1. Family: Cannabaceae Martinov
    1. Celtis L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.


    Ulmaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Trees or shrubs, monoecious rarely dioecious, unarmed (often armed in non African species).
    Leaves petiolate, lamina usually unequal-sided at the base, penninerved or 3-nerved from the base; cystoliths often present, giving a scabrous texture to the mature leaves; stipules usually small.
    Flowers often precocious, in many small cymes (sometimes fasciculate in non African species), female flowers sometimes in separate inflorescences.
    Sepals (4)5, ± free, imbricate.
    Anthers ovate.
    Ovary sessile; styles often once or twice-branched.
    Fruit drupaceous, thinly fleshy, sometimes with ribbed endocarp.

    Ulmaceae, R. M. Polhill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1966

    Trees or shrubs, monoecious or rarely dioecious, ± armed
    Leaf-blades penninerved or 3–5-nerved from the base, which is often unequal-sided, and with cystoliths, giving a scabrous texture to the mature leaves, often present
    Stipules usually small and caducous
    Inflorescences cymose or fasciculate, the lower ones usually with many predominantly ♂ flowers, the upper ones with few longer pedicelled ♀, hermaphroditeflowers
    Sepals (4–)5, free or almost so, imbricate
    Stamens as many as the sepals; anthers ovate
    Ovary sessile, 1-locular; styles ± 1–2-branched
    Drupes thinly fleshy, subglobose to ellipsoid; endocarp hard, sometimes ribbed.



    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Bulgaria, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Cook Is., Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Inner Mongolia, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marquesas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Caucasus, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Romania, Rwanda, Samoa, Santa Cruz Is., Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Somalia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vermont, Vietnam, Virginia, Wallis-Futuna Is., Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Canary Is., Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Madeira, Switzerland

    Celtis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 10, 1988 Coradin, L. [6051], Brazil K000964256
    Jan 1, 1979 Silva, A.S. [174], Brazil K000964307
    May 11, 1915 Ratter, J.A. [6254], Brazil K000964303
    Pennington, T.D. [13920], Ecuador 57124.000
    Pennington, T.D. [14065], Ecuador 57125.000
    Onishi, E. [232], Brazil K000964300
    Sucre, D. [3675], Brazil K000964258
    Fevereiro, V.P.B. [M75], Brazil K000964302
    Krapovickas, A. [42992], Brazil K000964304
    Ratter, J.A. [7548], Brazil K000964308
    Ule, E. [5872], Brazil K000964297
    Rodal, M.J.N. [485], Brazil K000964311
    Heringer, E.P. [5322], Brazil K000964306
    Heringer, E.P. [381], Brazil K000964298
    Lanna, J.P. [1874], Brazil K000964257
    Pereira, B.A.S. [60], Brazil K000964305
    Pereira, B.A.S. [58], Brazil K000964309
    Smith, L.B. [14150], Brazil K000964291
    Smith, L.B. [13215], Brazil K000964299
    Burchell, W.J. [923], Brazil K000964293
    Burchell, W.J. [s.n.], Brazil K000964294
    Burchell, W.J. [7314], Brazil K000964295
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132555
    Sellow [s.n.], Brazil K000964292
    Sellow [836], Brazil K000964296
    Loureiro, R.L. [149], Brazil K000964301
    Sales, M.F. de [610], Brazil K000964310
    Sales, M.F. de [610], Brazil K000964312

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1043 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.


    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 6, 2: 2.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 467 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 1043 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 467 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1043 (1753)


    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.