1. Family: Lythraceae J.St.-Hil.
    1. Ammannia L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World, America.

    [FZ]

    Lythraceae, A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Annual (sometimes biennial?) glabrous (rarely with the calyx minutely hairy) herbs.
    Stem
    Stems erect or decumbent, 4-gonous or 4-winged, simple or ± branched.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, sessile, entire, 1-nerved.
    Inflorescences
    Dichasia (1)3-many-flowered, sub-sessile or pedunculate; bracteoles small, membranous, whitish.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4 (5–8)-merous, never heterostylous.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate or urn-shaped, 8-ribbed; appendages absent or very short.
    Corolla
    Petals 4–8, very caducous or absent, small, obovate, spathulate or rounded.
    Stamens
    Stamens as many as or twice the number of calyx-lobes, rarely fewer, with the filaments inserted at 1/4–1/2 of the calyx-tube length; anthers didymous.
    Pistil
    Ovary incompletely 2–4(5)-locular, sometimes unilocular; style 0 or ± long, not continuous with placentas; stigma capitate; ovules numerous, axile or on the septa.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose or ellipsoid, included in the calyx or ± exserted, thinly membranous, dehiscing transversally and irregularly; seeds numerous, very small, angular.
    [FTEA]

    Lythraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1984

    Habit
    Annual or possibly short-lived perennial erect or decumbent herbs or often small ephemerals, glabrous or with stem-angles, etc., with small acute emergences but mostly not hairy; stems simple or branched, 4-angled or 4-winged
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, sessile, linear to lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, attenuate to auriculate or cordate at the base, 1-nerved
    Flowers
    Flowers red or greenish, 4–(5–8)-merous, monomorphic, in (1–)3-many-flowered subsessile to pedunculate axillary dichasia; pedicels developed or ± absent; bracteoles whitish, small, linear
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube campanulate to urceolate, 8-ribbed; calyx-lobes 4(–5), triangular, mostly short and broad; appendages thick, shorter than or ± equalling the lobes or absent
    Corolla
    Petals lacking or white, pink or purple, 1–4 (or 4–8 fide Fernandes), small, very deciduous
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–8, rarely fewer, included to exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary incompletely 2–4(–5)-locular, the septae interrupted above the placentas (or in one extra-African species unilocular with parietal placentation, but see note); ovules numerous
    Pistil
    Style lacking or well developed, not continuous with the placentas (but see note); stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, ellipsoid or depressed, thin, ± circumscissile or bursting irregularly; wall not closely striate
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, numerous, small, obovoid, concave-convex, angular.
    [FTEA]

    Lythraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1984

    Habit
    Annual or perennial aquatic or terrestrial glabrous herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, sessile, linear, usually widened at base or sometimes basal pair narrowly oblong; midrib impressed above; basal pair of narrowly oblong leaves present in one species
    Flowers
    Flowers (3–)4(–5)-merous, sessile in dense axillary clusters partially enclosed by the widened leaf-bases; outer bracteoles 2, narrowly lanceolate, hyaline, ± as long as young clusters, stipule-like; inner bracteoles whitish, numerous, subulate
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, scarious, 8-nerved below, 4-nerved above the insertion of the stamens; lobes very broadly triangular; sinus-appendages short
    Corolla
    Petals persistent, corrugated
    Stamens
    Stamens (3–)4(–5), opposite the lobes; anthers and pollen violet
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate; dissepiments interrupted above the column of the placenta which is not continuous with the style, incompletely 2-locular, 2–5-ovulate; style slender, much longer than ovary
    Fruits
    Capsule thinly membranous, dehiscing irregularly; wall not densely striate
    Seeds
    Seeds dark violet, few, concavo-convex.
    [FZ]

