1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Zizania L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Assam to SE. Siberia and Temp. E. Asia, Canada to U.S.A.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (3), or perennial (2). Stolons absent (3), or present (2). Culms erect (1/2), or decumbent (1/2); reed-like (2/2); 90-163.7-300 cm long; spongy; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (3), or coriaceous (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches; with male below. Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip cupuliform.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-16.73-33 mm long; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure.
    Florets
    Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (2); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (1); without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (3), or scaberulous (2). Lemma margins flat (1), or interlocking with palea margins (3). Lemma apex acute (1), or acuminate (3); awned; 1 -awned. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (3); without keels.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 6.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear (3/3).
    Spikelets
    Male spikelets distinct from female; linear (3/3). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (3), or awned (2). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-16.73-33 mm long; falling entire.
    Male
    Male spikelets distinct from female; linear (3/3). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (3), or awned (2).
    Distribution
    Europe (2), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (3).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (1), or perennial (244). Rhizomes absent (199), or short (31), or elongated (21). Stolons absent (243), or present (2). Culms erect (142/172), or geniculately ascending (86/172), or decumbent (8/172), or prostrate (2/172); robust (3/15), or slender (10/15), or weak (2/15); 10-66.6-208 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-nodes constricted (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (5/5). Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (182), or falcate (72). Ligule an eciliate membrane (242), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or absent (3). Leaf-blades aciculate (2), or filiform (8), or linear (235), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (241), or coriaceous (4); stiff (32), or firm (211), or flaccid (4); without exudate (244), or pruinose (1). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (2/5), or cartilaginous (3/5). Leaf-blade apex muticous (239), or pungent (6).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (242), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (6). Racemes single; erect (30), or ascending (188), or drooping (37), or deflexed (2); linear (239), or moniliform (1), or oblong (7), or ovate (2), or obovate (1); unilateral (2), or bilateral (244); bearing few fertile spikelets (7), or many spikelets (238); bearing 1-9-25 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis tough (239), or fragile at the nodes (6); flattened (203/207), or angular (1/207), or semiterete (4/207); terminating in a spikelet, or sterile spikelet (1). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (19), or contiguous (160), or lax (64), or distant (4); 2 -rowed (44/44). Rhachis internodes indefinite (116), or linear (117), or oblong (11), or clavate (1); falling with spikelet above (6/6). Rhachis internode tip flat (54/54). Spikelets appressed (27/37), or ascending (5/37), or spreading (5/37), or pectinate (2/37), or deflexed (1/37); solitary (212), or in pairs (42), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (243), or sessile and pedicelled (2), or pedicelled (11); 1 in the cluster (2/11), or 2 in the cluster (11/11), or 3 in the cluster (5/11), or 4 in the cluster (3/11). Pedicels oblong (4/4).
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (242), or rudimentary (3), or well-developed (2). Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 1-5-20 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (3), or with diminished florets at the apex (242). Spikelets linear (2/222), or lanceolate (24/222), or elliptic (175/222), or oblong (188/222), or ovate (4/222), or rhomboid (1/222), or cuneate (6/222); laterally compressed (239), or dorsally compressed (6); 5-15.78-80 mm long; falling entire (10), or breaking up at maturity (236); deciduous from the base (8/10), or with accessory branch structures (2/10); disarticulating below each fertile floret (229/236), or between fertile florets but the lowest falling with glumes attached (1/236), or above glumes but not between florets (6/236). Spikelet callus glabrous (9/10), or bearded (1/10); base truncate (26/27), or acute (1/27). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (140/244), or sparsely hairy (8/244), or pubescent (86/244), or pilose (11/244). Floret callus brief (241), or evident (4); glabrous (7/64), or sparsely hairy (1/64), or pubescent (43/64), or pilose (10/64), or bearded (4/64); obtuse (244), or acute (1).
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets absent (242), or rudimentary (3), or well-developed (2).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 1-5-20 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (3), or with diminished florets at the apex (242). Spikelets linear (2/222), or lanceolate (24/222), or elliptic (175/222), or oblong (188/222), or ovate (4/222), or rhomboid (1/222), or cuneate (6/222); laterally compressed (239), or dorsally compressed (6); 5-15.78-80 mm long; falling entire (10), or breaking up at maturity (236); deciduous from the base (8/10), or with accessory branch structures (2/10); disarticulating below each fertile floret (229/236), or between fertile florets but the lowest falling with glumes attached (1/236), or above glumes but not between florets (6/236). Spikelet callus glabrous (9/10), or bearded (1/10); base truncate (26/27), or acute (1/27). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (140/244), or sparsely hairy (8/244), or pubescent (86/244), or pilose (11/244). Floret callus brief (241), or evident (4); glabrous (7/64), or sparsely hairy (1/64), or pubescent (43/64), or pilose (10/64), or bearded (4/64); obtuse (244), or acute (1).
