1. Marantaceae R.Br.

    1. This family is accepted.

[FWTA]

Marantaceae, F.N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:1. 1968

Habit
Perennial herbs
Leaves
Leaves in two rows, differentiated into an open sheath, stalk and blade, the stalk often winged, but terete and pulviniform towards the apex, this being referred to as the calloused portion (see Fig. 345), the blade sometimes with one straight and one curved side, with closely parallel numerous nerves diverging obliquely from the midrib
Flowers
Flowers bisexual, asymmetric, in a terminal bracteate spike or panicle, or the inflorescence arising from the rhizome
Perianth
Perianth mostly differentiated into calyx and corolla; outer segments free, inner more or less tubular, divided into 3 mostly unequal parts
Androecium
Fertile stamen 1; anther 1-locular; staminodes variously petaloid
Gynoecium
Ovule solitary, erect Ovary inferior, 3-1-locular, sometimes 2 of the loculi infertile; style stout, often dilated at the apex
Fruits
Fruit fleshy or a loculicidal capsule
Seeds
Seeds with abundant endosperm and much incurved or folded embryo, and often with an aril
[NTK]

Vieira, S. (2009). Neotropical Marantaceae.

Morphology
Description

Rhizomatous herbs, small to moderately sized, sometimes lianescent and high-climbing or tall tree -like plants; roots often with tubers, rhizome axis or scales often starch-storing. Leaves distichous , differentiated into sheath , petiole proper (often missing), a distal thickening the so-called pulvinus , and blade ; blades with a prominent midrib and parallel, closely set, sigmoid lateral veins fused near  blade margin, interconnected by numerous regularly arranged secondary veinlets. Inflorescence simple or a complex synflorescence;  inflorescence unit a spiciform thyrse with aggregates of one- or two-flowered cymules in axils of the bracts; cymules with a dorsal two- or three- keeled prophyll at base, often also with a scale-like interphyll opposite to the prophyll, and dorsal (rarely also lateral ) bracteoles. Flowers trimerous, asymmetric ; two flowers of a cymule being mirror images; sepals free ; petals 3, basally connate ; corolla , androecium and style fused at base to form a tube continued as a staminal tube above level of petal separation; outer staminal whorl of 1 or 2 staminodes, or (rarely) missing, staminodes usually petaloid and showy; inner staminal whorl of 3 members, one fertile monothecic stamen (often with a lateral petaloid appendage ) and two staminodes, one hood-shaped (cucullate staminode ) and other usually firm and fresh with marked callosities (callose staminode ); style with a flattened portion on dorsal side just below  apex , stigma confined to an apical cavity; ovary inferior, 3-6-locular, two often empty and compressed ; ovules basal , one per locule ; septa with septal nectaries.  Fruit usually capsular; seeds rather large, arillate, without endosperm but with copious starchy perisperm; embryo horseshoe-shaped; centre of  seed with a canal formed by disintegration of central core of tissue (perisperm canal).

Distribution
Distribution in the Neotropics
  • Calathea G. Mey.: Mexico, Mesoamerica, Caribbean, and tropical South America.
  • Ctenanthe Eichler: Costa Rica, Panama, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, and Venezuela.
  • Hylaeanthe A.M.E. Jonker & Jonker: Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, Guianas, Colombia, Argentina, N and NE Brazil.
  • Ischnosiphon Körn.: Caribbean, Central and South America.
  • Koernickanthe L. Andersson: Central Brazil.
  • Maranta L.: Central and tropical South America.
  • Monophyllanthe K. Schum.: French Guiana, Colombia, and N Brazil.
  • Monotagma K. Schum.: Central and tropical South America
  • Myrosma L. f.: Caribbean and tropical South America.
  • Pleiostachya K. Schum.: Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Ecuador.
  • Sanblasia L. Andersson: Panama.
  • Saranthe (Regel & Körn.) Eichler: SE Brazil.
  • Stromanthe Sond.: Mexico, Caribbean, Central and tropical South America.
  • Thalia L.: Caribbean, Mexico, Central and tropical South America.
Diagnostic
Notable genera and distinguishing features

Calathea

  • Compact and strobiliform inflorescences.
  • Floral tube long and narrow.
  • Outer staminode solitary (rarely missing).
  • Ovary with three fertile locules.

