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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.
Solanum (Solanaceae)

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous Plants never armed, glabrous or with various simple to branched or dendritic hairs, elsewhere sometimes with truly stellate hairs or scales; cymes extra-axillary or sometimes terminal and then sometimes remaining so unless overtopped by a side branch, usually eventually lateral; anthers oblong, opening by large terminal pores or slits and then often slit down the side with age
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules Leaves alternate, sometimes appearing in pairs with one larger (major) and the other smaller (minor), petiolate or sessile, sometimes clasping the stem, entire to deeply lobed or pinnatisect, sometimes prickly, sometimes with pseudostipules.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate Cymes developmentally terminal but quickly overtopped by the lateral shoot which is often fused with the basal part of the peduncle (concaulescent) so the cyme becomes lateral and extra-axillary, less often axillary or leaf-opposed, variously developed, consisting of terminal cincinni, sometimes curled (scorpioid), elongate (racemiform) or contracted (umbelliform), with a peduncle, sometimes dichotomously branched (paniculiform or corymbiform) or unbranched (racemiform), or ± sessile (fascicled), few–many-flowered, rarely 1-flowered, ebracteate and ebracteolate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual. Flowers actinomorphic, sometimes slightly zygomorphic, (4)5(6)-merous, bisexual or the lower ones bisexual and the upper ones in the same inflorescence functionally male (female sterile by reduction of the ovary), elsewhere occasionally all unisexual; pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels often articulated above the base to the midpoint (perhaps indicating ancestral bracteoles), rarely at the base, leaving small scars on the axes when shed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures Calyx longer than the corolla tube, campanulate, rotate or cupular, with (4)5(10) valvate teeth or lobes, sometimes accrescent and sometimes investing the fruit when mature, the lobes appressed or loosely raised, sometimes reflexed, when mature mostly splitting at the sutures.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation Corolla most often flushed purple, violet or blue, sometimes mauve or white, more rarely yellow, shortly tubular to campanulate, rotate or deeply stelliform; tube usually short; limb usually broad, entire to deeply lobed or even divided to the base, spreading to reflexed, the lobes usually ± pubescent to tomentose on the back, united or not by a membrane, with plicate or induplicate-valvate aestivation.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged Stamens equal to unequal, ± as long as the corolla lobes, usually exserted; filaments often short, glabrous or pubescent, inserted on the corolla tube at varying heights, often partially connate or united at the base forming a ring or rarely wanting; anthers usually all fertile, rarely rudimentary, short and thick to elongate and tapered, occasionally prolonged into a sterile appendage, rarely pubescent, usually connivent around the style, rarely connate, attached at the base or shortly above, dehiscing by terminal pores, these sometimes developing into short or long slits; connective sometimes enlarged.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
"Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary (""false"") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous."
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid
Note
The circumscription of the genus and the subdivision into subgenera, sections and groups has received considerable attention and is significantly affected by recent molecular and cladistic studies. Cyphomandra is now included, see Bohs in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995). The situation of Lycopersicon is more controversial. It too is nested within Solanum, with clear evidence for its position in subgen. Solanum sect. Petota, where it is placed here after consultation with the authors of the Flora of Ethiopia and the Flora of Tropical East Africa. The morphological separation of the 9–12 species involved is clear-cut, however, and almost all the literature on this economically important segregate has been written under Lycopersicon. Nee in Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop, Solanaceae IV: 299 (1999) recommends that Lycopersicon should be retained for practical purposes and such treatment will also be found in Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum (2001) and some other recent literature. One of the largest genera of vascular plants, with about 1250 species, showing great variability in form and ecological preference, almost worldwide, from tropical to temperate regions of both hemispheres, principally the southern, mostly centred in tropical America, mainly South America, but also in temperate America and Africa. The genus is a source of numerous toxic and medicinal species as well as several food plants (S. tuberosum L., S. lycopersicum L., S. betaceum Cav., S. melongena L., S. muricatum Aiton and S. quitoense Lam.), and also of many weeds of disturbed habitats. About 100–110 species in Africa and adjacent islands, many of them native and several locally or regionally endemic, variously used in folk medicine and a few regularly cultivated as food crops (S. melongena L., S. aethiopicum L. and S. macrocarpon L.), or introduced as ornamentals (S. seaforthianum Andrews, S. laxum Spreng., S. pseudocapsicum L., S. wendlandii