1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Distichlis Raf.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical America, Australia.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (2), or elongated (5). Culms erect (3/3), or geniculately ascending (1/3); 2-21.35-60 cm long; firm (6), or wiry (1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane (6), or a fringe of hairs (1). Leaf-blades aciculate (1), or linear (6); herbaceous (3), or coriaceous (4); stiff (5), or firm (2). Leaf-blade apex muticous (1), or pungent (6).
    Inflorescences
    Dioecious. Inflorescence a panicle (1), or composed of racemes (5), or comprising only a few spikelets (2); exserted, or embraced at base by subtending leaf (1), or enclosed (1). Panicle contracted (1/1). Racemes single (2/5), or borne along a central axis (3/5); not compacted (1/3), or in a head (2/3); appressed (1/5), or ascending (4/5); paucilateral (5/5); bearing few fertile spikelets (5/5); bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each (1/2), or 2-3 fertile spikelets on each (2/2). Rhachis angular (1/1). Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels linear. Male inflorescence similar to female; of racemes along a central axis (3/3). Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; elliptic (1/3), or oblong (1/3), or ovate (1/3). Male spikelet glumes 2 (6/6). Male spikelet lemma muticous (6/6).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1-2 fertile florets (1), or 5-6 fertile florets (4), or 7 fertile florets (5), or 8-9 fertile florets (4), or 10-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); laterally compressed; 4.15-13.22-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1-2 fertile florets (1), or 5-6 fertile florets (4), or 7 fertile florets (5), or 8-9 fertile florets (4), or 10-14 fertile florets (2), or 15 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); laterally compressed; 4.15-13.22-30 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (4), or ovate (3); 0.6-0.8321-1 length of upper glume; scarious; 1-keeled; 1-2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (6), or 4 -veined (4), or 5 -veined (5), or 6-9 -veined (1). Lower glume lateral veins absent (1), or distinct. Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6). Upper glume ovate; 0.6-0.8857-1 length of adjacent fertile lemma; scarious; 1-keeled; 3 -veined (3), or 4 -veined (2), or 5 -veined (5), or 6 -veined (3), or 7 -veined (4), or 8-9 -veined (2). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (6).
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; coriaceous; keeled; 5-6 -veined (3), or 7-8 -veined (4), or 9 -veined (5), or 10 -veined (3), or 11 -veined (4), or 12 -veined (1). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma apex obtuse (1), or acute (5), or acuminate (1). Palea 0.9 length of lemma; coriaceous; 2 -veined. Palea keels wingless (1), or winged (6); smooth (5), or scaberulous (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female; of racemes along a central axis (3/3). Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; elliptic (1/3), or oblong (1/3), or ovate (1/3). Male spikelet glumes 2 (6/6). Male spikelet lemma muticous (6/6).
    Distribution
    Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (2), or South America (5).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms decumbent; 8-11.5-15 cm long; wiry. Culm-internodes alternately elongated and bunched (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades aciculate; indurate; stiff. Leaf-blade apex muticous (1), or pungent (1).
    Inflorescences
    Dioecious. Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets; terminal and axillary; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male inflorescence similar to female; of few spikelets. Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets, or 5-6 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-9.075-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2-4 fertile florets, or 5-6 fertile florets (1); with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; subterete; 6-9.075-12 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma elliptic; coriaceous; without keel; 7-8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea tightly convolute around flower; 1 length of lemma; indurate; 2 -veined. Palea keels winged; with entire wings (1), or toothed wings (1).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis apex bicornate (1/1). Embryo 0.66 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female; of few spikelets. Male spikelets similar to female but less developed; lanceolate. Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America (1), or South America.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Stolons present. Culms 2-11 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades filiform.
    Inflorescences
    Dioecious. Inflorescence comprising only a few spikelets. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets sessile. Male spikelets sessile. Male inflorescence similar to female; of few spikelets. Male spikelets distinct from female; elliptic. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 3-7 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets lanceolate; laterally compressed; 5-11 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; shorter than spikelet; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 0.75 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 2-8 -veined. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume lanceolate; 0.75 length of adjacent fertile lemma; herbaceous; without keels; 8 -veined. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; coriaceous; without keel; 10-13 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex acute. Palea tightly convolute around flower; 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined. Palea keels ciliate. Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2; fleshy. Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; oblong. Embryo 0.4 length of caryopsis.
    Male
    Male inflorescence similar to female; of few spikelets. Male spikelets distinct from female; elliptic. Male spikelet glumes 2. Male spikelet lemma muticous.
    Distribution
    North America.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, British Columbia, California, Cayman Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Maine, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Peru, Prince Edward I., Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tasmania, Texas, Turks-Caicos Is., Uruguay, Utah, Victoria, Virginia, Washington, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Introduced into:

    Hawaii, Society Is.

    Distichlis Raf. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in J. Phys. Chim. Hist. Nat. Arts 89: 104 (1819)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0