Maranta

  • Rhizomes usually with some form of specialization.
  • Root tubers usually present.
  • Inflorescence usually lax, simple or more complex.
  • Floral tube moderately long and narrow (rarely short).
  • Two outer staminodes subequal to unequal.
  • Sepals persistent on the fruit.
Distinguishing characters (always present)
  • Two members of inner staminal whorl highly modified, one of them hooded (the cucullate staminode) and the other one firm and fleshy with marked callosities (the callosus staminode).
  • A distal thickening of the petiole, the so-called pulvinus.
Other important characters
  • Sigmoidlateralveins which fuse near the blade margin and are interconnected by numerous regularly arranged secondary veinlets.
Key differences from similar families
  • In Marantaceae (1) the petaloid members of inner staminal whorl have shapes that are adapted to specific functions in pollination, (2) the style is hook-shaped and bears the stigma laterally, and (3) each locule bears a single basalovule; while in Cannaceae (1) the petaloid members of inner staminal whorl have no specialized shapes, (2) the style is petaloid and bears the stigma terminally, (3) the placentae are axial and multiovulate.
Useful tips for generic identification
  • Calathea G. Mey.: compact and strobiliform inflorescences; floral tube long and narrow; outer staminode solitary (rarely missing); ovary with three fertile locules.
  • Ctenanthe Eichler: antitropic leaves; corolla tube very short and wide; bracts long-persistent; two outer staminodes slightly unequal; callose staminode distally petaloid and showy.
  • Hylaeanthe A.M.E. Jonker & Jonker: hygrophytic habit; fenestrate leaf sheaths; marcescent bracts; floral tube very long and narrow; two outer staminodes markedly unequal (rarely only one).
  • Ischnosiphon Körn.: slender spiciform inflorescences; sclerotic bracts; floral tube very long and narrow; outer staminode solitary.
  • Koernickanthe L. Andersson: inflorescences compact, spiciform with bright orange bracts, flowers bright yellow, floral tube long and narrow, two outer staminodes subequal, markedly unequal to solitary.
  • Maranta L.: rhizomes usually with some form of specialization, root tubers usually present; inflorescence usually lax, simple or more complex; floral tube moderately long and narrow (rarely short); two outer staminodes subequal to unequal; sepals persistent on the fruit.
  • Monophyllanthe K. Schum.: rhizomes with bulb-like structures made up of thick starch-storing cataphylls; inflorescences imple, sepals linear, floral tube very long and narrow, outer staminode solitary (rarely two markedly unequal).
  • Monotagma K. Schum.: leaf blades firm and chartaceous when dry; inflorescence a richly-branched synflorescence, often much congested; bracts tough and coriaceous, often woody in texture when dry, conduplicate; cymules one-flowered; flower tube very long and narrow; outer staminode solitary.
  • Myrosma L. f.: small plants; rhizomes with bulb-like structures at the branch tips; inflorescences pronouncedly mono-symmetrical, with much overlapping bracts; bracts persistent, distinctly fibrous, papiraceous when dry, white in live plants, straw-coloured when dry; flower tube short and wide; two outer staminodes, equal and showy; fertile stamen with a large, petaloid and showy appendage.
  • Pleiostachya K. Schum.: laterally flattened inflorescences with conduplicate and much overlapping bracts; bracts markedly fibrous and persistent;  floral tube very long and narrow; outer staminode solitary; callose staminode entirely firm and fleshy.
  • Sanblasia L. Andersson: spiciform inflorescences; bracts overlapping and conduplicate; channelled and keeled bracteoles; floral tubes very long and narrow; with three fertile locules.
  • Saranthe (Regel & Körn.) Eichler: hygrophytic habit; bracts deciduous (rarely long-persistent), herbaceous to membranaceous, thin-papiraceous when dry; floral tube short and wide; two outer staminodes, equal; fertile stamen with a petaloid, narrowly oblong appendage equalling or somewhat exceeding the anther.
  • Stromanthe Sond.: richly-branched aerial shoot system; leaves antitropic; flower tube very short and wide to inconspicuous; sepals very large and fibrous; outer staminodes completely absent or two rudimentary to petaloid and showy.
  • Thalia L.: inflorescence a well-branched synflorescence with deciduous bracts; sepals very short; floral tube indistinct; outer staminode solitary; cucullate staminode with two appendages; style with a very long ventral projection of the stigmatic orifice.
General Description
Status
  • Native
General notes
  • There is a growing demand for species of Calathea, Ctenanthe, Maranta, and Stromanthe as ornamentals.  These plants are easy to grow in tropical and subtropical climates where they are cultivated as landscape plants and as potted plants in temperate climates.
  • This family includes a number of edible species such as Calathea barbata Petersen and Calathea allouia Lindl., from which the tubercules are cooked and eaten by indigenous people in central Brazil and northern South America, respectively. 
  • However, only a single species, Maranta arundinacea L. (arrowroot) is economically important.
  • Fibre plants are abundant in the family. 
  • The inflorescence peduncles of species of Ischnosiphon are used for making baskets, mats, strings for musical instruments and ornaments in the Amazonian region and the Guianas.
  • Species with larger leaf blades are used for wrapping foods, to cover cargo and as bottle stoppers.
Number of genera