Hook.f., S. capsicoides All., S. mammosum L., S. wrightii Benth. and S. robustum H.L. Wendl.); 39 species recorded in the Flora Zambesiaca area, 11 of them known only under cultivation. Species of this enormous genus (and indeed the whole family) do tend to be variable. There is often an overlap of the character states that at first sight would seem to be very distinctive and it is often necessary to consider a combination of features for identification (and rather easily confirmed if herbarium material or illustrations are available for comparison). It is helpful to note the habit of the plant, whether domesticated or not, and to collect fruits as well as flowers, noting the size, colour and texture. Further observations on hybrids, local domesticates and natural variation would be valuable. For present purposes it seems best to treat a number of the more variable species, such as S. anguivi, S. giganteum, S. incanum and S. macrocarpon, in a broad sense, without attempting any formal subdivisions. The arrangement of species follows Nee, op. cit.: 285–333 (1999), but for practical reasons, particularly considering the anomalous character states of some cultivated species, an artificial key is provided to identify the species in the Flora Zambesiaca area. The synopsis below will, however, give a good idea of the broad relationships of the many groups. Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12
Morphology General Habit
Herbs, shrubs or trees, sometimes climbing, with fibrous or tuber-bearing roots or rhizomatous, sometimes armed with straight to hooked prickles, usually pubescent with a variety of simple, branched or stellate, rarely peltate, eglandular or glandular hairs, sometimes accompanied by bristles, often with multicellular glands intermixed, rarely glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Disc
Disk inconspicuous or absent. Disk inconspicuous or absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Pistil
Ovary usually ± globose, basically 2-locular with an expanded axile placenta, sometimes elaborated and developing 1–2 secondary ("false") septa between its principal lobes, appearing 3–4-locular, or dividing into branches filling the locules, the ovules hemicampylotropous, numerous; style simple, equalling or exceeding the anthers, terete, erect or declinate and somewhat sigmoid in shape and then with the stigmatic tip often bent or almost hooked, rarely persistent; stigma terminal, capitate, small or slightly elongate, obscurely 2–4-lobed to markedly 2-fid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules. Fruit a berry, pale green, yellow to red, brown to purple, ± black or ivory-white, usually globose, sometimes ovoid, rarely conical or oblong, when ripe juicy, mucilaginous, fleshy, papery or bony, sometimes partially hollow, rarely dry and sub-capsular, usually 2-locular with slightly enlarged placental area in the centre of the septum, from it radiating the seeds into the usually pulp-filled locules between the septum and the pericarp, becoming unilocular by reduction of the septum, more rarely 3–4-locular by proliferation of it, sometimes aromatic, mostly falling from the receptacle, with or without sclerotic granules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique. Seeds few–many, mostly flattened, compressed laterally, mostly discoidal or ± reniform, rarely surrounded by a distinct wing or appearing tomentose or hirsute; testa smooth or minutely pitted, less often muricate; embryo circinnate, sub-marginal in the fleshy usually abundant endosperm; cotyledons ovate to linear-lanceolate in outline, incumbent or sometimes oblique
Cytology
Predominantly diploid, but also tetraploid, hexaploid or octoploid; chromosome number-base: x=12.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Herbs or shrubs, sometimes climbers; stems and young branches with or without prickles, often pubescent with glandular, simple or stellate hairs
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate or sometimes paired, simple, pinnatisect or apparently pinnate to lobed or entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences often raceme-, umbel- or panicle-like, terminal, axillary or extra-axillary or leaf-opposed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers usually bisexual, but in some species inflorescences with one bisexual or female basal flower and a varying number of distal male flowers (andromonoecious), actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, especially in androecium
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx campanulate, rotate or cup-shaped, usually 5-merous with acute or acuminate lobes, sometimes enlarged in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla stellate and deeply lobed to rotate, rarely campanulate, purple, blue or less frequently white, the lobes folded in bud
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually equal, sometimes one stamen different from the rest, inserted in the throat of the corolla; anthers basifixed, often cohering around the style, dehiscent by terminal pores or slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 2-celled; stigma terminal, small, capitate or bifid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit a juicy, papery or leathery berry, sometimes ± enclosed in accrescent fruiting calyx
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds white, brown or black.
Distribution
Genus of about 1200 species in all parts of the world, chiefly in subtropical Central and South America with secondary centres of distribution in Africa and Australia.
Vernacular
The vernacular names kariir (or kariiri) or mooh are used for several species of Solanum in Somalia.

