1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Cestrum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Florida to Tropical America.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Shrubs, sub-shrubs or small trees, rarely vine-like, evergreen or deciduous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, simple, often pseudo-stipulate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary or terminal cymes, racemes or panicles, often congested, usually many- but occasionally solitary-flowered, bracts often present; flowers actinomorphic, occasionally zygomorphic, diurnal or nocturnal, often subtended by a small bracteole; pedicels usually erect. Calyx tubular, campanulate or cupulate, with five valvate calyx lobes, persistent and usually enlarged in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular; tube often ampliate above and constricted at the throat, with short, induplicate/valvate lobes, usually spreading after anthesis; often densely pubescent internally
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, sub-equal or equal, usually included; filaments variously joined to corolla tube, straight or flexuose, cylindrical or enlarged at point of fusion, sometimes with small appendage near base, glabrous to pubescent where adnate; anthers globose to cordate, medifixed, somewhat versatile
    Ovary
    Ovary sometimes shortly stipitate, glabrous, 2-locular, ovules numerous; disc annular or cupulate, small; style filiform, usually exserted; stigma papillate, capitate, bilobed
    Fruits
    Fruit a smooth few- to many-seeded berry
    Seeds
    Seeds discoidal, sometimes compressed, reniform, elliptic, ovate or prismatic, few to many; testa crustaceous, reticulate-foveate.
    Note
    The flowers of these species are borne in complex inflorescences which can be compact or lax cymes, racemes, umbels or panicles. The precise structure is extremely difficult to determine from the available herbarium material, and so has not been used diagnostically in the following account. The more important chemical constituents found in Cestrum species are summarised in Hunziker (2001). Species belonging to this genus are often called Jessamines. Night-opening flowers are thought to be sphingid (hawkmoth) pollinated, while pollination of red and yellow flowers is by hummingbirds attracted to plants with the sucrose dominant nectars which characterise Cestrums. Their juicy berries are usually bird-dispersed, though some species with foetid foliage and leathery fruits are probably bat-dispersed. Many authors (e.g. Francey, 1935, 1936; Nee, 2001; and Benítez de Rojas & D’Arcy, 1998) have recognized a number of varieties and even forms in most of the species described below. Since none of the names concerned have been encountered on East African material, they have not been included in the synonymy of these species.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Stamens
    Stamens equal or subequal, attached from the middle or higher within the corolla tube and running downwards as ridges, very rarely totally free, mostly included; free part of filaments filiform, often thickened, geniculate or appendaged at or near the base, variously pubescent to glabrous; anthers short, ± globose or obcordate in outline, medifixed, the thecae ± parallel, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens equal or subequal, attached from the middle or higher within the corolla tube and running downwards as ridges, very rarely totally free, mostly included; free part of filaments filiform, often thickened, geniculate or appendaged at or near the base, variously pubescent to glabrous; anthers short, ± globose or obcordate in outline, medifixed, the thecae ± parallel, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Disc
    Disk glandular, rather thick or membranous and cupular, occasionally inconspicuous Disk glandular, rather thick or membranous and cupular, occasionally inconspicuous.
    Ovary
    Ovary on a short, stout stipe or subsessile, ovoid or globose, 2(rarely only incompletely)-locular, the middle dissepiment with subglobose placentas, the ovules few–many in each locule, hemitropous.
    Style
    Style filiform, usually with minute glands upwards.
    Stigma
    Stigma small, ± capitate, subpeltate, concave or 2-lobed, rarely clavate, included or exserted
    Fruits
    Fruit blackish to violaceous, sometimes reddish, rarely white, shortly stipitate, baccaceous, ± globose or ovoid to obovoid, fleshy or juicy, (1)2(4)-locular, indehiscent, rarely with 1–2 apical sutures Fruit blackish to violaceous, sometimes reddish, rarely white, shortly stipitate, baccaceous, ± globose or ovoid to obovoid, fleshy or juicy, (1)2(4)-locular, indehiscent, rarely with 1–2 apical sutures.
    Seeds
    Seeds few or solitary by abortion, variable in shape and size, compressed, dorsally convex, the internal face angular; testa often nearly smooth; embryo orbicular, ovate or oblong in outline, usually thick, straight or somewhat curved in the axis of the fleshy endosperm, with the terete radicle inferior, much narrower (or scarcely so) than the small, compressed, foliaceous, often semi-terete cotyledons Seeds few or solitary by abortion, variable in shape and size, compressed, dorsally convex, the internal face angular; testa often nearly smooth; embryo orbicular, ovate or oblong in outline, usually thick, straight or somewhat curved in the axis of the fleshy endosperm, with the terete radicle inferior, much narrower (or scarcely so) than the small, compressed, foliaceous, often semi-terete cotyledons.
