1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Solanum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous Plants never armed, glabrous or with various simple to branched or dendritic hairs, elsewhere sometimes with truly stellate hairs or scales; cymes extra-axillary or sometimes terminal and then sometimes remaining so unless overtopped by a side branch, usually eventually lateral; anthers oblong, opening by large terminal pores or slits and then often slit down the side with age
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate.
    Flowers
    Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual. Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual; pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed
    Calyx
    Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures.
    Corolla
    Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation.
    Stamens
    Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged.
    Ovary
    "Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary (""false"") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous."
    Style
    Style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent.
    Stigma
    Stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid
    Note
    The circumscription of the genus and the subdivision into subgenera, sections and groups has received considerable attention and is significantly affected by recent molecular and cladistic studies. Cyphomandra is now included, see Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995). The situation of Lycopersicon is more controversial. It too is nested within Solanum, with clear evidence for its position in subgen. Solanum sect. Petota, where it is placed here after consultation with the authors of the Flora of Ethiopia and the Flora of Tropical East Africa. The morphological separation of the 9–12 species involved is clear-cut, however, and almost all the literature on this economically important segregate has been written under Lycopersicon. Nee in Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop, Solanaceae IV: 299 (1999) recommends that Lycopersicon should be retained for practical purposes and such treatment will also be found in Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum (2001) and some other recent literature. One of the largest genera of vascular plants, with about 1250 species, showing great variability in form and ecological preference, almost worldwide, from tropical to temperate regions of both hemispheres, principally the southern, mostly centred in tropical America, mainly South America, but also in temperate America and Africa. The genus is a source of numerous toxic and medicinal species as well as several food plants (S. tuberosum L., S. lycopersicum L., S. betaceum Cav., S. melongena L., S. muricatum Aiton and S. quitoense Lam.), and also of many weeds of disturbed habitats. About 100–110 species in Africa and adjacent islands, many of them native and several locally or regionally endemic, variously used in folk medicine and a few regularly cultivated as food crops (S. melongena L., S. aethiopicum L. and S. macrocarpon L.), or introduced as ornamentals (S. seaforthianum Andrews, S. laxum Spreng., S. pseudocapsicum L., S. wendlandii Hook.f., S. capsicoides All., S. mammosum L., S. wrightii Benth. and S. robustum H.L. Wendl.); 39 species recorded in the Flora Zambesiaca area, 11 of them known only under cultivation. Species of this enormous genus (and indeed the whole family) do tend to be variable. There is often an overlap of the character states that at first sight would seem to be very distinctive and it is often necessary to consider a combination of features for identification (and rather easily confirmed if herbarium material or illustrations are available for comparison). It is helpful to note the habit of the plant, whether domesticated or not, and to collect fruits as well as flowers, noting the size, colour and texture. Further observations on hybrids, local domesticates and natural variation would be valuable. For present purposes it seems best to treat a number of the more variable species, such as S. anguivi, S. giganteum, S. incanum and S. macrocarpon, in a broad sense, without attempting any formal subdivisions. The arrangement of species follows Nee, op. cit.: 285–333 (1999), but for practical reasons, particularly considering the anomalous character states of some cultivated species, an artificial key is provided to identify the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area. The synopsis below will, however, give a good idea of the broad relationships of the many groups. Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12
    Habit
    Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous.
    Disc
    Disk inconspicuous or absent. Disk inconspicuous or absent
    Pistil
    Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary ("false") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous; style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent; stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid.
    Fruits
    Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules. Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules
    Seeds
    Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique. Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique
    Cytology
    Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, woody shrubs, lianas or trees.
