vulgaris L. is the well known edible beetroot.2. Chenopodium L.- a genus with a few medicinal representatives, the better known one being C. ambrosioides L., popularly known as mastruz and erva-de-Santa-Maria in Brazil: a toxic invasive plant that is reported as a treatment for many diseases.3. Spinacia L. - Spinacia oleracea L., the popular spinach, is a good source of iron.4. Salicornia L. - species of this genus are adapted to grow in salty marshes and lagoons.

Status
  • Mostly introduced, cultivated or naturalized, with some native, weedy species (Salicornia).
Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • In the Neotropics, the Chenopodiaceae is represented largely by invasive species and some introduced, cultivated plants. The list of genera below includes the genera reported from Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean.
Diagnostic
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Plants with alternate, simple, estipulate leaves with entire margins.
  • Flowers small, several clustered in inflorescences.
  • A bract and two bracteoles support a flower.
  • Sepals (= tepals) present, free< /A> ; petals absent.
Key differences from similar families
  • Distinct from Amaranthaceae due to its alternate leaves, often lobed or variously divided. Differs from Achatocarpaceae because of its herbaceous (vs. woody) habit and dry (vs. succulent) fruits.
Useful tips for generic identification

Key to genera of Neotropical Chenopodiaceae

1. Plants with swollen root — Beta
1. Plants without swollen root — 2

2. Leaves reduced, stems swollen — Salicornia
2. Leaves present, well developed ... 3

3. Leaves with crenate or deeply lobed margins ... Chenopodium
3. Leaves deltoid, with straight margins ... Spinacia

Literature
Important literature

APG II, 2003. An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG II. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141(4): 399-436.

Cuénoud, P., V. Savolainen, L.W. Chatrou, M. Powell, R.J. Grayer & M.W. Chase. 2002. Molecular phylogenetics of Caryophyllales based on nuclear 18S RDNA and plastid rbcL, atpB, and matK  DNA sequences. Amer.J.of Bot. 89(1): 132-144.

Giannasi, D.E., G. Zurawski, G.H. Learn & M.T. Clegg. 1992. Evolutionary relationships of the Caryophyllidae based on comparative rbcL sequences. Syst.Bot.17:1-15.

G. Kadereit, T. Borsch, K. Weising and H. Freitag.  2003. Phylogeny of Amaranthaceae and Chenopodiaceae and the Evolution of C3 Photosynthesis. Int. J. Pl.Sci. 164: 959-986.

Müller K. & T. Borsch. 2005. Phylogenetics of Amaranthaceae based on matK/trnK sequence data - Evidence from Parsimony, Likelihood, and Bayesian analyses. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 92:66-102.

Souza, V.C. & Lorenzi, H. 2005. Botânica Sistemática: guia ilustrativo para identificação das famílias de Angiospermas da flora brasileira, baseado em APG II. Nova Odessa, Brazil: Instituto Plantarum.

[FTEA]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1954

Habit
Mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely small trees, often halophytic and with tendency to fleshiness
Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, without stipules, entire or not, but characteristically never regularly serrate; sometimes the leaves reduced to scales
Flowers
Flowers small to minute, mostly green to grey, solitary and axillary, or more often variously clustered, usually regular, A5; or ? and ?
Calyx
Calyx (1–) 2–5-lobed, lobes more or less united below, imbricate or almost valvate, persistent after flowering, or variously modified in fruit
Corolla
Petals absent
Androecium
Stamens as many as or fewer than sepals, and opposite them
Gynoecium
Ovary normally free and superior, 1-celled Ovule solitary, campylotropous, on a long or short almost always basal funicle Stigmas 2 (–5)
Fruits
Fruit usually utricular, indehiscent, rarely circumscissile, often included in and falling with the calyx
Seeds
Embryo peripheral, curved, annular or spiral, surrounding the endosperm, which may be absent The presence or absence of endosperm and the position and shape of the embryo are characters very valuable for separating certain genera in this family. They are not employed in the following key, but are given in the generic descriptions
[FWTA]

Chenopodiaceae, J.P.M.. Brenan. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs, rarely small trees, often halophytic and with tendency to fleshiness
Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, without stipules, entire or not, but characteristically never regularly serrate; sometimes the leaves reduced to scales
Flowers
Flowers small to minute, mostly green to grey, solitary and axillary, or more often variously clustered, usually regular, hermaphrodite or unisexual
Calyx
Calyx (1–) 2–5-lobed, lobes more or less united below, imbricate or almost valvate, persistent after flowering, or variously modified in fruit
Corolla
Petals absent
Androecium
Stamens as many as or fewer than sepals, and opposite them
Gynoecium
Stigmas 2 (–5) Ovule solitary, campylotropous, on a long or short almost always basal funicle Ovary normally free and superior, one-celled
Fruits
Fruit usually utricular, indehiscent, rarely circumscissile, often included in and falling with the calyx
Seeds
Embryo peripheral, curved, annular or spiral, surrounding the endosperm, which may be absent
[FZ]

Chenopodiaceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

Habit
Mostly annual or perennial herbs, sometimes shrubs rarely small trees, often halophytic or nitrophilous and with tendency to fleshiness
Leaves
Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple, without stipules, entire or not; sometimes leaves reduced to scales or green ring-like joints along the stem
Flowers
Flowers small to minute, mostly green or grey, solitary and axillary, or more often variously clustered or cymose, usually regular, unisexual or male and female
Perianth
Perianth (1) 2–5 (or more, but not in the Flora Zambesiaca area) lobed; lobes united below, imbricate or almost valvate, presistent, after flowering, or variously modified in fruit
Corolla
Petals and sepals not differentiated
Androecium
Stamens as many as or fewer than the perianth segments, and opposite them
Gynoecium
Ovule solitary, campylotropous on a long or short almost always basal funicle Ovary normally free and superior, unicellular Stigmas 2 (5)
Fruits
Fruit usually utricular, indehiscent, rarely circumscissile, often included in and falling with the perianth
Seeds
Embryo peripheral, curved, annular or spiral surrounding the endosperm, or endosperm absent

Images

Amaranthaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 87. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/