    Habit
    Erect or drooping shrubs or small trees, sometimes scandent, glabrous to tomentose with simple or branched hairs. Erect or drooping shrubs or small trees, sometimes scandent, glabrous to tomentose with simple or branched hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, alternate, rarely in pairs, mostly shortly petiolate, ± entire, often gradually passing into bracts; pseudostipules often present in the axils. Leaves solitary, alternate, rarely in pairs, mostly shortly petiolate, ± entire, often gradually passing into bracts; pseudostipules often present in the axils
    Inflorescences
    Cymes axillary or sometimes appearing terminal, extended, racemiform to more often shortened, corymbiform, spiciform or fasciculiform, sometimes combined into terminal, paniculiform inflorescences; bracts and bracteoles often present. Cymes axillary or sometimes appearing terminal, extended, racemiform to more often shortened, corymbiform, spiciform or fasciculiform, sometimes combined into terminal, paniculiform inflorescences; bracts and bracteoles often present
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5(6)-merous, actinomorphic, occasionally slightly zygomorphic, usually shortly pedicellate, sometimes opening at night. Flowers (4)5(6)-merous, actinomorphic, occasionally slightly zygomorphic, usually shortly pedicellate, sometimes opening at night
    Calyx
    Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular to campanulate or cupular, 5-dentate to deeply divided, the lobes subequal or occasionally unequal, usually shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation, persistent in fruit, not very accrescent. Calyx shorter than the corolla tube, tubular to campanulate or cupular, 5-dentate to deeply divided, the lobes subequal or occasionally unequal, usually shorter than the tube, with valvate aestivation, persistent in fruit, not very accrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla deep yellow to reddish or purplish, rarely greenish-white or white, often very fragrant, sometimes only so at night, tubular-infundibuliform, salviform or somewhat trumpet-shaped, the tube sometimes obconical or with a bulge, often constricted to bladdery at the throat; limb short, regularly revolute, 5-lobed to deeply divided, subplicate, the lobes short, often with involute, tomentose or pubescent margins, spreading or reflexed, with valvate or induplicate-valvate aestivation. Corolla deep yellow to reddish or purplish, rarely greenish-white or white, often very fragrant, sometimes only so at night, tubular-infundibuliform, salviform or somewhat trumpet-shaped, the tube sometimes obconical or with a bulge, often constricted to bladdery at the throat; limb short, regularly revolute, 5-lobed to deeply divided, subplicate, the lobes short, often with involute, tomentose or pubescent margins, spreading or reflexed, with valvate or induplicate-valvate aestivation
    Pistil
    Ovary on a short, stout stipe or subsessile, ovoid or globose, 2(rarely only incompletely)-locular, the middle dissepiment with subglobose placentas, the ovules few–many in each locule, hemitropous; style filiform, usually with minute glands upwards; stigma small, ± capitate, subpeltate, concave or 2-lobed, rarely clavate, included or exserted.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    They have been widely cultivated as ornamentals in many parts of the world, where they are now commonly naturalised. Despite their popularity as garden ornamental and hedging plants, many species are notoriously poisonous, especially to stock; many are used medicinally.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Baleares, Bangladesh, Borneo, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Galápagos, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hawaii, India, Italy, Jawa, Juan Fernández Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madeira, Malawi, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Sicilia, Society Is., South Australia, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Swaziland, Tanzania, Thailand, Tonga, Tunisia, Uganda, Victoria, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Cestrum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2000 Souza, V.C. [8976], Brazil K001073226
    Jan 1, 1997 Sano, P.T. [CFCR 14577], Brazil K001073221
    Jan 1, 1986 Silva, M.N. [75], Brazil K001073239
    Ecuador 46191.000
    Harley, R.M. [22026], Brazil 72771.000
    Harley, R.M. [CFCR7611], Brazil K001073225
    Harley, R.M. [28201], Brazil K001073236
    Harley, R.M. [20165], Brazil K001073238
    Hinton, G.B. [17473], Mexico K000063489
    Hinton, G.B. [17436], Mexico K000063490
    Trail, J.W.H. [597], Brazil K001073231
    Maguire, B. [35094], Venezuela K001073232
    Reveal, J.L. [4204], Mexico K000063491
    Jardim, J.G. [4770], Brazil K001073234
    Pereira, B.A.S. [294], Brazil K001073223
    Krukoff, B.A. [6553], Brazil K001073230
    Burchell, W.J. [5260], Brazil K001073222
    Burchell, W.J. [7797], Brazil K001073224
    Williams, L.O. [6994], Brazil K001073228
    Forzza, R.C. [4345], Brazil K001073233
    Swainson, W. [s.n.], Brazil K001073227
    Vasconcellos-Neto, J. [21590], Brazil K001073237
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132440
    Burchell [4766], Brazil K000964678
    Neto, J.V. [21589], Brazil K001073235
    Silva, N.T. da [60639], Brazil K001073229

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 32 (2001).
    • Candollea 7: 1 (1936).
    • in Candollea 7: 1 (1936).
    • Candollea 6: 46 (1935)
    • Francey in Candollea 6: 46 (1935)
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 88 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 88 (1754).
    • Cestrum L., Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 32–35 (2001);
    • Solanaceae V: 109–136 (2001)
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 275–351 (1998);
    • Candollea 7: 1–132 (1936);
    • Candollea 6: 46–398 (1935)
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 88 (1754);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0