    Stem
    Stems stoloniferous, rhizomatous, tuberiferous or with gemmiferous roots; branches glabrous or with simple, branched, stellate, dendritic or echinoid multicellular, eglandular or glandularheaded hairs, sometimes with prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves simple and entire to lobed or compound, alternate or opposite, stipulate, sometimes with prickles; petiolate or sessile
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, axillary, leaf-opposed or extra-axillary racemose or paniculate cymes, 2–300+ flowered, rarely 1-flowered; pedunculate to epedunculate, flowers sessile or pedicellate, pedicels sometimes articulate; flowers white to purple, rarely yellow, often with basal translucent, green, yellow or purple star, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, (4–)5(–6)-merous; pedicels erect to reflexed, glabrescent to pubescent
    Calyx
    Calyx cyathiform to campanulate, with 5(–10) triangular acute lobes often prolonged through the calyx as prominent veins, slightly to fully accrescent and persistent in fruit; sometimes with an annular thickening basally
    Corolla
    Corolla campanulaterotate to stellate with short tube and shallowly to deeply lobed; lobes valvate in bud, often spreading after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 5, equal or unequal; filaments joined to corolla tube, glabrous to pubescent; anthers connivent, basifixed, exserted, dehiscing by apical pores which often develop into short or long lateral slits
    Ovary
    Ovary usually sessile, ovoid or pyriform to globose, glabrous, bi- or tri-locular, ovules numerous; disc small or absent, annular; style filiform, glabrous to pilose, often exserted; stigma capitate , globose, sometimes bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit erect or drooping, dryish or sub-fleshy, globose to obovoid berries, often depressed, 2- to 3- locular, smooth
    Seeds
    Seeds few to many, reniform to suborbicular, compressed laterally, rarely winged, rugose; sclerotic granules present or absent
    Type
    Type species: Solanum nigrum L.
    Note
    According to Jaeger & Hepper (1986) native Solanum species found in the FTEA region belong to the three sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Bendirianum Bitter and Solanum of the subgenus Solanum, and the seven sections Anisantherum Bitter, Ischyracanthum Bitter, Melongena (Mill.) Dunal, Monodolichopus Bitter, Oliganthes (Dunal) Bitter, Somalanum Bitter, and Torva Nees of the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter. This latter subgenus is probably the most complex subdivision of Solanum, comprising around 33 Many of Solanum species revisions have been regional and especially concerned with the New World components. The latter were tackled by Nee (1999) for example, while Symon (Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard., 4: 1–367 (1981) & 8: 20–168 (1985)) revised those in Australia and New Guinea. Meanwhile Whalen (in Gentes Herb. 12(4) (1984)) produced an invaluable conspectus of species groups in the subgenus Leptostemonum. The most important revisions of African Solanums include those of Dammer (in E.J. 28: 473–477 (1901), 38: 176–195 (1906), 48: 236–260; 53: 325–352 (1915)); Bitter (in F.R. 10: 542–548 (1912) & in E.J. 49: 560–569 (1913), 54: 416–506 (1917) & 57: 248–286 (1921)); Jaeger (Systematic Studies in the genus Solanum in Africa (1985, Ph.D. thesis, ined.)) and Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae Biology & Systematics, 41–55 (1986)) all of which were largely based on traditional taxonomic characters. Both Dammer and Bitter adopted narrow species concepts and were ‘splitters’, usually describing any infraspecific variation formally as subspecies or varieties. Though their publications include extremely detailed species descriptions they were invariably based on limited herbarium material and many of the specimens on which their new taxa were based have since been destroyed or lost. For example, Bitter described many new Solanum species in his Solana Africana from specimens in the Berlin-Dahlem (B) herbarium which was destroyed during World War II. Other species, based on specimens in the Polish herbarium Wroclaw (WRSL), known as Breslau in Bitter’s time, were similarly destroyed. Though duplicates of many of the species that he described from other geographical areas, particularly from Central and South America have been traced, this is not so for several of the African species especially those belonging to the section Solanum. Some of those that have been traced proved to be valid species, but many others are synonyms. The affinity of the remainder can be surmised to some extent from his extensive protologues, though in such variable and closely related species the synonymy of the taxa concerned is often only tentative. Unfortunately, Bitter died without completing his comprehensive monograph of African Solanum species. Jaeger’s (1985) subsequent survey of the African species provided the latest comprehensive review of Solanum species found throughout Africa, but it remains unpublished. His supervisor Richard Lester was in the process of preparing Jaeger’s work for publication before his untimely