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This genus is accepted, and its native range is Assam to SE. Siberia and Temp. E. Asia, Canada to U.S.A.
Zizania

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (3), or perennial (2). Stolons absent (3), or present (2). Culms erect (1/2), or decumbent (1/2); reed-like (2/2); 90-163.7-300 cm long; spongy; rooting from lower nodes (1/1). Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades herbaceous (3), or coriaceous (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Monoecious; with male and female spikelets in the same inflorescence. Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Sexes segregated; on unisexual branches; with male below. Spikelets appressed (1/1); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Male spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip cupuliform.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-16.73-33 mm long; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma linear (1), or lanceolate (2), or oblong (2); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (1); without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma surface smooth (3), or scaberulous (2). Lemma margins flat (1), or interlocking with palea margins (3). Lemma apex acute (1), or acuminate (3); awned; 1 -awned. Palea 1 length of lemma; 2 -veined (1), or 3 -veined (3); without keels.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 6.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; linear (3/3).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Male spikelets distinct from female; linear (3/3). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (3), or awned (2). Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (3), or oblong (1); laterally compressed; 8-16.73-33 mm long; falling entire.
sex Male
Male spikelets distinct from female; linear (3/3). Male spikelet glumes absent. Male spikelet lemma muticous (3), or awned (2).
Distribution
Europe (2), or Temperate Asia (2), or Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (1), or Pacific (1), or North America (3).

[GB]

