1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Lycium L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Europe, Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific, Southern America, Northern America, Australasia and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Habit
    Shrubs, sub-shrubs or small trees.
    Stem
    Stems with long shoots bearing alternate leaves and short shoots terminating in a spine with fasciculate leaves; nodes usually swollen brachyblasts
    Leaves
    Leaves fasciculate on brachyblasts or alternate, membranaceous or succulent. Inflorescences axillary, solitary or occasionally paired, rarely in manyflowered terminal fascicles, epedunculate; flowers actinomorphic or zygomorphic, usually hermaphrodite, but a few species functionally dioecious; pedicels filiform, usually erect, rarely deflexed in fruit
    Calyx
    Calyx tubular, campanulate or cupulate, with 4–5 equal or unequal calyx lobes which enlarge in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla urceolate, tubular, salverform or infundibular; tube narrow and straight but often constricted above the ovary, with spreading or reflexed imbricate lobes; corolla often detaching after anthesis leaving an annular ring around ovary base
    Stamens
    Stamens usually unequal, often comprising two long, two medium and one short, rarely only 4, exserted or included; filaments joined to corolla tube at same or different levels, straight or flexuose, cylindrical or enlarged at point of fusion, often pubescent towards base, usually glabrous where free; anthers usually all fertile though occasionally sterile especially in functionally female flowers, ovoid, obovoid or sagittate, dorsifixed
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular, ovules numerous; disc annular, inconspicuous and greenish, or prominent when red or orange; style filiform, glabrous, usually exserted; stigma capitate or discoidal, bilobed (style stunted and stigma absent from functionally male flowers)
    Fruits
    Fruit a many-seeded berry, rarely drupaceous with two pyrenes
    Seeds
    Seeds usually numerous, occasionally only one in each locule, small; testa crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate.
    Note
    A large genus of 75 to 100 species, which are found throughout the world. Around 30 to 40 species are probably native to the Old World especially South Africa, but only L. europaeum L. and L. shawii Roem. & Schult. have been recorded from East Africa. However, Venter ( pers. comm.) considers many specimens to have been misidentified and believes that, as discussed below, only L. shawii occurs throughout this region.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Shrubs or occasionally small trees, sometimes scandent, sometimes halophytic, densely branched and usually spinescent, with brachyblasts on older branches and spines, glabrous or with an indumentum of multicellular, uniseriate, simple or branched, glandular or eglandular hairs, variously combined in different species
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary and alternate on young stems and spines or fascicled on brachyblasts, subsessile or petiolate, herbaceous to succulent, often covered by a waxy excrescence consisting primarily of calcium oxalate, usually entire Leaves solitary and alternate on young stems and spines or fascicled on brachyblasts, subsessile or petiolate, herbaceous to succulent, often covered by a waxy excrescence consisting primarily of calcium oxalate, usually entire.
    Flowers
    Flowers mostly solitary among fascicled leaves, seldom paired, elsewhere rarely in a terminal (pseudo-axillary) congested cincinnus, actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally monoecious in a few species. Flowers mostly solitary among fascicled leaves, seldom paired, elsewhere rarely in a terminal (pseudo-axillary) congested cincinnus, actinomorphic, bisexual, functionally monoecious in a few species; pedicels slender, filiform but thickened distally.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels slender, filiform but thickened distally
    Calyx
    Calyx shorter than or ± as long as the corolla; tube campanulate to tubular, (4)5-lobed (elsewhere sometimes truncate), infrequently slightly 2-lipped; lobes equal to slightly unequal, shorter than or as long as the tube, with valvate aestivation; in fruit enlarged and lacerate Calyx shorter than or ± as long as the corolla; tube campanulate to tubular, (4)5-lobed (elsewhere sometimes truncate), infrequently slightly 2-lipped; lobes equal to slightly unequal, shorter than or as long as the tube, with valvate aestivation; in fruit enlarged and lacerate.
    Corolla
    Corolla tubular or infundibuliform to campanulate, somewhat restricted above the ovary before expanding, variously coloured, pilose on the inside at the point of filament insertion and below it or sometimes glabrous; limb (4)5-lobed in the Flora Zambesiaca area, spreading or reflexed, the lobes often violet, shorter than the tube (elsewhere sometimes longer), with imbricate aestivation Corolla tubular or infundibuliform to campanulate, somewhat restricted above the ovary before expanding, variously coloured, pilose on the inside at the point of filament insertion and below it or sometimes glabrous; limb (4)5-lobed in the Flora Zambesiaca area, spreading or reflexed, the lobes often violet, shorter than the tube (elsewhere sometimes longer), with imbricate aestivation.