death in 2006, though there are plans to publish this account posthumously. The African subgenus Leptostemonum is currently being revised by Vorontsova and Knapp. of the species; recent molecular analyses (e.g. Levin et al. in Amer. Journ. Bot., 93: 157–169 (2006)) are beginning to yield interesting information on this group, though they have yet to clarify species relationships within it. Nonnative species belonging to other subgenera and many other sections are also widely found throughout this area. are probably the result of recent introductions – either deliberate or casual. Approximately 70 Solanum species including infra-specific taxa have been recognised in this treatment for Tropical East Africa, of which some are introductions and are only known under cultivation. Solanum is one of the largest flowering plant genera and occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. The generic name is believed to be derived from the latin ‘solamen’ meaning comfort, and to allude to the reputed narcotic properties of the generic type Solanum nigrum L. Solanum species, which are often called Nightshades, exhibit considerable morphological diversity and a range of ecological preferences. Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae, Biology & Systematics: 44 (1986)) estimated that around 110 Solanum species occur in Africa and its adjacent islands, of which some 20 Of the Solanum species found in the floral region, many are important food plants, such as the potato, S. tuberosum L.; the African eggplants, S. aethiopicum L., S. macrocarpon L., and S. melongena L.; and the African nightshades, S. nigrum sensu lato. Others are cultivated as ornamentals, either for their showy flowers such as the Jasmine Nightshade, S. laxum Spreng., or for their colorful berries, e.g., the Jerusalem cherry, S. pseudocapsicum L., while some constitute troublesome weeds of disturbed habitats. The genus is also a source of toxin - largely in the form of steroidal alkaloids such as solanidane; of medicinal drugs with S. campylacanthum L., for example, being one of the most widely used African medicinal species; and of drug precursors such as solasodine used in the production of corticosteroids and found in around 200 Solanum species ( cf. Hawkes in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 5 (1999)). A number of species figure prominently in ethnobotanical practices throughout the FTEA region. Indeed, Bukenya & Carasco (in Nee: 345–360 (1999)) reported that most of the 27 Solanum species found in Uganda play important social and economic roles among local populations, being used for magic, spiritual rites, and fertility cults as well as for food, medicine, and ornamentals. As with Solanums elsewhere, the African taxa are often extremely difficult to delimit; many exhibit considerable infra-specific variation and there is widespread confusion over identification and names. Both flowers and fruits are often necessary for accurate identification, together with notes on their respective colours and the fruit texture. In addition, notes on their habit and habitats are also useful. Often a combination of characters is required for definitive assessment. There are a number of species-complexes; they include the S. anguivi Lam. group and the S. incanum L. group – both belonging to the subgenus Leptostemonum, and the Black Nightshades – of the subgenus Solanum sect. Solanum which centres around the generic type S. nigrum. Between 1000 and 2000 species, though the accepted number is now thought not to exceed 1400. The genus is considered to be of New World origin, exhibiting its greatest diversity in the Neotropics particularly in Central and South America; D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: 98 (1991)) suggested that over 500 Solanum species were endemic to the New World. Within the last two decades, infra- and inter-generic groupings have been greatly influenced by molecular and cladistic studies. However, Olmstead & Bohs (in Spooner et al. (eds), Solanaceae VI: 255–268 (2006)) estimated that only around 30 The genus has been the subject of innumerable treatments and revisions since it was first described in 1753. A useful summary of earlier subgeneric classifications of Solanum is given in Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981)). Notable revisions include those of Dunal (Hist. Solanum (1813)) & in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852); D’Arcy (in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 262–278 (1972) & in Hawkes et al. Solanaceae III: 75–137 (1991) and Child & Lester (in van den Bergen et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 39–60 (2001)). A number of new infrageneric taxa later proposed by Child (in F.R. 109: 5–6 & 407–427 (1998)) have since been synonymised by other authors. In 1991, D’Arcy subdivided the genus into seven subgenera containing approximately 62 sections; he then considered that the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter displays its greatest diversity in the Americas but that diversification of this subgenus had occurred in Africa. He also suggested that minor centers of generic diversity had evolved in Africa, Madagascar and Macaronesia where the genus Solanum has evolved a number of distinctive sections many of which are endemic to these regions . of Solanum species had been analysed to 2006, though they noted that several major efforts to elucidate both the taxonomy and the molecular phylogeny of this genus world-wide are currently in progress. The most significant genera affected by molecular analyses have been Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon which are now accepted as belonging to the genus Solanum itself. Spooner et al. (in Amer. Journ. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993)) used data from chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis to demonstrate that chemical, molecular and morphological data provided overwhelming evidence for the cladistic relationship of Solanum subg. Potatoe and Lycopersicon, and subsequently transferred all Lycopersicon epithets to Solanum. These authors further proposed the adoption of the epithet Solanum lycopersicum L. for the cultivated tomato. Subsequently, Bohs & Olmstead (in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 97–110 (1999)), using cpDNA to derive ndhF gene sequences confirmed earlier analyses which suggested that Cyphomandra should be included within Solanum and Bohs (in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995)) later transferred the genus and all its species into Solanum. Bohs & Olmstead (in Syst. Bot. 22: 5–17 (1997)) then used chloroplast ndhF sequences to verify that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra nested within Solanum, while Olmstead & Palmer (in Syst. Bot., 22: 19–29 (1997)) showed that cpDNA restriction site variation strongly indicated that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra were derived from within Solanum and should be relegated to subgeneric or sectional status. Nevertheless several authors either retained these two genera as distinct (e.g. Hunziker in Genera Solanaceae, 2001) or argued that they should be retained for practical purposes (e.g. Nee in Solanaceae IV: 285–333 (1999)). Indeed, D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution: 81 (1991)) had already proposed that the conservation of the name Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. over other Lycopersicon names for the tomato by the 1987 International Botanical Congress could be construed as support for its separate generic status. Hunziker (2001) vehemently rejected the inclusion of both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra within Solanum, arguing that though closely related, they are clearly distinguishable morphologically. He tabulated a number of characters by which Solanum could be delimited from Cyphomandra, and also considered that protoplasmic fusion experiments supported the recognition of Lycopersicon and Solanum as distinct genera. Nee (1999) considered that Cyphomandra should be placed in Solanum sect. Pachyphylla Dunal of the subgenus Bassovia (Aubl.) Bitter while Lycopersicon belongs to the sect. Petota of the subgenus Solanum. This FTEA treatment accepts the increasing molecular evidence supporting the inclusion Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon in Solanum, thereby following the F.Z. (but not the Fl. Eth.) Solanum account.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Plants never armed, glabrous or with simple or irregularly branched hairs; cymes axillary or extra-axillary, or from forks of the stem; anthers tapering and with small terminal pores or sometimes oblong and opening by larger pores or slits

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Gilbert Is., Kerguelen, Laccadive Is., Line Is., Nauru, Rodrigues, Réunion, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tuvalu, Wake I.

    Solanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2016 Constance, L. [3396], USA K001159932
    Jan 1, 2013 Nee, M.H. [34976], Brazil K001058936
    Oct 20, 2012 Balls, E.K. [7113], Ecuador K000788010
    Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [15876], Bolivia K000658360
    Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [17690], Bolivia K000658383
    Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [11974], Bolivia K000658384
    Oct 20, 2012 Eyerdam, W.J. [22152], Peru K000788011
    Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [529], Bolivia K000441037
    Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [449], Bolivia K000441048
    Oct 20, 2012 Worth, C.R. [15704], Peru K000788058
    Oct 20, 2012 Cárdenas, M. [5968], Bolivia K000788009
    Jan 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001058412
    May 1, 2004 Matthew, K.M. [40038], India K000096571
    May 1, 2004 Coveny, R.G. [12808], Australia K000096576
    May 1, 2004 Estrada, A. [2276], Costa Rica K000096549
    May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096551
    May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096552
    May 1, 2004 Anonymous [618], Jamaica K000096570
    May 1, 2004 Rahayu, M. [720] K000096572
    Dec 1, 2003 Eden, M.J. [EM8], Brazil K001058924
    Apr 1, 1997 Souza, V.C. [9002], Brazil K001058351
    Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10802], Brazil K001058931
    Jul 21, 1976 Lyonnet, E. [362], Mexico K000064046
    Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [12402], Brazil K001058328
    Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [2397], Brazil K001058338
    Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [10054], Brazil K001058901
    Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [20935], Brazil K001058935
    Jul 2, 1905 Luke, W.R.Q. [7970], Tanzania K000441637
    11206.000
    Verdcourt, B. [2993], Kenya 3459.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3552], Tanzania 16345.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3662], Tanzania 16662.000
    Drummond, R.B. [2421], Tanzania 17719.000
    Carr, C.E. [14366], Papua New Guinea K001153710
    Rodway, F.A. [644], Australia K001154066
    Bally, P.R.O. [8306], Kenya K001157809
    Chancellor, R.J. [124], Uganda 11200.000
    Hubbard, C.E. [3813], Australia K001155258
    Harley, R.M. [55830], Bahia K001171646
    Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058071
    Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058072
    Harley, R.M. [54135], Brazil K001058892
    Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162418
    Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162419
    Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162420
    Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162421
    Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162422
    Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162423
    Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162424
    Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162425
    Hinton, G.B. [15942], Mexico K000064041
    Hepper, F.N. [1981], Cameroon K000028575
    Hepper, F.N. [2146], Cameroon K000028576
    Forrest, G. [9473] K001152616
    Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153831
    Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153832
    Sands, M.J.S. [7296], Indonesia K001153833
    Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153683
    Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153684
    Philcox, D. [4385], Brazil 7403.000
    Cazalet, P. [7644], Ecuador 6409.000
    Cazalet, P. [7524], Ecuador 7054.000
    Cazalet, P. [7793], Ecuador 7055.000
    Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170988
    Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170989
    Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170990
    Dale, I.R. [H128], Kenya K001169834
    Trott, A.C. [233], Saudi Arabia K001152213
    Smith, A.C. [3400], Guyana K001162410
    Woolston, A.L. [826], Paraguay K000788567
    Balls, E.K. [B.4671], Mexico K000064042
    Balls, E.K. [B.4381], Mexico K000064043
    Balls, E.K. [B4747], Mexico K000064045
    Balls, E.K. [6927], Peru K001166642
    Cazalet, P.C.D. [5026], Ecuador K001163531
    Symon, D.E. [5232], Australia K001155255
    Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001168589
    Symon, D.E. [35848], Australia K001169515
    Schultes, R.E. [6541], Brazil K001058902
    Schultes, R.E. [7196], Colombia K001171023
    Hawkes [6722] K001170992
    Hawkes [6722] K001170993
    Hawkes [SEM266] K001171010
    Casey, E.C. [1283], Cyprus K001152202
    Forbes [s.n.] K001158870
    Streimann, H. [HS618], Australia K001154065
    Kairo, A. [292], Papua New Guinea K001153835
    Wood, J.R.I. [18979], Bolivia K000449579
    Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545845
    Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545846
    Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658320
    Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658321
    Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166671
    Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166672
    Wood, J.R.I. [26371], Bolivia K001166673
    Wood, J.R.I. [10103], Bolivia K001166674
    Plowman, T. [2795], Brazil K001058922
    Plowman, T. [12931], Brazil K001058490
    Edwards, P.J. [2580], Brazil K001058933
    Johns, R.J. [9565], Indonesia K000172378
    Rico, L. [2021], Mexico K000265997
    Mathews [1510] K001058659
    Hawkes, J.G. [1442], Mexico K001160760
    Hawkes, J.G. [2471], Peru K001165498
    Ash [989], Ethiopia 71990.000
    Ash [1689], Ethiopia 34291.000
    Ash [1299], Ethiopia 35662.000
    Ash [1184], Ethiopia 35480.000
    Ash, J.W. [318], Ethiopia K001156064
    Ash, J.W. [467], Ethiopia K001156065
    Lindeman, J.C. [2943], Brazil K001058930
    Lindeman, J.C. [4970], Brazil K001058910
    Lindeman, J.C. [6812], Suriname K001162411
    Lindeman, J.C. [6176], Suriname K001162413
    Arnold, M.H.M. [F], South Africa 35934.000
    Kenneally, K.F. [8308], Australia K001155251
    Ruiz, J. [1580], Peru K001166644
    Ruiz, J. [1212], Peru K001166648
    Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169830
    Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169832
    Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169833
    Holt, P. [45], Peru K001171009
    Dunlop [2146], Australia K001154706
    Tweedie [1234], Argentina K000545914
    Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058941
    Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058890
    Collenette, I.S. [9378], Saudi Arabia K001152210