nonem

Morphology General Habit
Annual (1), or perennial (244). Rhizomes absent (199), or short (31), or elongated (21). Stolons absent (243), or present (2). Culms erect (142/172), or geniculately ascending (86/172), or decumbent (8/172), or prostrate (2/172); robust (3/15), or slender (10/15), or weak (2/15); 10-66.6-208 cm long; rooting from lower nodes (2/2). Culm-nodes constricted (2/2). Lateral branches lacking (5/5). Leaf-sheaths tubular for much of their length (1/1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (182), or falcate (72). Ligule an eciliate membrane (242), or a ciliolate membrane (2), or absent (3). Leaf-blades aciculate (2), or filiform (8), or linear (235), or lanceolate (3); herbaceous (241), or coriaceous (4); stiff (32), or firm (211), or flaccid (4); without exudate (244), or pruinose (1). Leaf-blade margins unthickened (2/5), or cartilaginous (3/5). Leaf-blade apex muticous (239), or pungent (6).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence composed of racemes; exserted (242), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (6). Racemes single; erect (30), or ascending (188), or drooping (37), or deflexed (2); linear (239), or moniliform (1), or oblong (7), or ovate (2), or obovate (1); unilateral (2), or bilateral (244); bearing few fertile spikelets (7), or many spikelets (238); bearing 1-9-25 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis tough (239), or fragile at the nodes (6); flattened (203/207), or angular (1/207), or semiterete (4/207); terminating in a spikelet, or sterile spikelet (1). Spikelet packing broadside to rhachis; crowded (19), or contiguous (160), or lax (64), or distant (4); 2 -rowed (44/44). Rhachis internodes indefinite (116), or linear (117), or oblong (11), or clavate (1); falling with spikelet above (6/6). Rhachis internode tip flat (54/54). Spikelets appressed (27/37), or ascending (5/37), or spreading (5/37), or pectinate (2/37), or deflexed (1/37); solitary (212), or in pairs (42), or in threes (2), or clustered at each node (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (243), or sessile and pedicelled (2), or pedicelled (11); 1 in the cluster (2/11), or 2 in the cluster (11/11), or 3 in the cluster (5/11), or 4 in the cluster (3/11). Pedicels oblong (4/4).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Basal sterile spikelets absent (242), or rudimentary (3), or well-developed (2). Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 1-5-20 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (3), or with diminished florets at the apex (242). Spikelets linear (2/222), or lanceolate (24/222), or elliptic (175/222), or oblong (188/222), or ovate (4/222), or rhomboid (1/222), or cuneate (6/222); laterally compressed (239), or dorsally compressed (6); 5-15.78-80 mm long; falling entire (10), or breaking up at maturity (236); deciduous from the base (8/10), or with accessory branch structures (2/10); disarticulating below each fertile floret (229/236), or between fertile florets but the lowest falling with glumes attached (1/236), or above glumes but not between florets (6/236). Spikelet callus glabrous (9/10), or bearded (1/10); base truncate (26/27), or acute (1/27). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (140/244), or sparsely hairy (8/244), or pubescent (86/244), or pilose (11/244). Floret callus brief (241), or evident (4); glabrous (7/64), or sparsely hairy (1/64), or pubescent (43/64), or pilose (10/64), or bearded (4/64); obtuse (244), or acute (1).
Sterile
Basal sterile spikelets absent (242), or rudimentary (3), or well-developed (2).
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 0-1 basal sterile florets (2/2); 1-5-20 fertile florets; with a barren rhachilla extension (3), or with diminished florets at the apex (242). Spikelets linear (2/222), or lanceolate (24/222), or elliptic (175/222), or oblong (188/222), or ovate (4/222), or rhomboid (1/222), or cuneate (6/222); laterally compressed (239), or dorsally compressed (6); 5-15.78-80 mm long; falling entire (10), or breaking up at maturity (236); deciduous from the base (8/10), or with accessory branch structures (2/10); disarticulating below each fertile floret (229/236), or between fertile florets but the lowest falling with glumes attached (1/236), or above glumes but not between florets (6/236). Spikelet callus glabrous (9/10), or bearded (1/10); base truncate (26/27), or acute (1/27). Rhachilla internodes glabrous (140/244), or sparsely hairy (8/244), or pubescent (86/244), or pilose (11/244). Floret callus brief (241), or evident (4); glabrous (7/64), or sparsely hairy (1/64), or pubescent (43/64), or pilose (10/64), or bearded (4/64); obtuse (244), or acute (1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure (2), or two; distichous (195), or lateral (1), or collateral (49); persistent (219/220), or deciduous (1/220); shorter than spikelet (199/208), or reaching apex of florets (6/208), or exceeding apex of florets (4/208); parallel to lemmas (243), or gaping (2). Lower glume subulate (8), or linear (12), or lanceolate (180), or elliptic (24), or oblong (60), or ovate (8), or obovate (2); not gibbous (243), or gibbous (2); 0.5-0.9353-1.25 length of upper glume; membranous (5/239), or chartaceous (1/239), or herbaceous (1/239), or coriaceous (232/239); without keels (220/235), or 1-keeled (15/235); 0-4-11 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (14), or obscure (7), or distinct (221), or prominent (11); without ribs (187/239), or ribbed (52/239). Lower glume surface smooth (153), or asperulous (20), or scabrous (86); glabrous (223), or puberulous (4), or pubescent (11), or pilose (10), or hirsute (3), or villous (1), or hispidulous (2). Lower glume apex entire (236), or erose (2), or with a unilateral tooth (15), or dentate (8), or lobed (1); 1 -fid (3/9), or 2 -fid (8/9), or 3 -fid (2/9), or 4-9 -fid (1/9); emarginate (2/230), or truncate (8/230), or obtuse (21/230), or acute (107/230), or acuminate (103/230), or attenuate (12/230), or setaceously attenuate (17/230); muticous (166/237), or mucronate (39/237), or awned (77/237). Upper glume subulate (8), or linear (9), or lanceolate (177), or elliptic (25), or oblong (66), or ovate (7), or obovate (2); not gibbous (243), or gibbous (2); 0.25-0.9061-9 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (5/239), or chartaceous (1/239), or herbaceous (1/239), or coriaceous (232/239); with undifferentiated margins (197), or hyaline margins (12), or membranous margins (28), or scarious margins (9); without keels (220/235), or 1-keeled (15/235); 0-4-11 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (244), or ciliate (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (189/242), or ribbed (53/242). Upper glume surface smooth (154), or asperulous (21), or scabrous (84); glabrous (225), or puberulous (5), or pubescent (8), or pilose (10), or hirsute (3), or villous (1), or hispidulous (2). Upper glume apex entire (236), or erose (2), or with a unilateral tooth (16), or dentate (7); 1 -fid (3/7), or 2 -fid (6/7), or 3 -fid (2/7), or 4-9 -fid (1/7); emarginate (3/232), or truncate (8/232), or obtuse (20/232), or acute (106/232), or acuminate (106/232), or attenuate (12/232), or setaceously attenuate (16/232); muticous (163/237), or mucronate (36/237), or awned (81/237); 1 -awned (79/80), or 3-9 -awned (1/80).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Basal sterile florets barren (2/2); without significant palea (2/2). Lemma of lower sterile floret subulate (1/2), or linear (1/2), or oblong (1/2); coriaceous (1/1); awned (1/1). Fertile lemma lanceolate (181), or elliptic (70), or oblong (107), or ovate (5); chartaceous (3), or coriaceous (242); of similar consistency on margins (238), or much thinner on margins (7); without keel (45/90), or keeled (45/90); 3-4 -veined (3/236), or 5 -veined (235/236), or 6 -veined (23/236), or 7 -veined (24/236), or 8-11 -veined (1/236). Lemma midvein without distinctive roughness (242), or scaberulous (2), or scabrous (1). Lemma lateral veins obscure (7/12), or distinct (2/12), or prominent (3/12); without ribs (238), or ribbed (7). Lemma surface smooth (177), or asperulous (4), or scaberulous (37), or scabrous (42), or papillose (1); glabrous (161), or puberulous (31), or pubescent (43), or pilose (20), or hirsute (4), or villous (8), or hispidulous (6); hairy on back (107/110), or on veins (2/110), or between veins (1/110). Lemma margins eciliate (223), or ciliolate (6), or ciliate (10), or pubescent (10), or villous (1). Lemma apex entire (231), or dentate (17); 1 -fid (2/17), or 2 -fid (15/17), or 3 -fid (2/17); emarginate (9/207), or truncate (4/207), or obtuse (17/207), or acute (134/207), or acuminate (49/207), or attenuate (7/207), or setaceously attenuate (1/207), or apiculate (1/207); muticous (42), or mucronate (20), or awned (208); 1 -awned (207/209), or 3 -awned (2/209). Principal lemma awn apical (213/223), or from a sinus (12/223); straight (176/223), or curved (63/223), or flexuous (8/223); 0.9-1-1.1 length of lemma; limb glabrous (222/223), or puberulous (1/223). Lateral lemma awns shorter than principal (1/1). Palea 0.66-0.9797-1.1 length of lemma; membranous (243), or coriaceous (2); 2 -veined (78/78). Palea keels separated (244), or approximate (1); wingless (239), or winged (6); smooth (181), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (58), or tuberculate (1); eciliate (136), or ciliolate (85), or ciliate (24). Palea surface glabrous (198), or puberulous (33), or pubescent (13), or pilose (3), or hirsute (1). Palea apex dentate (5/5); muticous (244), or with excurrent keel veins (2). Apical sterile florets resembling fertile though underdeveloped (240/242), or distinct from fertile (2/242); rudimentary (1/1).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2 (179/179); membranous (176/176); glabrous (173/179), or ciliate (6/179); 2-toothed (1/1). Anthers 3 (233/233). Stigmas 2 (176/176). Ovary unappendaged (242), or with a fleshy appendage below style insertion (3); pubescent on apex (159/159).
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (198/198); linear (1/21), or lanceolate (2/21), or fusiform (4/21), or ellipsoid (1/21), or oblong (11/21), or obovoid (3/21); isodiametric (4/4); smooth (4/4); apex unappendaged (26/26). Embryo 0.15-0.1955-0.25 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (49/49); 0.9-0.9429-1 length of caryopsis.
Distribution
Europe (25), or Africa (9), or Temperate Asia (176), or Tropical Asia (31), or Australasia (16), or Pacific (1), or North America (40), or South America (11), or Antarctica (2).

Native to:

Alabama, Alberta, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, British Columbia, California, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Hainan, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Japan, Kansas, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kuril Is., Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin

Introduced into:

Baltic States, Belarus, Borneo, Central European Rus, East European Russia, Hawaii, Jawa, Kazakhstan, Malaya, New Zealand North, North Caucasus, Northwest European R, Transcaucasus, Ukraine, Vietnam

Zizania L. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Sp. Pl.: 991 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0