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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs, rarely annuals or woody at base
Morphology Leaves
Leaves usually opposite, at least below, and alternate above or in the inflorescence, rarely in whorls of 3
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers epigynous or calyx tube absent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, deciduous in fruit
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, purplish or white, usually deeply notched at the apex
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8, the epipetalous shorter
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma 4-lobed or entire
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4-locular, with numerous ovules
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule slender, elongate, dehiscing loculicidally into 4 valves; seeds with a chalazal tuft of long hairs, wind-borne.
Distribution
Cosmopolitan in distribution, this genus has about 164 species which occur throughout the temperate and montane regions of the world.
Note
Epilobium (from the Greek) Willow-Herb It is the largest in the family and contains the great majority of species of Onagraceae found in the Old World. Most of the species are somewhat mesophytic in habitat preference. In this genus, the mode of vegetative propagation is variable, some species having above-ground stolons. Those of Iraq have below ground level, either turions (fleshy overwintering buds), soboles (pale elongate shoots) or leafy rosettes which are ± erect. Sterile hybrids involving E. hirsutus, E. parviflorus and E. tetragonum are known from Europe in all possible combinations, and the hybrid between E. minutiflorum and E. rechingeri is known from Iran. There does not appear to be any general Kurdish name for this common plant, though several unconfirmed local names have been recorded namely QUZALA (Kurd.-Bakrajo, Radhi 5238), ?KHARPON (Kurd.-Qala Diza, Rawi 9361), both for E. hirsutum (Handel-Mazzetti noted ZAHR EL-ASSAL (“honey-flower”) for this species in Aleppo; ? BIRZBANK (Kurd.-Amadiya, Tikriti 16930) for E. parviflorum. Willow-Herb, Willow-weed (Am.).

[FZ]

Onagraceae, P. H. Raven. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

Morphology General Habit
Perennial herbs, often flowering the first year, rarely annual.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, usually alternate above, toothed or entire.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules absent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracteoles
Bracteoles lacking.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Floral tube present (in F.Z. area) or nil. Flowers in a terminal inflorescence (in F.Z. area) or borne in the axils of the leaves.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, not persistent.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, rose-purple or white (yellow in 1 N. American species), emarginate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8; anthers versatile.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pollen
Pollen shed in tetrads, singly in a few non-African species.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma clavate, globose, or deeply 4-lobed.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary 4-locular; ovules pluriseriate in each locule, the seeds free.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Dehiscence of capsule loculicidal.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds with a prominent tuft of hairs, the coma.

[FTEA]

Onagraceae, J. P. M. Brenan. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1953

Morphology General Habit
Annual or perennial herbs, rarely becoming thinly woody
Morphology Leaves
Leaves opposite, alternate or sometimes whorled, in our species denticulate or serrulate to subentire
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 0
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers normally regular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals 4, caducous after flowering
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Receptacle or “calyx-tube” not or hardly prolonged beyond the ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals 4, mostly pink, red or purple, rarely white or yellow
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 8, the four antepetalous ones often shorter than the others
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Stigma
Stigma clavate or capitate, entire or more or less 4-cleft
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary Ovules
Ovules uniseriate in each cell of the 4-celled ovary
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit an elongate capsule splitting loculicidally into 4 valves
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds each with a conspicuous apical tuft of numerous silky normally whitish hairs.

[FIQ]
Use
The taller species have sometimes been brought into cultivation as garden ornamentals, particularly the native E. hirsutum and the Rosebay, Fireweed (Am.) or French Willow (E. angustifolium), but, though beautiful, they are apt to spread and become a nuisance and they are not really suited to the formal garden. The latter species often covers extensive areas of denuded wood after forest fires in N America (hence the name Fireweed). One or two of the smaller species are sometimes grown in English rock gardens. Apparently, there is no local use for the species in Iraq.

Native to:

Afghanistan, Alabama, Alaska, Albania, Alberta, Aleutian Is., Algeria, Altay, Amur, Angola, Antipodean Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Austria, Azores, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil South, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Burundi, Buryatiya, California, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central European Rus, Chad, Chatham Is., Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cyprus, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East European Russia, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Falkland Is., Finland, France, France, Free State, Føroyar, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Greenland, Guatemala, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Japan, Jawa, Kamchatka, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Krym, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Labrador, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Macquarie Is., Madagascar, Madeira, Magadan, Maine, Malawi, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Northwest European R, Northwest Territorie, Norway, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Portugal, Primorye, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Romania, Rwanda, Sakhalin, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Svalbard, Swaziland, Sweden, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Siberia, West Virginia, Western Australia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang, Yakutskiya, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Yukon, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

China South-Central, China Southeast, Crozet Is., Hawaii, Kerguelen, Malaya

Epilobium Dill. ex L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Melville, R. [5580], New Zealand 36943.000
Johns, R.J. [9040], New Guinea 64307.000
Sobral, M. [4333], Brazil K001077582

First published in Sp. Pl.: 347 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Christenhusz, M.J.M., Fay, M.F. & Chase, M.W. (2017). Plants of the World. An illustrated encyclopedia of vascular plants: 1-792. Kew Publishing, The university of Chicago Press.
  • Govaerts, R. (2001). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS E-F: 1-50919.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • WCVP (2021). World Checklist of Vascular Plants, version 2.0. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://wcvp.science.kew.org/ Retrieved 28 April 2021

Flora of Iraq

  • Haussknecht, Monographie der Gattung Epilobium. Jena (1884)
  • Linnaeus, Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 471 (1754)
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl., ed. 1, 347 (1753)

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • —F.T.A. 2: 486.

Flora Zambesiaca

  • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 164 (1754).
  • Raven in Bothalia 9: 309–333 (1967).
  • Sp. Pl. 1: 347 (1753)

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • Gen. Pl., ed. 5, 164 (1754)

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Iraq
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/