    Lythraceae, A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Annual or perennial aquatic or terrestrial glabrous herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, sessile, linear, widened at the base, canaliculate above.
    Flowers
    Flowers (3)4 (5)-merous, in axillary sessile many-flowered dense dichasia surrounded by the widened bases of leaves; outer bracteoles 2, ± as long as the glomerules, the inner ones numerous, subulate, membranous, whitish.
    Calyx
    Calyx campanulate, scarious, 8-nerved below, 4-nerved above the insertion of the stamens, with short appendages in the sinuses and a nectariferous ring at the bottom.
    Corolla
    Petals persistent, corrugated.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4 (sometimes 3 or 5), opposite to the lobes; anthers dorsifixed, they and the pollen violet.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, with the dissepiments interrupted above the column of the placenta (the placenta then not continuous with the style), incompletely 2-locular, 2–5-ovulate; style ± long.
    Fruits
    Capsule thinly membranous, dehiscing irregularly.
    Seeds
    Seeds few, concave-convex, relatively large, dark violet.
    [FTEA]

    Lythraceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1984

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs, subshrubs or rarely shrubs, glabrous to densely hairy; stems often 4-angled
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate, in whorls of 3 or rarely alternate, usually practically sessile
    Flowers
    Flowers 4–8-merous, often heterostylous, in lax to dense axillary cymes, or heads with 2–4 large bracteoles, or solitary
    Calyx
    Calyx turbinate-campanulate, campanulate, tubular, urceolate or subglobose, the tube 8–16-ribbed; sinus-appendages lacking, very short or sometimes longer than the lobes
    Corolla
    Petals 0–8, deciduous, sessile or clawed
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–23, 1- or 2- seriate, sometimes geminate or 3-nate, inserted at 1/6–1/2 of length of calyx-tube, equal or alternately longer and shorter; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, completely 2–5-locular; ovules numerous; style continuous with placenta, short or long, or wanting
    Fruits
    Capsule globose or ellipsoid, opening by an apical lid with lower part septicidal or breaking irregularly
    Seeds
    Seeds very numerous, small.
    [FZ]

    Lythraceae, A. Fernandes. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs or shrublets, rarely shrubs, glabrous, pilose or tomentose.
    Stem
    Stems erect, usually 4-gonous.
    Leaves
    Leaves decussate or subdecussate, rarely 3-nate or alternate, entire, sessile or shortly petiolate, obscurely penninerved.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences lax or dense axillary cymes, sometimes capituliform and with 2–4 large bracteoles at the base, or flowers solitary.
    Flowers
    Flowers bisexual, sometimes heterostylous, 4–8-merous, bracteolate, the bracteoles very variable in size.
    Calyx
    Calyx turbinate-campanulate, campanulate, tubular, urceolate or semiglobose, herbaceous, with the tube 8–16-ribbed; appendages 0 or very short or longer than the calyx-lobes.
    Corolla
    Petals 0–8, deciduous, inserted in the throat of the calyx, sessile or clawed.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–23, in 1 or 2 verticils, sometimes geminate or 3-nate, inserted at 1/6–1/2 of the tube length, equal or alternately longer; filaments filiform; anthers dorsifixed, didymous or oblong.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, 2–5-locular; ovules numerous; style 0 or short or very long; stigma capitate or punctiform.
    Fruits
    Capsule globose or ellipsoid, opening by an apical operculum, the lower part subsepticidal or dehiscing irregularly.
    Seeds
    Seeds ∞, small.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nebraska, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Guinea, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Ukraine, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil South, Bulgaria, Chile Central, Greece, Hawaii, Hungary, Italy, Kazan-retto, Kirgizstan, Marianas, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Spain, Turkey-in-Europe, Yugoslavia

    Ammannia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ludanga [1424], Tanzania K000310172 isoneotype
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 7445] K001127346

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 119 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Koehne in Engl. Pflanzenr. Lythrac. 42 (1903).
    • —F.T.A. 2: 476
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 55 (1754).
    • Sp. PI. 1: 119 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • S.A. Graham in Journ. Arn. Arb. 66: 395–420 (1985)
    • Koehne in E.P. IV. 216: 42 (1903)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 55 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 119 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/