[FTEA]

Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, woody shrubs, lianas or trees.
Morphology Stem
Stems stoloniferous, rhizomatous, tuberiferous or with gemmiferous roots; branches glabrous or with simple, branched, stellate, dendritic or echinoid multicellular, eglandular or glandularheaded hairs, sometimes with prickles
Morphology Leaves
Leaves simple and entire to lobed or compound, alternate or opposite, stipulate, sometimes with prickles; petiolate or sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences terminal, axillary, leaf-opposed or extra-axillary racemose or paniculate cymes, 2–300+ flowered, rarely 1-flowered; pedunculate to epedunculate, flowers sessile or pedicellate, pedicels sometimes articulate; flowers white to purple, rarely yellow, often with basal translucent, green, yellow or purple star, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, (4–)5(–6)-merous; pedicels erect to reflexed, glabrescent to pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx cyathiform to campanulate, with 5(–10) triangular acute lobes often prolonged through the calyx as prominent veins, slightly to fully accrescent and persistent in fruit; sometimes with an annular thickening basally
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Corolla campanulaterotate to stellate with short tube and shallowly to deeply lobed; lobes valvate in bud, often spreading after anthesis
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens usually 5, equal or unequal; filaments joined to corolla tube, glabrous to pubescent; anthers connivent, basifixed, exserted, dehiscing by apical pores which often develop into short or long lateral slits
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary usually sessile, ovoid or pyriform to globose, glabrous, bi- or tri-locular, ovules numerous; disc small or absent, annular; style filiform, glabrous to pilose, often exserted; stigma capitate , globose, sometimes bilobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit erect or drooping, dryish or sub-fleshy, globose to obovoid berries, often depressed, 2- to 3- locular, smooth
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds few to many, reniform to suborbicular, compressed laterally, rarely winged, rugose; sclerotic granules present or absent
Type
Type species: Solanum nigrum L.
Note
According to Jaeger & Hepper (1986) native Solanum species found in the FTEA region belong to the three sections Afrosolanum Bitter, Bendirianum Bitter and Solanum of the subgenus Solanum, and the seven sections Anisantherum Bitter, Ischyracanthum Bitter, Melongena (Mill.) Dunal, Monodolichopus Bitter, Oliganthes (Dunal) Bitter, Somalanum Bitter, and Torva Nees of the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter. This latter subgenus is probably the most complex subdivision of Solanum, comprising around 33 Many of Solanum species revisions have been regional and especially concerned with the New World components. The latter were tackled by Nee (1999) for example, while Symon (Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard., 4: 1–367 (1981) & 8: 20–168 (1985)) revised those in Australia and New Guinea. Meanwhile Whalen (in Gentes Herb. 12(4) (1984)) produced an invaluable conspectus of species groups in the subgenus Leptostemonum. The most important revisions of African Solanums include those of Dammer (in E.J. 28: 473–477 (1901), 38: 176–195 (1906), 48: 236–260; 53: 325–352 (1915)); Bitter (in F.R. 10: 542–548 (1912) & in E.J. 49: 560–569 (1913), 54: 416–506 (1917) & 57: 248–286 (1921)); Jaeger (Systematic Studies in the genus Solanum in Africa (1985, Ph.D. thesis, ined.)) and Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae Biology & Systematics, 41–55 (1986)) all of which were largely based on traditional taxonomic characters. Both Dammer and Bitter adopted narrow species concepts and were ‘splitters’, usually describing any infraspecific variation formally as subspecies or varieties. Though their publications include extremely detailed species descriptions they were invariably based on limited herbarium material and many of the specimens on which their new taxa were based have since been destroyed or lost. For example, Bitter described many new Solanum species in his Solana Africana from specimens in the Berlin-Dahlem (B) herbarium which was destroyed during World War II. Other species, based on specimens in the Polish herbarium Wroclaw (WRSL), known as Breslau in Bitter’s time, were similarly destroyed. Though duplicates of many of the species that he described from other geographical areas, particularly from Central and South America have been traced, this is not so for several of the African species especially those belonging to the section Solanum. Some of those that have been traced proved to be valid species, but many others are synonyms. The affinity of the remainder can be surmised to some extent from his extensive protologues, though in such variable and closely related species the synonymy of the taxa concerned is often only tentative. Unfortunately, Bitter died without completing his comprehensive monograph of African Solanum species. Jaeger’s (1985) subsequent survey of the African species provided the latest comprehensive review of Solanum species found throughout Africa, but it remains unpublished. His supervisor Richard Lester was in the process of preparing Jaeger’s work for publication before his untimely death in 2006, though there are plans to publish this account posthumously. The African subgenus Leptostemonum is currently being revised by Vorontsova and Knapp. of the species; recent molecular analyses (e.g. Levin et al. in Amer. Journ. Bot., 93: 157–169 (2006)) are beginning to yield interesting information on this group, though they have yet to clarify species relationships within it. Nonnative species belonging to other subgenera and many other sections are also widely found throughout this area. are probably the result of recent introductions – either deliberate or casual. Approximately 70 Solanum species including infra-specific taxa have been recognised in this treatment for Tropical East Africa, of which some are introductions and are only known under cultivation. Solanum is one of the largest flowering plant genera and occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. The generic name is believed to be derived from the latin ‘solamen’ meaning comfort, and to allude to the reputed narcotic properties of the generic type Solanum nigrum L. Solanum species, which are often called Nightshades, exhibit considerable morphological diversity and a range of ecological preferences. Jaeger & Hepper (in D’Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae, Biology & Systematics: 44 (1986)) estimated that around 110 Solanum species occur in Africa and its adjacent islands, of which some 20 Of the Solanum