1. Family: Caprifoliaceae Juss.
    1. Valeriana L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Falkland Island, Southern America, Northern America and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Valerianaceae, J. O. Kokwaro (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Perennial herbs, vines or subshrubs, usually glabrous or sparsely hairy with short simple hairs, with a bitter taste and peculiar smell especially when dry, fleshy (woody or tuberous) roots, sometimes stoloniferous, occasionally gynodioecious or polygamodioecious
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate to nearly sessile, exstipulate; radical leaves entire or toothed, in basal rosette, often long-petioled; cauline leaves pinnatifid, or once–twice-pinnatisect
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence usually a dichasial cyme or thyrse, sometimes lax or subcapitate; bracts free, opposite, persistent, on the ultimate branchlets only 1 bract of each pair is flower-bearing; bracteoles present
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, small, irregular
    Calyx
    Calyx small, persistent; limb short during anthesis, inrolled, deeply divided into 10 or more segments, these unrolling in fruit and (in most species) developing into 5–15 plumose awns
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, caducous after anthesis, small, gibbous, sometimes ± hairy in the throat; lobes (3, 4)5, oblong, patent, imbricate in bud
    Stamens
    Stamens 3 (rarely 4, and occasionally 1–2 by abortion), inserted toward the top of the corolla-tube, usually exserted, alternating with the corolla-lobes; filaments thin; anthers small, 2-thecous
    Pistil
    Style filiform, shortly 3-lobed or subentire, glabrous; stigma simple or 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit small, indehiscent, much compressed, with 3 dorsal, 1 ventral, and 2 marginal ribs.
    [FZ]

    Valerianaceae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 7:1. 1983

    Habit
    Perennial herbs, rarely climbers, occasionally subshrubs which are somewhat woody at the base; glabrous or sometimes sparsely pubescent with simple hairs; often with a characteristic pungent smell of “valerian” from the rizomes, especially when dry.
    Note
    Some species gynodioecious or polygamodioecious at anthesis.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a dichasial cyme or thyrse, rarely subcapitate.
    Flowers
    Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual.
    Calyx
    Calyx small and inrolled but usually developing in fruit into 5–15 plumose awns.
    Corolla
    Corolla imbricate, funneliform or campanulate, slightly saccate at the base, with (3–4) 5 lobes.
    Stamens
    Stamens usually 3, epipetalous, alternating with the corolla lobes, frequently exserted.
    Style
    Style with 3 short lobes or slightly emarginate.
    Fruits
    Fruit an achene, compressed, with 6 filiform ribs.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Austria, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, California, Cape Provinces, Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Falkland Is., Finland, France, Free State, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland, Illinois, Iran, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Magadan, Malawi, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Netherlands, New Mexico, Nicaragua, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Norway, Nunavut, Oregon, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Romania, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sri Lanka, Swaziland, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vermont, Vietnam, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Galápagos, Yukon

    Valeriana L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 1858 Spruce, R. [5448], Ecuador K000202012
    Jan 1, 1857 Spruce, R. [5448], Ecuador K000202011

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 31 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1976). Flora Europaea 4: 1-505. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 19 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 31 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 19 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 31 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0