1. Caryophyllaceae Juss.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FTEA]

Caryophyllaceae, W. B. Turrill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

Habit
Herbs (annual or perennial) or subshrubs, rarely shrubs
Leaves
Leaves simple, opposite or rarely spiral, with or without stipules
Inflorescences
Inflorescences cymose, often loosely dichasial but sometimes secund or compact, frequently many-flowered but by reduction few-flowered or flowers solitary
Flowers
Flowers, with few exceptions, actinomorphic, hermaphrodite or unisexual (the species then dioecious, monoecious, or polygamous), parts in fives or rarely in fours, perianth hypogynous or perigynous, often with an internode between the calyx and the corolla
Calyx
Calyx of free sepals (polysepalous) or gamosepalous, frequently persistent and becoming more or less scarious
Corolla
Corolla of free petals, in the gamosepalous genera with usually well differentiated lamina and claw and corona of scales often present, in the polysepalous genera not so differentiated, entire to deeply bi-lobed, sometimes absent
Androecium
Stamens 5 + 5 or fewer by reduction
Gynoecium
Gynoecium of 2, 3, 4, or 5 carpels, syncarpous; ovary 2-, 3-, 4-, or 5-locular or unilocular, with numerous, few, or solitary ovules with axile, central, free central, or basal placentation
Fruits
Fruits capsular or reduced to one-seeded indehiscent nutlets
Seeds
Seeds with perisperm but no, or at most very little, endosperm; embryo most often curved
[FWTA]

Caryophyllaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Herbs, annual or perennial; leaves opposite, simple, often connected at the base by a transverse line; stipules absent or if present often scarious
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, mostly hermaphrodite, solitary or in cymes
Calyx
Sepals free or united into a tube, imbricate, often with membranous margins
Corolla
Petals as many as the sepals, often small or absent
Androecium
Stamens up to 10, free from one another or slightly united at the base; anthers 2-celled, dehiscing longitudinally
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stipitate, 1-celled or imperfectly divided at the base, with free-central placentation; styles free or variously connate; ovules mostly numerous
Fruits
Capsule opening by valves or apical teeth
Seeds
Seeds with endosperm and a more or less curved peripheral or excentric embryo
[FZ]

Caryophyllaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or shrublets
Leaves
Leaves opposite, often arranged in false whorls; stipules present or absent
Inflorescences
Inflorescence cymose, often loosely dichasial but occasionally secund or capitate, rarely flowers solitary
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic (at least in our genera), bisexual or unisexual, 5-merous or rarely 4-merous, perianth hypogynous or perigynous, often with an anthophore between the calyx and corolla
Calyx
Sepals free or calyx gamosepalous, often persistent and frequently more or less scarious
Corolla
Petals free, in the gamosepalous genera usually with well-differentiated lamina and claw and coronal scales often present, in the polysepalous genera less differentiated and entire to more or less deeply bifid, sometimes absent
Androecium
Stamens 5 + 5 or fewer by reduction
Gynoecium
Ovary superior, sessile or shortly stalked, 1-locular or incompletely or more rarely completely divided into 2–5 loculi; ovules 2-many with axile, central, free-central or basal placentation
Fruits
Fruit capsular
[FZ]

Illecebraceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

Habit
Annual or perennial herbs or rarely small shrubs
Leaves
Leaves opposite and often falsely whorled, more rarely spirally arranged (“alternate”); stipules scarious, free or connate, rarely absent Leaves opposite but arranged in false whorls; petals minute; stamens 1–2; style filiform
Inflorescences
Inflorescences variable in form but often in dichotomous cymes or in glomerules, often with scarious bracts
Flowers
Flowers actinomorphic, usually inconspicuous, bisexual or very rarely unisexual, 5-merous or more rarely 4-merous
Calyx
Sepals free or calyx gamosepalous, imbricate, usually persistent and more or less scarious
Corolla
Petals present or absent (the petals are regarded by some authors as being petaloid staminodes in which case the petals are always absent)
Androecium
Stamens 1–5 (rarely more); filaments free or shortly connate at the base
Gynoecium
Ovary sessile, 1-locular; style one, or styles 2–3; ovule 1, rarely 2, erect or pendulous from a basal funicle
Fruits
Fruit a utricle or indehiscent nutlet, 1-seeded or very rarely 2-seeded, included in the persistent calyx
Seeds
Seed with copious or little endosperm
[FWTA]

Illecebraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

Habit
Herbs, rarely subshrubs
Leaves
Leaves mostly opposite, small, simple, often connate at the base, mostly entire; stipules scarious, simple or connate, rarely absent
Flowers
Flowers small, herbaceous, green or white, often with scarious bracts, mostly hermaphrodite, actinomorphic
Calyx
Calyx herbaceous or leathery, persistent, 4–5-lobed or parted, lobes imbricate
Corolla
Petals absent or sometimes replaced by small staminodes
Androecium
Stamens the same number as and opposite the calyx-lobes, rarely fewer or more, mostly perigynous; filaments free or connate at the base into a ring; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
Gynoecium
Ovary free, sessile, 1-celled; style 1, terminal, or styles 2–3; ovule 1, rarely 2, erect or pendulous from a basal funicle
Fruits
Fruit a utricle or nut, mostly indehiscent, 1-seeded, included by the calyx
Seeds
Seed with copious or small endosperm; embryo annular to straight

Images

Caryophyllaceae Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Gen. Pl. [Jussieu] 299. 1789 [4 Aug 1789] (1789)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0