species found in the floral region, many are important food plants, such as the potato, S. tuberosum L.; the African eggplants, S. aethiopicum L., S. macrocarpon L., and S. melongena L.; and the African nightshades, S. nigrum sensu lato. Others are cultivated as ornamentals, either for their showy flowers such as the Jasmine Nightshade, S. laxum Spreng., or for their colorful berries, e.g., the Jerusalem cherry, S. pseudocapsicum L., while some constitute troublesome weeds of disturbed habitats. The genus is also a source of toxin - largely in the form of steroidal alkaloids such as solanidane; of medicinal drugs with S. campylacanthum L., for example, being one of the most widely used African medicinal species; and of drug precursors such as solasodine used in the production of corticosteroids and found in around 200 Solanum species ( cf. Hawkes in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 5 (1999)). A number of species figure prominently in ethnobotanical practices throughout the FTEA region. Indeed, Bukenya & Carasco (in Nee: 345–360 (1999)) reported that most of the 27 Solanum species found in Uganda play important social and economic roles among local populations, being used for magic, spiritual rites, and fertility cults as well as for food, medicine, and ornamentals. As with Solanums elsewhere, the African taxa are often extremely difficult to delimit; many exhibit considerable infra-specific variation and there is widespread confusion over identification and names. Both flowers and fruits are often necessary for accurate identification, together with notes on their respective colours and the fruit texture. In addition, notes on their habit and habitats are also useful. Often a combination of characters is required for definitive assessment. There are a number of species-complexes; they include the S. anguivi Lam. group and the S. incanum L. group – both belonging to the subgenus Leptostemonum, and the Black Nightshades – of the subgenus Solanum sect. Solanum which centres around the generic type S. nigrum. Between 1000 and 2000 species, though the accepted number is now thought not to exceed 1400. The genus is considered to be of New World origin, exhibiting its greatest diversity in the Neotropics particularly in Central and South America; D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: 98 (1991)) suggested that over 500 Solanum species were endemic to the New World. Within the last two decades, infra- and inter-generic groupings have been greatly influenced by molecular and cladistic studies. However, Olmstead & Bohs (in Spooner et al. (eds), Solanaceae VI: 255–268 (2006)) estimated that only around 30 The genus has been the subject of innumerable treatments and revisions since it was first described in 1753. A useful summary of earlier subgeneric classifications of Solanum is given in Symon (in Journ. Adelaide Bot. Gard. 4 (1981)). Notable revisions include those of Dunal (Hist. Solanum (1813)) & in DC., Prodr. 13(1) (1852); D’Arcy (in Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 59: 262–278 (1972) & in Hawkes et al. Solanaceae III: 75–137 (1991) and Child & Lester (in van den Bergen et al. (eds), Solanaceae V: 39–60 (2001)). A number of new infrageneric taxa later proposed by Child (in F.R. 109: 5–6 & 407–427 (1998)) have since been synonymised by other authors. In 1991, D’Arcy subdivided the genus into seven subgenera containing approximately 62 sections; he then considered that the subgenus Leptostemonum (Dunal) Bitter displays its greatest diversity in the Americas but that diversification of this subgenus had occurred in Africa. He also suggested that minor centers of generic diversity had evolved in Africa, Madagascar and Macaronesia where the genus Solanum has evolved a number of distinctive sections many of which are endemic to these regions . of Solanum species had been analysed to 2006, though they noted that several major efforts to elucidate both the taxonomy and the molecular phylogeny of this genus world-wide are currently in progress. The most significant genera affected by molecular analyses have been Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon which are now accepted as belonging to the genus Solanum itself. Spooner et al. (in Amer. Journ. Bot. 80: 676–688 (1993)) used data from chloroplast DNA restriction site analysis to demonstrate that chemical, molecular and morphological data provided overwhelming evidence for the cladistic relationship of Solanum subg. Potatoe and Lycopersicon, and subsequently transferred all Lycopersicon epithets to Solanum. These authors further proposed the adoption of the epithet Solanum lycopersicum L. for the cultivated tomato. Subsequently, Bohs & Olmstead (in Nee et al. (eds), Solanaceae IV: 97–110 (1999)), using cpDNA to derive ndhF gene sequences confirmed earlier analyses which suggested that Cyphomandra should be included within Solanum and Bohs (in Taxon 44: 583–587 (1995)) later transferred the genus and all its species into Solanum. Bohs & Olmstead (in Syst. Bot. 22: 5–17 (1997)) then used chloroplast ndhF sequences to verify that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra nested within Solanum, while Olmstead & Palmer (in Syst. Bot., 22: 19–29 (1997)) showed that cpDNA restriction site variation strongly indicated that both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra were derived from within Solanum and should be relegated to subgeneric or sectional status. Nevertheless several authors either retained these two genera as distinct (e.g. Hunziker in Genera Solanaceae, 2001) or argued that they should be retained for practical purposes (e.g. Nee in Solanaceae IV: 285–333 (1999)). Indeed, D’Arcy (in Hawkes et al. (eds), Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution: 81 (1991)) had already proposed that the conservation of the name Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. over other Lycopersicon names for the tomato by the 1987 International Botanical Congress could be construed as support for its separate generic status. Hunziker (2001) vehemently rejected the inclusion of both Lycopersicon and Cyphomandra within Solanum, arguing that though closely related, they are clearly distinguishable morphologically. He tabulated a number of characters by which Solanum could be delimited from Cyphomandra, and also considered that protoplasmic fusion experiments supported the recognition of Lycopersicon and Solanum as distinct genera. Nee (1999) considered that Cyphomandra should be placed in Solanum sect. Pachyphylla Dunal of the subgenus Bassovia (Aubl.) Bitter while Lycopersicon belongs to the sect. Petota of the subgenus Solanum. This FTEA treatment accepts the increasing molecular evidence supporting the inclusion Cyphomandra and Lycopersicon in Solanum, thereby following the F.Z. (but not the Fl. Eth.) Solanum account.

