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  1. Family: Caprifoliaceae Juss.
    1. Valeriana L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Falkland Island, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..


    Valerianaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Perennial herbs, vines or subshrubs, usually glabrous or sparsely hairy with short simple hairs, with a bitter taste and peculiar smell especially when dry, fleshy (woody or tuberous) roots, sometimes stoloniferous, occasionally gynodioecious or polygamodioecious
    Leaves petiolate to nearly sessile, exstipulate; radical leaves entire or toothed, in basal rosette, often long-petioled; cauline leaves pinnatifid, or once–twice-pinnatisect
    Inflorescence usually a dichasial cyme or thyrse, sometimes lax or subcapitate; bracts free, opposite, persistent, on the ultimate branchlets only 1 bract of each pair is flower-bearing; bracteoles present
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, small, irregular
    Calyx small, persistent; limb short during anthesis, inrolled, deeply divided into 10 or more segments, these unrolling in fruit and (in most species) developing into 5–15 plumose awns
    Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, caducous after anthesis, small, gibbous, sometimes ± hairy in the throat; lobes (3, 4)5, oblong, patent, imbricate in bud
    Stamens 3 (rarely 4, and occasionally 1–2 by abortion), inserted toward the top of the corolla-tube, usually exserted, alternating with the corolla-lobes; filaments thin; anthers small, 2-thecous
    Style filiform, shortly 3-lobed or subentire, glabrous; stigma simple or 3-lobed
    Fruit small, indehiscent, much compressed, with 3 dorsal, 1 ventral, and 2 marginal ribs.

    Valerianaceae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Perennial herbs, rarely climbers, occasionally subshrubs which are somewhat woody at the base; glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent with simple hairs; often with a characteristic pungent smell of “valerian” from the rizomes, especially when dry.
    Some species gynodioecious or polygamodioecious at anthesis.
    Inflorescence a dichasial cyme or thyrse, rarely subcapitate.
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual.
    Calyx small and inrolled but usually developing in fruit into 5–15 plumose awns.
    Corolla imbricate, funneliform or campanulate, slightly saccate at the base, with (3–4) 5 lobes.
    Stamens usually 3, epipetalous, alternating with the corolla lobes, frequently exserted.
    Style with 3 short lobes or slightly emarginate.
    Fruit an achene, compressed, with 6 filiform ribs.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Illinois, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Libya, Madeira, Magadan, Malawi, Manchuria, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Missouri, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, New York, Nicaragua, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nunavut, Oman, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:


    Introduced into:

    Bermuda, Galápagos, Georgia, Juan Fernández Is., Mauritius, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Norfolk Is., Réunion, Tristan da Cunha, Yukon

    Accepted Species


    Other Data

    Valeriana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1858 Spruce, R. [5448], Ecuador K000202012
    Jan 1, 1857 Spruce, R. [5448], Ecuador K000202011


    First published in Sp. Pl.: 31 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.


    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 19 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 31 (1753)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 19 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 31 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.