    Collenette, I.S. [9396], Saudi Arabia K001152211
    Lehmann, F.C. [4950], Ecuador K001166639
    Dunlop, C.R. [2332], Australia K001155113
    Silva, M. [2607], Brazil K001058215
    Sucre, D. [6577], Brazil K001058900
    Ratter, J.A. [R7894], Brazil K001058920
    Ratter, J.A. [626], Brazil K001058904
    Martinelli, G. [7610], Brazil K001058491
    Lima, H.C. [2533], Brazil K001058938
    White, C.T. [9478], Australia K001155260
    Whistler, A. [W5220], Cook Is. K001170937
    Ganev, W. [2852], Brazil K001058899
    Sakuragui, C.M. [15163], Brazil K000545844
    Pirani, J.R. [2902], Brazil K001058578
    Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166626
    Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166627
    Edwards, K.S. [676], Colombia K001166628
    Bang, M. [2868], Bolivia K001166670
    Ollerton, J. [180], Guyana 65082.000
    Cable, S. [3780], Cameroon 61721.000
    Fendler, A. [1009], Venezuela K001166636
    Duthie, J.F. [19969] K001153238
    Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], Pakistan K001153239
    Arbo, M.M. [7705], Brazil K001058929
    Arbo, M.M. [7787], Brazil K001058898
    Irwin, H.S. [20769], Brazil K001162415
    Ule, E. [7475], Brazil K001058932
    Eiten, G. [7887], Brazil K001058923
    Eiten, G. [7884], Brazil K001058934
    Eiten, G. [6688], Brazil K001058914
    Steyermark, J.A. [95333], Venezuela K001166496
    Morawetz, W. [33-311075], Brazil K001058905
    Preston, T.A. [798-12], Brazil K000449578
    França, F. [1187], Brazil K001058891
    Maas, P.J.M. [P 12713], Brazil K001058912
    Duarte, A.P. [1758], Brazil K001058552
    Nee, M. [16083], USA K001170996
    Nee, M. [16082], USA K001170997
    Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170998
    Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170999
    Nee, M. [16093], USA K001171000
    Nee, M. [16073], USA K001171001
    Leonard, A. [5309], Congo K001169829
    Palmer, E. [74], Mexico K000064047
    Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152842
    Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152843
    Gillies [s.n.], Argentina K001167686
    Montes, J.E. [3438], Argentina K001167931
    Montes, J.E. [2194], Argentina K001167937
    Krukoff, B.A. [6345], Brazil K001058915
    Krukoff, B.A. [6319], Brazil K001058916
    Krukoff, B.A. [1456], Brazil K001058919
    Krukoff, B.A. [4892], Brazil K001058413
    Pearson, H.H.W. [3397], South Africa K001159257
    Cruse, A. [210], Zambia K001158723
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155256
    Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155257
    Lazarides, M. [5728], Australia K001154733
    Stoward, F. [629], Australia K001155250
    Pullen, R. [3964], Australia K001155249
    Miller, A.G. [3424], Yemen K001152214
    Magogo, F.C. [17], Kenya K001169835
    Constable, E.F. [NSW 25622], Australia K001154064
    Constable, E.F. [23728], Australia K001155259
    Dusén, P. [15949], Brazil K001058906
    Bernardi, L. [6912], Venezuela K001166637
    Tessmann, G. [6044], Brazil K001058036
    Palmer, E.J. [7771], USA K001159750
    Talbot, W.A. [s.n.] K001169542
    Klug, G. [1857], Colombia K001166624
    André [K1413] K001166621
    André [K1411] K001166622
    André [K634] K001166623
    Lleras, E. [P17459], Brazil K001058908
    Evans, M.S. [3485], Australia K001155261
    Loveridge, M.V. [644], Congo K001156002
    Ochoa, C. [14137], USA K001169975
    Holland, F.W. [s.n.], Egypt K001152218
    Drake [44], Egypt K001152217
    Schunke Vigo, J. [6617], Peru K001166645
    Schunke Vigo, J. [4325], Peru K001166654
    Schunke Vigo, J. [14033], Peru K001166658
    Schunke Vigo, J. [5866], Peru K001166664
    Mendoza, M. [835], Bolivia K001166668
    André, E. [K692] K000449574
    André, E. [3130] K001166632
    Goudot [2] K001163141
    Corradi, R. [2911], Italy K001151653
    Corradi, R. [2924], Italy K001151654
    Corradi, R. [3004], Italy K001151655
    Corradi, R. [3064], Italy K001151656
    Franc, I. [841], New Caledonia K001155440
    Bentham [87], Australia K001154666
    Hutchison, P.C. [3548], Peru K001166662
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9074], India K001132181
    Milliken [47], Venezuela K001166634
    Oteke, J. [60], Kenya K001157283
    Saunders, S.G.E. [465], Peru K000658391
    Saunders, S.G.E. [1289], Peru K001166643
    Hahn, M. [9], Mexico K000064044
    Hahn, M. [s.n.] K001160985
    Smith, D. [183], Brazil K001058913
    Okada [7618A] K001167933
    Okada [7618A], Argentina K001167934
    Knapp, S. [6802], Venezuela K001164113
    Knapp, S. [6762], Venezuela K001166635
    Knapp, S. [6577], Peru K001166640
    Knapp, S. [6314], Peru K001166655
    Knapp, S. [6536], Peru K001166659
    Knapp, S. [6315], Peru K001166661
    Knapp, S. [6560], Peru K001166665
    Knapp, S. [6527], Peru K001166666
    Knapp, S. [6448], Peru K001166667
    Atkins, S. [4709], Brazil K001058937
    Bean, A.R. [17255], Australia K001155243
    Fiaschi, P. [3553], Brazil K001058940
    Pipoly, J.J. [17047], Colombia K001166618
    Pipoly, J.J. [16923], Colombia K001166631
    Lambert, M.R.K. [440], Australia K001155244
    Lambert, M.R.K. [476], Australia K001155245
    Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155246
    Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155247
    Lambert, M.R.K. [535], Australia K001155248
    Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155265
    Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155266
    Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155267
    Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155268
    Johnson, R.W. [2784], Australia K001171003
    Furuse, M. [9548], Japan K001152473
    Furuse, M. [1962], Japan K001152474
    Vasconcellos, J. [20868], Brazil K001058088
    Elwes, H.J. [s.n.] K001166733
    Cunningham, R.O. [s.n.] K001166737
    Darwin, C.R. [157] K001166742
    Rosa, N.A. [3934], Brazil K001058895
    Rosa, N.A. [3865], Brazil K000438526
    Vásquez, R. [3752], Peru K001166649
    Plowman, T.C. [4181], Colombia K001166629
    Plowman, T.C. [11550], Peru K001166647
    Plowman, T.C. [4929], Peru K001166653
    Cuezzo, A.R. [762], Argentina K001167942
    Prance, G.T. [59008], Brazil K001058896
    Prance, G.T. [58675], Brazil K001058907
    Prance, G.T. [14392], Brazil K001058909
    Prance, G.T. [59094], Brazil K001058911
    Prance, G.T. [2893], Brazil K000449577
    Mathias, M.E. [5326], Peru K001166641
    Simaga, J.M. [713], Papua New Guinea K001153834
    Hunte, G.R. le [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K001153830
    Blake, A.L. [33A], Argentina K001167936
    Faurie, P. [1172], Japan K001152467
    Faurie, P. [6720], Japan K001152468
    Dillon, M.O. [4064], Peru K001164580
    Albrecht, D.E. [12007], Australia K001155262
    Williams, R.G. [11844], Trinidad & Tobago K000819158
    Rabelo, B.V. [2906], Brazil K001058917
    Moritz, J.W.K. [1702] K001166633
    Zak, V. [1503], Ecuador K001166638
    Davies, S. [s.n.] K001151652
    Lester [9], USA K001160978
    Roxburgh, W. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132488
    Johnstone, R. [2728], Australia K001155242
    Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132487
    Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132479
    Oldham, R. [852], Japan K001152469
    Oldham, R. [336], Taiwan K001152470
    Ferreira, A.R. [856] K001058894
    Cuming, H. [266], Chile K001166734
    Steinbach, J. [3282], Bolivia K001165668
    Steinbach, J. [14844], Bolivia K001166669
    Steinbach, J. [9166], Bolivia K001166675
    Kalbreyer, W. [1049], Grenada K001166620
    Whibley, D.J.E. [306], Australia K001154469
    Lörzing [12947], Indonesia K001153549
    s.coll [57], Saudi Arabia K001152212
    s.coll [s.n.], Yemen K001152215
    s.coll [s.n.], Japan K001152463
    s.coll [79/41] K001152471
    s.coll [115/35] K001152472
    s.coll [s.n.], China K001152614
    s.coll [793] K001152615
    s.coll [2114], India K001153138
    s.coll [s.n.] K001166731
    s.coll [s.n.] K001166732
    s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166736
    s.coll [s.n.] K001166738
    s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166739
    s.coll [5092], Uruguay K001167943
    s.coll [s.n.], France K001168346
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168826
    s.coll [s.n.], Argentina K001169831
    s.coll [s.n.] K001170991
    s.coll [OCH1192214] K001170994
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170995
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171002
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171004
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171005
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171006
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171007
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171011
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171012
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171013
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171014
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171015
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171016
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171017
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171018
    s.coll [H2866/65], United Kingdom K001171019
    s.coll [s.n.] K001171020
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171024
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171025
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171026
    s.coll [s.n.] K001151417
    s.coll [33], Tanzania K001157951
    s.coll [s.n.], USA K001159846
    s.coll [40] K001160979
    s.coll [s.n.] K001160980
    s.coll [6686], Suriname K001162412
    Savatier, P.A.L. [875], Japan K001152465
    Glaziou, A. [18410], Brazil K001058217
    Glaziou, A. [8852], Brazil K001058459
    Glaziou, A. [8197], Brazil K001058579
    Glaziou, A. [8870], Brazil K001058918
    Barclay, A.S. [617], Colombia K001171022
    Goodman, C.M. [294], United Kingdom K001151651
    Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132480
    Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.], Thailand K001132468
    Sandeman, C.A.W. [3413], Peru K001166657
    Sandeman, C.A.W. [3402], Peru K001166663
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [4912], India K001153240
    Maesen, L.J.G. van der [3235], India K001153241