[FZ]

Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

Morphology General
Plants never armed, glabrous or with simple or irregularly branched hairs; cymes axillary or extra-axillary, or from forks of the stem; anthers tapering and with small terminal pores or sometimes oblong and opening by larger pores or slits

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Altay, Amur, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Austria, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Desventurados Is., District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Finland, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Marquesas, Marshall Is., Maryland, Massachusetts, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Northwest European R, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Réunion, Sakhalin, Samoa, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Selvagens, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Society Is., Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

Antipodean Is., Ascension, Bermuda, Caroline Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Gilbert Is., Kerguelen, Laccadive Is., Line Is., Nauru, Rodrigues, St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha, Tuvalu, Wake I.

Solanum L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171026
Jan 1, 2017 Drake [44], Egypt K001152217
Jan 1, 2017 Casey, E.C. [1283], Cyprus K001152202
Jan 1, 2017 s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171024
Jan 1, 2016 Constance, L. [3396], USA K001159932
Jan 1, 2013 Nee, M.H. [34976], Brazil K001058936
Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [529], Bolivia K000441037
Oct 20, 2012 Mendoza, M. [449], Bolivia K000441048
Oct 20, 2012 Balls, E.K. [7113], Ecuador K000788010
Oct 20, 2012 Cárdenas, M. [5968], Bolivia K000788009
Oct 20, 2012 Eyerdam, W.J. [22152], Peru K000788011
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [17690], Bolivia K000658383
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [15876], Bolivia K000658360
Oct 20, 2012 Worth, C.R. [15704], Peru K000788058
Oct 20, 2012 Wood, J.R.I. [11974], Bolivia K000658384
Jan 1, 2011 s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K001058412
May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096551
May 1, 2004 Rahayu, M. [720] K000096572
May 1, 2004 Coveny, R.G. [12808], Australia K000096576
May 1, 2004 Anonymous [618], Jamaica K000096570
May 1, 2004 Estrada, A. [2276], Costa Rica K000096549
May 1, 2004 Thomsen, K. [150], Costa Rica K000096552
May 1, 2004 Matthew, K.M. [40038], India K000096571
Dec 1, 2003 Eden, M.J. [EM8], Brazil K001058924
Apr 1, 1997 Souza, V.C. [9002], Brazil K001058351
Jan 1, 1997 Eiten, G. [10802], Brazil K001058931
Jul 21, 1976 Lyonnet, E. [362], Mexico K000064046
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [2397], Brazil K001058338
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [12402], Brazil K001058328
Jan 1, 1972 Prance, G.T. [10054], Brazil K001058901
Jan 1, 1968 Irwin, H.S. [20935], Brazil K001058935
Jul 2, 1905 Luke, W.R.Q. [7970], Tanzania K000441637
Chancellor, R.J. [124], Uganda 11200.000
11206.000
Drummond, R.B. [3552], Tanzania 16345.000
Drummond, R.B. [3662], Tanzania 16662.000
Drummond, R.B. [2421], Tanzania 17719.000
Verdcourt, B. [2993], Kenya 3459.000
Arnold, M.H.M. [F], South Africa 35934.000
Cable, S. [3780], Cameroon 61721.000
Cazalet, P. [7644], Ecuador 6409.000
Cazalet, P. [7524], Ecuador 7054.000
Cazalet, P. [7793], Ecuador 7055.000
Philcox, D. [4385], Brazil 7403.000
Ash [989], Ethiopia 71990.000
Ash [1689], Ethiopia 34291.000
Ash [1299], Ethiopia 35662.000
Ash [1184], Ethiopia 35480.000
Balls, E.K. [B.4671], Mexico K000064042
Hahn, M. [9], Mexico K000064044
Palmer, E. [74], Mexico K000064047
Ollerton, J. [180], Guyana 65082.000
Rico, L. [2021], Mexico K000265997
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132486
Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132487
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Vietnam K001132467
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132469
Akkul, M. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132473
Burchell [3473], Brazil K001058928
Lindeman, J.C. [2943], Brazil K001058930
Edwards, P.J. [2580], Brazil K001058933
Fraga, C.N. [2877], Brazil K001058939
Glaziou, A. [8852], Brazil K001058459
Martinelli, G. [7610], Brazil K001058491
Mathews [1510] K001058659
Rosa, N.A. [3934], Brazil K001058895
Sucre, D. [6577], Brazil K001058900
Schultes, R.E. [6541], Brazil K001058902
Martius [s.n.], French Guiana K001058903
Prance, G.T. [58675], Brazil K001058907
Prance, G.T. [59094], Brazil K001058911
Krukoff, B.A. [6319], Brazil K001058916
Collenette, I.S. [9396], Saudi Arabia K001152211
s.coll [s.n.], Yemen K001152215
Faurie, P. [1172], Japan K001152467
Oldham, R. [852], Japan K001152469
Oldham, R. [336], Taiwan K001152470
s.coll [79/41] K001152471
s.coll [793] K001152615
Herb Horsfield, T. [s.n.], Indonesia K001153682
Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153831
Dunlop, C.R. [2332], Australia K001155113
Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155247
Pullen, R. [3964], Australia K001155249
Stoward, F. [629], Australia K001155250