31 genera worldwide, 14 represented in the Neotropics:

  • Calathea
  • Ctenanthe
  • Hylaeanthe
  • Ischnosiphon
  • Koernickanthe
  • Maranta
  • Monophyllanthe
  • Monotagma
  • Myrosma
  • Pleiostachya
  • Sanblasia
  • Saranthe
  • Stromanthe
  • Thalia
Literature
Important literature

Andersson, L. 1977. The genus Ischnosiphon (Marantaceae). Opera Botanica 43: 1-113.

Andersson, L. 1981a. Revision of the Thalia geniculata complex (Marantaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 1: 48-56.

Andersson, L. 1981b. The neotropical genera of Marantaceae: circumscription and relationships. Nordic Journal  of Botany 1: 218-245.

Andersson, L. 1986. Revision of Maranta Subgen. Maranta (Marantaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 6: 729-756.

Andersson, L. 1998. Marantaceae. In: Kubitzki, K. (ed.), the Families and Genera of Vascular Plants: 4. Pp. 278-293. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

Andersson, L. & Chase, M.W. 2001. Phylogeny and classification of Marantaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 135: 275-287.

Kennedy, H., Andersson, L. & Hagberg, M. 1988. Marantaceae. In: Harling, G., Andersson L. (eds.), Flora of Ecuador 32: 14-191.

Loesener, T. 1930. Marantaceae. In: Engler, A. (ed.), Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 15a. Pp. 564-693. Leipzig, Engelmann.

Petersen, O.G. 1889. Marantaceae. In: Engler, A., Prantl, K. (eds), Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien vol. 2. Pp. 31-43. Leipzig, Engelmann.

Prince, L. M. & Kress, W.J.  2006. Phylogenetic relationships and classification in Marantaceae: insights from plastid DNA sequence data. Taxon 55(2): 281-296.

Schumann, K. 1902. Marantaceae. Pp. 1-184 in: Engler, A. (ed.), Das Pflanzenreich 4(48). Leipzig.

[FTEA]

Marantaceae, E. Milne-Redhead. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1952

Habit
Perennial herbs with rhizomes, sometimes with bamboo-like shoots
Stem
Shoots simple or branched with one to many leaves
Leaves
Leaves with petiole sheathing below, terete in the middle and both terete and calloused (pulvinate) just below the blade; leaf-blade usually more or less asymmetric with one side (either left or right) more curved than the other and the acumen not in line with the midrib; some plants with only one type of leaf (the more curved side either right or left) (homotropic), some with both types (antitropic); nerves parallel and very numerous
Inflorescences
Inflorescence simple or branched with each cymose partial inflorescence in the axil of a primary bract, each successive branch of the cyme (a two-flowered cymule) enclosed in an unkeeled or 2–3-keeled prophyll, and an unkeeled mesophyll opposite the prophyll, or with mespohyll or both mesophyll and prophyll absent; primary bracts arranged in simple spikes with from 4 to many nodes Cymule pedunculate or sessile with the two flowers pedicellate or seesile, side by side or at different levels, with or without fleshy bracteoles
Calyx
Sepals free, equal
Corolla
Corolla forming a tube below with 3 petaloid lobes
Sterile Parts
Staminodes (with stamen) forming a tube below, which is fused to the corolla tube; outer staminodes 2 or 1, petaloid or subulate, sometimes unequal; inner staminodes 3, unequal, one bearing the anther and another hooded, with or without a spur-like appendage
Gynoecium
Ovary inferior, 1- or 3-locular with one ovule in each loculus Style and stigma at first held erect by the hood of one of the staminodes, later suddenly bending downwards
Fruits
Fruit dehiscent or indehiscent, with 1–3 seeds
Seeds
Seed with or without a basal aril; endosperm abundant

Images

Marantaceae R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Voy. Terra Austral. 2: 575. 1814 [19 Jul 1814] (as "Maranateae") (1814)

Accepted by

  • APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385

Sources

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0