1. Family: Onagraceae Juss.
    1. Epilobium Dill. ex L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FZ]

    Onagraceae, P. H. Raven. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Perennial herbs, often flowering the first year, rarely annual.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, usually alternate above, toothed or entire.
    Stipules
    Stipules absent.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles lacking.
    Flowers
    Floral tube present (in F.Z. area) or nil. Flowers in a terminal inflorescence (in F.Z. area) or borne in the axils of the leaves.
    Calyx
    Sepals 4, not persistent.
    Corolla
    Petals 4, rose-purple or white (yellow in 1 N. American species), emarginate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8; anthers versatile.
    Pollen
    Pollen shed in tetrads, singly in a few non-African species.
    Stigma
    Stigma clavate, globose, or deeply 4-lobed.
    Ovary
    Ovary 4-locular; ovules pluriseriate in each locule, the seeds free.
    Fruits
    Dehiscence of capsule loculicidal.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a prominent tuft of hairs, the coma.
    [FTEA]

    Onagraceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, rarely becoming thinly woody
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, alternate or sometimes whorled, in our species denticulate or serrulate to subentire
    Stipules
    Stipules 0
    Flowers
    Flowers normally regular
    Calyx
    Sepals 4, caducous after flowering
    Receptacle
    Receptacle or “calyx-tube” not or hardly prolonged beyond the ovary
    Corolla
    Petals 4, mostly pink, red or purple, rarely white or yellow
    Stamens
    Stamens 8, the four antepetalous ones often shorter than the others
    Stigma
    Stigma clavate or capitate, entire or more or less 4-cleft
    Ovules
    Ovules uniseriate in each cell of the 4-celled ovary
    Fruits
    Fruit an elongate capsule splitting loculicidally into 4 valves
    Seeds
    Seeds each with a conspicuous apical tuft of numerous silky normally whitish hairs.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    China South-Central, China Southeast, Crozet Is., Hawaii, Kerguelen, Malaya

    Epilobium Dill. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Melville, R. [5580], New Zealand 36943.000
    Johns, R.J. [9040], New Guinea 64307.000
    Sobral, M. [4333], Brazil K001077582

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 347 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Chase, M.W. (2017). Plants of the World. An illustrated encyclopedia of vascular plants: 1-792. Kew Publishing, The university of Chicago Press.
    • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 486.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Raven in Bothalia 9: 309–333 (1967).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 164 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 347 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 164 (1754)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0