Constable, E.F. [23728], Australia K001155259
Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155267
s.coll [s.n.] K001166732
Gillies [s.n.], Argentina K001167686
Okada, K. [2879], Argentina K001167935
Tweedie [836] K001167939
s.coll [OCH1192214] K001170994
Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170999
Nee, M. [16073], USA K001171001
Holt, P. [45], Peru K001171009
Hawkes [SEM266] K001171010
s.coll [s.n.] K001171013
Rosa, N.A. [3865], Brazil K000438526
Wood, J.R.I. [18979], Bolivia K000449579
Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545845
Woolston, A.L. [826], Paraguay K000788567
Corradi, R. [3004], Italy K001151655
Oteke, J. [60], Kenya K001157283
s.coll [33], Tanzania K001157951
Irwin, H.S. [20769], Brazil K001162415
Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162418
Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162419
Goudot [2] K001163141
Dillon, M.O. [4064], Peru K001164580
Hawkes, J.G. [2471], Peru K001165498
Pipoly, J.J. [17047], Colombia K001166618
Edwards, K.S. [676], Colombia K001166628
Plowman, T.C. [4181], Colombia K001166629
Bernardi, L. [6912], Venezuela K001166637
Schunke Vigo, J. [6617], Peru K001166645
Vásquez, R. [3752], Peru K001166649
Plowman, T.C. [4929], Peru K001166653
Knapp, S. [6448], Peru K001166667
Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166672
Wood, J.R.I. [10103], Bolivia K001166674
Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152842
Grández, C. [251], Peru K001166652
Po Khant, D.R. [1095], Myanmar K001171021
Prance, G.T. [2893], Brazil K000449577
Wood, J.R.I. [14889], Bolivia K000545846
Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162423
Burchell [1869], Brazil K001058926
s.coll [s.n.] K001160980
Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058072
s.coll [2114], India K001153138
Pearson, H.H.W. [3397], South Africa K001159257
Tweedie [1256] K001167932
Balls, E.K. [6927], Peru K001166642
Silva, M. [2607], Brazil K001058215
Knapp, S. [6802], Venezuela K001164113
Steinbach, J. [9166], Bolivia K001166675
Okada [7618A] K001167933
Pensiero, J. [4256], Argentina K001167938
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170989
Hawkes, J.G. [1442], Mexico K001160760
Glaziou, A. [8870], Brazil K001058918
Wood, J.R.I. [26371], Bolivia K001166673
Bentham [87], Australia K001154666
s.coll [s.n.] K001171015
s.coll [s.n.] K001171005
Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166651
Harley, R.M. [22991], Brazil K001162420
Zak, V. [1503], Ecuador K001166638
Corradi, R. [3064], Italy K001151656
Dusén, P. [15949], Brazil K001058906
Maesen, L.J.G. van der [3235], India K001153241
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001170995
Herb. Gray, A. [s.n.] K001159751
Sands, M.J.S. [7296], Indonesia K001153833
s.coll [s.n.] K001171016
Steinbach, J. [3282], Bolivia K001165668
Tweedie [1234], Argentina K000545914
Heller, T.M. [340], United Arab Emirates K001151917
Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171028
Maesen, L.J.G. van der [4912], India K001153240
André, E. [K692] K000449574
Kenneally, K.F. [8308], Australia K001155251
Furuse, M. [1962], Japan K001152474
Lambert, M.R.K. [622], Australia K001155246
Hubbard, C.E. [3813], Australia K001155258
Moritz, J.W.K. [1702] K001166633
Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132480
Burchell [8543-A], Brazil K001058446
Kalbreyer, W. [1049], Grenada K001166620
Schultes, R.E. [7196], Colombia K001171023
s.coll [s.n.], China K001152614
Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166627
Rodway, F.A. [644], Australia K001154066
Lazarides, M. [5728], Australia K001154733
Symon, D.E. [s.n.], Australia K001168589
Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153683
Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658321
Bay, C. [s.n.], Chile K001166735
Burchell [9024], Brazil K001058925
s.coll [s.n.] K001171014
Whistler, A. [W5220], Cook Is. K001170937
Yammann [57] K001058394
Arbo, M.M. [7705], Brazil K001058929
Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155266
Forman, L.L. [237], Indonesia K001153684
Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162421
Ferreira, A.R. [856] K001058894
s.coll [s.n.] K001151417
Ash, J.W. [318], Ethiopia K001156064
Franc, I. [841], New Caledonia K001155440
Harley, R.M. [21154], Brazil K001162424
Carr, C.E. [14366], Papua New Guinea K001153710
André [K1411] K001166622
Neto, J.V. [28080], Brazil K001058893
Pierotti, S.A. [4259], Argentina K001167941
s.coll [s.n.], France K001168346
Hutchison, P.C. [3548], Peru K001166662
J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155264
Eiten, G. [6688], Brazil K001058914
Krukoff, B.A. [6345], Brazil K001058915
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132484
Duarte, A.P. [1758], Brazil K001058552
Montes, J.E. [3438], Argentina K001167931
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132483
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132470
Montes, J.E. [2194], Argentina K001167937
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170990
Plowman, T. [12931], Brazil K001058490
Arana, A. [20], Peru K001166660
Heyne, B. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132479