    Pensiero, J. [4256], Argentina K001167938
    Po Khant, D.R. [1095], Myanmar K001171021
    Eden, M.J. [EM26], Brazil K001058921
    Vélez, I. [3233], Grenada K001161020
    Fraga, C.N. [2877], Brazil K001058939
    Mexia, Y.E.J. [8245], Peru K001166656
    Gillis, W.T. [10166], Costa Rica K001160984
    Pierotti, S.A. [4257], Argentina K001167940
    Pierotti, S.A. [4259], Argentina K001167941
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132481
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132482
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132483
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132484
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132485
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132486
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132489
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Vietnam K001132467
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132469
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132470
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132471
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132472
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132474
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132475
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132477
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Tamil Nadu K001132476
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132478
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132727
    s.coll. [s.n.] K001058129
    s.coll. [3882] K001058889
    Burchell [9024], Brazil K001058925
    Burchell [1869], Brazil K001058926
    Burchell [3473], Brazil K001058928
    Burchell [8493], Brazil K001058445
    Burchell [8543-A], Brazil K001058446
    Martius [s.n.], French Guiana K001058903
    Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001166741
    Tweedie [1256] K001167932
    Tweedie [836] K001167939
    Glaziou [11367], Brazil K001058216
    Glaziou [21816a], Brazil K001058264
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132473
    Herb Morrison, A. [14229], Australia K001154667
    Haught, O.L. [2859], Colombia K001166619
    Paula, C.H.R. [720], Brazil K001058927
    Yammann [57] K001058394
    Neto, J.V. [28080], Brazil K001058893
    Pinto, L.R. [s.n.], Brazil K001058897
    Esteves, R. [15], Brazil K001162414
    Lescure [776], French Guiana K001162409
    Okada, K. [2879], Argentina K001167935
    Heller, T.M. [340], United Arab Emirates K001151917
    Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152464
    Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152466
    Herb Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153682
    O'Ryan, K. [38], Australia K001154063
    J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155263
    J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155264
    Bay, C. [s.n.], Chile K001166735
    Cordillera, C. [266] K001166740
    Herb Felippone, F. [6166], Uruguay K001167944
    Herb Blackburn, J. [s.n.] K001167685
    Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171027
    Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171028
    Herb. Lehmann [K226], Colombia K001166625
    Rios, P. [110], Costa Rica K001160983
    Hutchison, J. [3767], Zambia K001158708
    Herb. Gray, A. [s.n.] K001159751
    Tarn, R.T. [78pipi], Mexico K001160981
    Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166650
    Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166651
    Grández, C. [251], Peru K001166652
    Cogollo Pacheco, A.A. [7966], Colombia K001166630
    Aranza, A. [s.n.] K001166646
    Arana, A. [20], Peru K001166660

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 207.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 270–315 (2001).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
    • Solanum L., Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 270–315 (2001)
    • Fl. Egypt 6: 4–54 (1998);
    • Fl. Madagascar, 176: 37–134 (1994);
    • J.L.S. 104: 325–367 (1990);
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 8: 20–158 (1985);
    • Purdie, Symon & Haegi, Fl. Austral. 29: 69–175 (1982);
    • Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4: 1–367 (1981)
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60(3): 680–760 (1973);
    • Fl. Europaea 3: 197–199 (1972);
    • Nightshades: 30–61 (1969);
    • Beheifte 16: 3–320 (1923)
    • F.R. 18: 301–307 (1922)
    • E.J. & 57: 248–286 (1921);
    • E.J. 54: 416–506 (1917)
    • E.J 48: 236–260; 53: 325–352 (1915);
    • E.J. 49: 560–569 (1913),
    • F.R. 10: 542–548 (1912)
    • E.J 38: 176–195 (1906),
    • E.J. 28: 473–477 (1901),
    • Rev. Gen. Pl., 3: 224–228 (1898);
    • E. & P. Pf.: 21–25 (1895);
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 27–387 (1852);
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1):27 (1852);
    • G. Don, Gen. Hist. Dichlam. Pl. 4: 400–442 (1837);
    • Synopsis: 5 (1816)
    • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 1–248 (1813)
    • Moench, Meth.: 473–476 (1794);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 85 (1754);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 184 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0