1. Family: Smilacaceae Vent.
    1. Smilax L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Smilacaceae, E.J. Cowley. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Perennial, woody or herbaceous, branched climbers
    Branches
    Branchlets aculeate or not
    Leaves
    Leaves glabrous, often evergreen, usually alternate; blade rounded, lanceolate, elliptic, hastate or cordate to cordate-circular, with reticulate veining; petiole short, articulate above the sheath, usually with pair of stipular tendrils
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence compound or simple, long or short; umbels axillary and/or terminal, 1-many
    Flowers
    Flowers small, usually yellowish green, sometimes fragrant Male flowers with usually 6 stamens; filaments free, hypogynous or inserted on the base of the slightly longer tepals, erect or erecto-patent, short or long; anthers basifixed Female flowers with 3-6 staminodes; ovary ovoid; ovules 1 per locule, axile, pendulous, orthotropous
    Perianth
    Perianth-segments free to base, caducous during or after anthesis, subequal, inner ones usually narrower than outer ones
    Male
    Male flowers with usually 6 stamens; filaments free, hypogynous or inserted on the base of the slightly longer tepals, erect or erecto-patent, short or long; anthers basifixed
    Female
    Female flowers with 3-6 staminodes; ovary ovoid; ovules 1 per locule, axile, pendulous, orthotropous
    Fruits
    Berry ± globose, black, red, violet or purple when ripe
    Seeds
    Seeds with small oblong embryo enclosed in hard endosperm.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Inner Mongolia

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Azores, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., South Carolina, South Dakota, Southwest Caribbean, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Smilax L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Harley, R.M. [22474], Brazil 72762.000
    Harley, R.M. [28437], Bahia K000828370
    Harley, R.M. [54143], Pernambuco K000828371
    Harley, R.M. [14191], Bahia K000828376
    Stannard, B. [51156], Bahia K000828359
    Stannard, B. [5631], Bahia K000828372
    Harley, R. [5984], Bahia K000828377
    Freire, E. [29], Pernambuco K000828361
    Mori, S.A. [14468], Bahia K000828369
    Ganev, W. [2383], Bahia K000828358
    Queiroz, L.P. [2097], Bahia K000828368
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Ecuador K000201313
    Figueiredo, L. [4], Pernambuco K000828374
    Eiten, G. [10756], Maranhão K000828365
    Gasson, P. [5939], Bahia K000828360
    Passos, L. [5770], Bahia K000828375
    Maas, P.J.M. [7045], Bahia K000828363
    Willis, F.R. [56], Indonesia 71463.000
    Krukoff, B.A. [8286], Amazonas K000828364
    Delprete, P.G. [8956], Goiás K000828367
    Zappi, D.C. [454], Espírito Santo K000828366
    Maciel, U.N. [540], Pará K000828373
    Cordeiro, T. [826], Minas Gerais K000828362

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Ferrufino-Acosta, L. (2010). Taxonomic revision of the genus Smilax (Smilacaceae) in Central America and the Caribbean islands Willdenowia 40: 227-280.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 7: 423.
    • Sp. Pl. 1028 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hepper in F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 3: 111 (1968)
    • Bak. in F.T.A. 7: 423 (1898)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5:455 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1028 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/