Lindeman, J.C. [4970], Brazil K001058910
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132475
Pinto, L.R. [s.n.], Brazil K001058897
s.coll [s.n.] K001166731
Dale, I.R. [H128], Kenya K001169834
s.coll [s.n.] K001171012
Lescure [776], French Guiana K001162409
Smith, D. [183], Brazil K001058913
Loveridge, M.V. [644], Congo K001156002
Cazalet, P.C.D. [5026], Ecuador K001163531
Wood, J.R.I. [12470], Bolivia K001166671
Ochoa, C. [14137], USA K001169975
s.coll [H2866/65], United Kingdom K001171019
Harley, R.M. [55830], Bahia K001171646
Kairo, A. [292], Papua New Guinea K001153835
Gillis, W.T. [10166], Costa Rica K001160984
Aranza, A. [s.n.] K001166646
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132727
s.coll [57], Saudi Arabia K001152212
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132485
Smith, A.C. [3400], Guyana K001162410
Saunders, S.G.E. [465], Peru K000658391
Miller, A.G. [3424], Yemen K001152214
Lindeman, J.C. [6176], Suriname K001162413
Eiten, G. [7887], Brazil K001058923
Glaziou, A. [8197], Brazil K001058579
Eden, M.J. [EM26], Brazil K001058921
Mendoza, M. [835], Bolivia K001166668
Ratter, J.A. [R7894], Brazil K001058920
Duthie, J.F. [19969] K001153238
s.coll [s.n.], Argentina K001169831
Bean, A.R. [17255], Australia K001155243
André, E. [3130] K001166632
s.coll [40] K001160979
Hinton, G.B. [15942], Mexico K000064041
Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152464
Burchell [8493], Brazil K001058445
Arbo, M.M. [7787], Brazil K001058898
Simmonds, N.W. [19-55], United Kingdom K001170988
Sandeman, C.A.W. [3402], Peru K001166663
Plowman, T. [2795], Brazil K001058922
s.coll [5092], Uruguay K001167943
Knapp, S. [6560], Peru K001166665
Lindeman, J.C. [6812], Suriname K001162411
Knapp, S. [6762], Venezuela K001166635
Knapp, S. [6315], Peru K001166661
Sandeman, C.A.W. [3413], Peru K001166657
Trott, A.C. [233], Saudi Arabia K001152213
Corradi, R. [2911], Italy K001151653
Harley, R.M. [54135], Brazil K001058892
Cuezzo, A.R. [762], Argentina K001167942
Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 9074], India K001132181
Schunke Vigo, J. [14033], Peru K001166658
s.coll [s.n.] K001170991
Bally, P.R.O. [8306], Kenya K001157809
Cruse, A. [210], Zambia K001158723
Cogollo Pacheco, A.A. [7966], Colombia K001166630
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058941
Prance, G.T. [59008], Brazil K001058896
Glaziou [11367], Brazil K001058216
Glaziou, A. [18410], Brazil K001058217
André [K634] K001166623
Steyermark, J.A. [95333], Venezuela K001166496
Knapp, S. [6536], Peru K001166659
Fiaschi, P. [3553], Brazil K001058940
Krukoff, B.A. [1456], Brazil K001058919
s.coll [s.n.] K001171002
Krukoff, B.A. [4892], Brazil K001058413
Pierotti, S.A. [4257], Argentina K001167940
Schunke Vigo, J. [5866], Peru K001166664
Glaziou [21816a], Brazil K001058264
Tweedie [s.n.], Argentina K001166741
Lehmann, F.C. [4950], Ecuador K001166639
Harley, R.M. [21984], Brazil K001162425
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132482
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Tamil Nadu K001132476
s.coll [115/35] K001152472
Streimann, H. [HS618], Australia K001154065
Ruiz, J. [1212], Peru K001166648
Lambert, M.R.K. [440], Australia K001155244
Evans, M.S. [3485], Australia K001155261
Plowman, T.C. [11550], Peru K001166647
Ash, J.W. [467], Ethiopia K001156065
Lambert, M.R.K. [586], Australia K001155268
Child, A. [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171027
Savatier, P.A.L. [875], Japan K001152465
Sakuragui, C.M. [15163], Brazil K000545844
Tarn, R.T. [78pipi], Mexico K001160981
Grández, C. [1208], Peru K001166650
Darwin, C.R. [157] K001166742
Lörzing [12947], Indonesia K001153549
Edwards, K.S. [637], Colombia K001166626
Balls, E.K. [B.4381], Mexico K000064043
Goodman, C.M. [294], United Kingdom K001151651
s.coll [s.n.] K001168826
Preston, T.A. [798-12], Brazil K000449578
Nee, M. [16069], USA K001170998
Cuming, H. [266], Chile K001166734
s.coll. [s.n.] K001058129
Johnson, R.W. [2784], Australia K001171003
Roxburgh, W. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132488
Vasconcellos, J. [20868], Brazil K001058088
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171018
Corradi, R. [2924], Italy K001151654
Johns, R.J. [9565], Indonesia K000172378
Prance, G.T. [14392], Brazil K001058909
Maas, P.J.M. [P 12713], Brazil K001058912
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132481
Thwaites [CP1901], Sri Lanka K001152843
Hawkes [6722] K001170993
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132474
Cordillera, C. [266] K001166740
Johnstone, R. [2728], Australia K001155242
Tessmann, G. [6044], Brazil K001058036
Cunningham, R.O. [s.n.] K001166737
Herb. Lehmann [K226], Colombia K001166625
Hepper, F.N. [2146], Cameroon K000028576
Pirani, J.R. [2902], Brazil K001058578
Atkins, S. [4709], Brazil K001058937
Herb Felippone, F. [6166], Uruguay K001167944
Faurie, P. [6720], Japan K001152468
Hutchison, J. [3767], Zambia K001158708
Saunders, S.G.E. [1289], Peru K001166643
Steinbach, J. [14844], Bolivia K001166669
s.coll [s.n.] K001166738
Hahn, M. [s.n.] K001160985
Okada [7618A], Argentina K001167934
Forbes [s.n.] K001158870
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132478