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure (2), or two; distichous (195), or lateral (1), or collateral (49); persistent (219/220), or deciduous (1/220); shorter than spikelet (199/208), or reaching apex of florets (6/208), or exceeding apex of florets (4/208); parallel to lemmas (243), or gaping (2). Lower glume subulate (8), or linear (12), or lanceolate (180), or elliptic (24), or oblong (60), or ovate (8), or obovate (2); not gibbous (243), or gibbous (2); 0.5-0.9353-1.25 length of upper glume; membranous (5/239), or chartaceous (1/239), or herbaceous (1/239), or coriaceous (232/239); without keels (220/235), or 1-keeled (15/235); 0-4-11 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or obscure (7), or distinct (221), or prominent (11); without ribs (187/239), or ribbed (52/239). Lower glume surface smooth (153), or asperulous (20), or scabrous (86); glabrous (223), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (11), or pilose (10), or hirsute (3), or villous (1), or hispidulous (2). Lower glume apex entire (236), or erose (2), or with a unilateral tooth (15), or dentate (8), or lobed (1); 1 -fid (3/9), or 2 -fid (8/9), or 3 -fid (2/9), or 4-9 -fid (1/9); emarginate (2/230), or truncate (8/230), or obtuse (21/230), or acute (107/230), or acuminate (103/230), or attenuate (12/230), or setaceously attenuate (17/230); muticous (166/237), or mucronate (39/237), or awned (77/237). Upper glume subulate (8), or linear (9), or lanceolate (177), or elliptic (25), or oblong (66), or ovate (7), or obovate (2); not gibbous (243), or gibbous (2); 0.25-0.9061-9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (5/239), or chartaceous (1/239), or herbaceous (1/239), or coriaceous (232/239); with undifferentiated margins (197), or hyaline margins (12), or membranous margins (28), or scarious margins (9); without keels (220/235), or 1-keeled (15/235); 0-4-11 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (244), or ciliate (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (189/242), or ribbed (53/242). Upper glume surface smooth (154), or asperulous (21), or scabrous (84); glabrous (225), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (8), or pilose (10), or hirsute (3), or villous (1), or hispidulous (2). Upper glume apex entire (236), or erose (2), or with a unilateral tooth (16), or dentate (7); 1 -fid (3/7), or 2 -fid (6/7), or 3 -fid (2/7), or 4-9 -fid (1/7); emarginate (3/232), or truncate (8/232), or obtuse (20/232), or acute (106/232), or acuminate (106/232), or attenuate (12/232), or setaceously attenuate (16/232); muticous (163/237), or mucronate (36/237), or awned (81/237); 1 -awned (79/80), or 3-9 -awned (1/80).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren (2/2); without significant palea (2/2). Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (1/2), or linear (1/2), or oblong (1/2); coriaceous (1/1); awned (1/1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (181), or elliptic (70), or oblong (107), or ovate (5); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (242); of similar consistency on margins (238), or much thinner on margins (7); without keel (45/90), or keeled (45/90); 3-4 -veined (3/236), or 5 -veined (235/236), or 6 -veined (23/236), or 7 -veined (24/236), or 8-11 -veined (1/236). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (242), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (7/12), or distinct (2/12), or prominent (3/12); without ribs (238), or ribbed (7). Lemma surface smooth (177), or asperulous (4), or scaberulous (37), or scabrous (42), or papillose (1); glabrous (161), or puberulous (31), or pubescent (43), or pilose (20), or hirsute (4), or villous (8), or hispidulous (6); hairy on back (107/110), or on veins (2/110), or between veins (1/110). Lemma margins eciliate (223), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (10), or pubescent (10), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (231), or dentate (17); 1 -fid (2/17), or 2 -fid (15/17), or 3 -fid (2/17); emarginate (9/207), or truncate (4/207), or obtuse (17/207), or acute (134/207), or acuminate (49/207), or attenuate (7/207), or setaceously attenuate (1/207), or apiculate (1/207); muticous (42), or mucronate (20), or awned (208); 1 -awned (207/209), or 3 -awned (2/209). Principal lemma awn apical (213/223), or from a sinus (12/223); straight (176/223), or curved (63/223), or flexuous (8/223); 0.9-1-1.1 length of lemma; limb glabrous (222/223), or puberulous (1/223). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (1/1). Palea 0.66-0.9797-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (243), or coriaceous (2); 2 -veined (78/78). Palea keels separated (244), or approximate (1); wingless (239), or winged (6); smooth (181), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (58), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (136), or ciliolate (85), or ciliate (24). Palea surface glabrous (198), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (13), or pilose (3), or hirsute (1). Palea apex dentate (5/5); muticous (244), or with excurrent keel veins (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (240/242), or distinct from fertile (2/242); rudimentary (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (179/179); membranous (176/176); glabrous (173/179), or ciliate (6/179); 2-toothed (1/1). Anthers 3 (233/233). Stigmas 2 (176/176). Ovary unappendaged (242), or with a fleshy appendage below style insertion (3); pubescent on apex (159/159).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (198/198); linear (1/21), or lanceolate (2/21), or fusiform (4/21), or ellipsoid (1/21), or oblong (11/21), or obovoid (3/21); isodiametric (4/4); smooth (4/4); apex unappendaged (26/26). Embryo 0.15-0.1955-0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (49/49); 0.9-0.9429-1 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    Europe (25), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (176), or Tropical Asia (31), or Australasia (16), or Pacific (1), or North America (40), or South America (11), or Antarctica (2).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Alberta, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, British Columbia, California, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hainan, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin

    Introduced into:

    Baltic States, Belarus, Borneo, Central European Rus, East European Russia, Hawaii, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Malaya, New Zealand North, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Transcaucasus, Ukraine, Vietnam

    Zizania L. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 991 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0