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5, from unequal to subequal, the filaments inserted from just above the base of corolla tube to just below the corolla mouth, subulate (elsewhere sometimes basally enlarged and glandular), usually pilose at the base, included or exserted; anthers all fertile in bisexual or functionally male flowers, sterile in functionally female flowers, ovate-oblong to ovate in outline, dorsifixed with the thecae separated from each other for the lower third or half, dehiscing by longitudinal slits Stamens (4)5, from unequal to subequal, the filaments inserted from just above the base of corolla tube to just below the corolla mouth, subulate (elsewhere sometimes basally enlarged and glandular), usually pilose at the base, included or exserted; anthers all fertile in bisexual or functionally male flowers, sterile in functionally female flowers, ovate-oblong to ovate in outline, dorsifixed with the thecae separated from each other for the lower third or half, dehiscing by longitudinal slits.
    Staminodes
    Staminodes absent in the Flora Zambesiaca area Staminodes absent in the Flora Zambesiaca area.
    Disc
    Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, prominent or inconspicuous Disk annular, adnate to and surrounding the basal part of the ovary, prominent or inconspicuous.
    Ovary
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules usually numerous (elsewhere rarely one) in each locule, on a fleshy, axile placenta, hemicampylotropous.
    Style
    Style erect, filiform, straight.
    Stigma
    Stigma dilated, obtuse and 2-lobed, exserted to various degrees, undeveloped in functionally male flowers
    Note
    Most Lycium species are bisexual, but cryptic dioecy occurs in six African species, including L. horridum Thunb. and L. villosum Schinz from the Flora Zambesiaca area. The flowers of the functionally male plants tend to have a narrowly funnel-shaped corolla with 2–3 of the fertile stamens exserted and the undeveloped style and stigma not apparent externally. The flowers of the functionally female plants are tubular, the sterile stamens completely included and the fully developed style and stigma exserted. A cosmopolitan genus of approximately 90 species, widely distributed in warm to temperate regions, the largest number concentrated in South America mainly in Argentina, and also in Southern Africa; 8 species recorded from the Flora Zambesiaca area. Venter, loc. cit. (2000), noted that species of Lycium hybridize readily, but local hybrids are quite easy to detect in the field. L. villosum Schinz and L. horridum are both considered to be of hybrid origin. Chromosome base number: x=12
    Habit
    Shrubs or occasionally small trees, sometimes scandent, sometimes halophytic, densely branched and usually spinescent, with brachyblasts on older branches and spines, glabrous or with an indumentum of multicellular, uniseriate, simple or branched, glandular or eglandular hairs, variously combined in different species.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular; ovules usually numerous (elsewhere rarely one) in each locule, on a fleshy, axile placenta, hemicampylotropous; style erect, filiform, straight; stigma dilated, obtuse and 2-lobed, exserted to various degrees, undeveloped in functionally male flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruit red, black or yellow, glossy, usually baccaceous, rarely drupaceous with 2 pyrenes, globose, ovoid or conical, glabrous, sometimes thin-walled. Fruit red, black or yellow, glossy, usually baccaceous, rarely drupaceous with 2 pyrenes, globose, ovoid or conical, glabrous, sometimes thin-walled
    Seeds
    Seeds usually numerous (to only one) in each locule, discoidal, reniform or ovate in outline; testa leathery or crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate; embryo curved, of uniform in diameter; radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete; endosperm usually abundant. Seeds usually numerous (to only one) in each locule, discoidal, reniform or ovate in outline; testa leathery or crustaceous, reticulate-foveolate; embryo curved, of uniform in diameter; radicle terete; cotyledons semi-terete; endosperm usually abundant
    Cytology
    Chromosome base number: x=12.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Bahamas, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, California, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Cuba, Cyprus, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Free State, Galápagos, Greece, Gulf States, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Inner Mongolia, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Japan, Juan Fernández Is., Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Madeira, Malawi, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Netherlands Antilles, New Mexico, New South Wales, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Paraguay, Peru, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Rodrigues, Réunion, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, Spain, Sudan, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Xinjiang, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alberta, Arkansas, Austria, Baleares, Belgium, British Columbia, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Connecticut, Czechoslovakia, Delaware, Denmark, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Ireland, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Krym, Laos, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Territory, Norway, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Poland, Primorye, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Saskatchewan, Society Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Tasmania, Tennessee, Ukraine, Utah, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

    Lycium L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7150], Kenya 31121.000
    Parry, C.C. [723], Mexico K000063312
    Wynd, F.L. [745], Mexico K000063311
    Smakaune [678], Mexico K000063313

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Castroviejo, S. (ed.) in Castroviejo, S. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Iberica 11: 1-672. Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, Madrid.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Hunziker, Gen. Solanacearum: 158 (2001).
    • A.M. Venter, Taxonomy of Lycium, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Bloemfontein: 1–273 (2000).
    • A.M. Venter, Taxonomy of Lycium, Ph.D. thesis, Univ. Bloemfontein: 1–273 (2000).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 88 (1754).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 88 (1754).
    • Lycium L., Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
    • Sp. Pl.: 191 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Gen. Solanaceae: 158–164 (2001)
    • Africa, Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. Bloemfontein (2000);
    • Collect. Bot. 7: 359–379 (1968);
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 508 (1852);
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 88 (1754);
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 191 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0