Forrest, G. [9473] K001152616
Blake, A.L. [33A], Argentina K001167936
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132477
Davies, S. [s.n.] K001151652
Lambert, M.R.K. [601], Australia K001155265
J.H.H. [7113], Australia K001155263
Esteves, R. [15], Brazil K001162414
Mexia, Y.E.J. [8245], Peru K001166656
Herb. Terasaki, T. [s.n.], Japan K001152466
Constable, E.F. [NSW 25622], Australia K001154064
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169833
Palmer, E.J. [7771], USA K001159750
Ule, E. [7475], Brazil K001058932
Harley, R.M. [27342], Brazil K001058071
Barclay, A.S. [617], Colombia K001171022
Lima, H.C. [2533], Brazil K001058938
Vélez, I. [3233], Grenada K001161020
Nee, M. [16082], USA K001170997
Symon, D.E. [5232], Australia K001155255
Albrecht, D.E. [12007], Australia K001155262
Ruiz, J. [1580], Peru K001166644
Ratter, J.A. [626], Brazil K001058904
s.coll [s.n.], Japan K001152463
Leonard, A. [5309], Congo K001169829
França, F. [1187], Brazil K001058891
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], India K001132471
Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155257
Herb Blackburn, J. [s.n.] K001167685
Milliken [47], Venezuela K001166634
Bang, M. [2868], Bolivia K001166670
Morawetz, W. [33-311075], Brazil K001058905
Elwes, H.J. [s.n.] K001166733
Knapp, S. [6314], Peru K001166655
O'Ryan, K. [38], Australia K001154063
Duthie, J.F. [s.n.], Pakistan K001153239
Hawkes [6722] K001170992
Paula, C.H.R. [720], Brazil K001058927
Lambert, M.R.K. [535], Australia K001155248
Schunke Vigo, J. [4325], Peru K001166654
Furuse, M. [9548], Japan K001152473
Knapp, S. [6527], Peru K001166666
Symon, D.E. [35848], Australia K001169515
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169832
Wood, J.R.I. [19846], Bolivia K000658320
André [K1413] K001166621
Balls, E.K. [B4747], Mexico K000064045
s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166739
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171006
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171017
Rios, P. [110], Costa Rica K001160983
s.coll. [3882] K001058889
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171025
Holland, F.W. [s.n.], Egypt K001152218
Simaga, J.M. [713], Papua New Guinea K001153834
Talbot, W.A. [s.n.] K001169542
s.coll [s.n.], Chile K001166736
s.coll [s.n.], USA K001159846
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132472
Rabelo, B.V. [2906], Brazil K001058917
Dunlop [2146], Australia K001154706
White, C.T. [9478], Australia K001155260
Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K001155256
Harley, R.M. [21254], Brazil K001162422
Hunte, G.R. le [s.n.], Papua New Guinea K001153830
Verdcourt, B. [1146], Kenya K001169830
s.coll [s.n.] K001171020
Whibley, D.J.E. [306], Australia K001154469
Lleras, E. [P17459], Brazil K001058908
Collenette, I.S. [9378], Saudi Arabia K001152210
Nee, M. [16083], USA K001170996
Lester [9], USA K001160978
Nee, M. [16093], USA K001171000
Williams, R.G. [11844], Trinidad & Tobago K000819158
Mathias, M.E. [5326], Peru K001166641
Eiten, G. [7884], Brazil K001058934
Klug, G. [1857], Colombia K001166624
Magogo, F.C. [17], Kenya K001169835
Pipoly, J.J. [16923], Colombia K001166631
Ganev, W. [2852], Brazil K001058899
s.coll [s.n.] K001171004
Haught, O.L. [2859], Colombia K001166619
Sands, M.J.S. [2073], Papua New Guinea K001153832
s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001171007
s.coll [s.n.] K001171011
Hepper, F.N. [1981], Cameroon K000028575
Armstrong [s.n.], Brazil K001058890
Knapp, S. [6577], Peru K001166640
s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Meghalaya K001132489
Lambert, M.R.K. [476], Australia K001155245
s.coll [6686], Suriname K001162412
Fendler, A. [1009], Venezuela K001166636
Finlayson, G. [Cat. no. s.n.], Thailand K001132468
Herb Morrison, A. [14229], Australia K001154667

First published in Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)

Accepted by

  • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
  • Särkinen, T. & al. (2018). A revision of the Old World black nightshades (Morelloid clade of Solanum L., Solanaceae) PhytoKeys 106: 1-223.

Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 4, 2: 207.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 85 (1754).
  • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 270–315 (2001).
  • Solanum L., Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)
  • Sp. Pl.: 184 (1753)

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]
  • Jaeger & Hepper, A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. In D´Arcy (ed.), Solanaceae. Biology and Systematics: 41–55 (1986).

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60(3): 680–760 (1973);
  • Beheifte 16: 3–320 (1923)
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 27–387 (1852);
  • DC., Prodr. 13(1):27 (1852);
  • Dunal, Hist. Solanum: 1–248 (1813)
  • E. & P. Pf.: 21–25 (1895);
  • E.J 38: 176–195 (1906),
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  • F.R. 10: 542–548 (1912)
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  • Sp. Pl. 1: 184 (1753)
  • Synopsis: 5 (1816)

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
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