1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Clerodendrum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    General
    Perennial herbs or suffrutices with woody rootstocks, shrubs (often with arching stems), lianes or trees
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, opposite decussate or 3–4-verticillate, usually petiolate, caducous; lamina entire, undulate, dentate or crenate; petiole articulated, sometimes the lower part persisting as a woody spine Leaves simple, opposite decussate or 3–4-verticillate, usually petiolate, caducous; lamina entire, undulate, dentate or crenate; petiole articulated, sometimes the lower part persisting as a woody spine.
    Flowers
    Flowers in lax or ± dense cymes grouped in axillary or terminal racemose, corymbose, paniculate or head-like ± compact inflorescences Flowers in lax or ± dense cymes grouped in axillary or terminal racemose, corymbose, paniculate or head-like ± compact inflorescences.
    Calyx
    Calyx usually regular, campanulate to tubular or cup-shaped, ± deeply 5-lobed or truncate, sometimes 5-angled, usually persistent and accrescent in fruit Calyx usually regular, campanulate to tubular or cup-shaped, ± deeply 5-lobed or truncate, sometimes 5-angled, usually persistent and accrescent in fruit.
    Corolla
    Corolla symmetrical in bud or, if asymmetrical, usually expanding abruptly on upper side due to resupination, actinomorphic; tube ± long, narrowly cylindrical or funnel-shaped; limb of 5 equal or subequal spreading or reflexed lobes, anterior corolla lobe only slightly (if at all) larger than the others Corolla symmetrical in bud or, if asymmetrical, usually expanding abruptly on upper side due to resupination, actinomorphic; tube ± long, narrowly cylindrical or funnel-shaped; limb of 5 equal or subequal spreading or reflexed lobes, anterior corolla lobe only slightly (if at all) larger than the others.
    Stamens
    Stamens 4(5?) didynamous inserted on the corolla tube, usually long exserted, erect and subparallel or ± diverging; anthers versatile Stamens 4(5?) didynamous inserted on the corolla tube, usually long exserted, erect and subparallel or ± diverging; anthers versatile.
    Carpels
    Carpels 2, each incompletely divided into 2 loculi; locules 1-ovulate Carpels 2, each incompletely divided into 2 loculi; locules 1-ovulate.
    Style
    Style terminal, slender, ± equalling the filaments; stigma exserted, 2-fid, the lobes equal short, slender, acute
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous, obovoid or globose, often 4-grooved, (2)4-lobed; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp bony or crustaceous, separated into four 1-seeded pyrenes or 2 pairs of pyrenes; seed without albumen. Fruit drupaceous, obovoid or globose, often 4-grooved, (2)4-lobed; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarp bony or crustaceous, separated into four 1-seeded pyrenes or 2 pairs of pyrenes; seed without albumen.
    Ecology
    Some species are cultivated, mainly as ornamentals.
    Note
    Species introduced and cultivated as garden ornamentals in the Flora Zambesiaca area include the following, and are keyed out below.
    Distribution
    A genus with about 400 species (584 taxa fide Moldenke ), mainly in the Old World tropics and subtropics, but some in America and a few in temperate regions.
    Habit
    Perennial herbs or suffrutices with woody rootstocks, shrubs (often with arching stems), lianes or trees.
    Pistil
    Style terminal, slender, ± equalling the filaments; stigma exserted, 2-fid, the lobes equal short, slender, acute.
    [LKGF]

    Harley, R.M. et al. (2004). Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York.

    Habit
    Trees, lianas, shrubs, subshrubs and rarely perennial or annual herbs, often ill-scented
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite (rarely alternate or whorled), usually petiolate, simple, entire or toothed, rarely lobed
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a terminal thyrse (usually lax, paniculiform or corymboid, less often capitate) or axillary cyme (occasionally reduced to solitary flower)
    Flowers
    Flowers often resupinate
    Calyx
    Calyx usually actinomorphic, usually accrescent, often showy, 5-lobed (rarely 2-4-lobed or truncate)
    Corolla
    Corolla variable in colour, actinomorphic to subactinomorphic, usually hypocrateriform, or 1-lipped with anterior lip present, but usually facing upward due to resupination, 5-lobed, anterior lobe sometimes slightly larger than others, corolla in bud symm
    Stamens
    Stamens 4, subequal to didynamous, exserted, filaments straight or arched (usually upward), anthers versatile, thecae parallel, separate at dehiscence
    Pollen
    Pollen tricolpate (rarely 6-pantocolpate), with supratectal spinules, columellae branched to granular
    Ovary
    Ovary unlobed to shallowly 4-lobed
    Stigma
    Stigma lobes equal or subequal
    Disc
    Disc usually poorly developed to absent
    Fruits
    Fruit drupaceous with four 1-seeded pyrenes or a schizocarp with four fleshy (rarely dry), 1-seeded mericarps (or rarely two 2-seeded mericarps); endosperm absent.
    Note
    2n = 22-108 (most frequently 48 or 52; x = 12, 13). Four hundred to five hundred species
    Distribution
    Mostly paleotropical but some neotropical and a few temperate species
    [FTEA]

    Verbenaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1992

    Habit
    Trees, shrubs or lianes or occasionally perennial herbs or pyrophytes with large woody rootstocks, sometimes with persistent spinescent petiole-bases often acting as scrambling aids
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, opposite or in whorls of 3–4, entire or toothed
    Flowers
    Flowers in lax cymes, extensive panicles or dense corymbs or heads, axillary or terminal, often appearing axillary but actually terminating abbreviated shoots, rarely solitary
    Calyx
    Calyx often coloured and showy, campanulate to tubular, truncate to 5-toothed, often accrescent in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white, blue, violet (etc.) or red, almost regular or quite irregular; tube narrowly cylindrical, straight or curved, often widened towards throat, sometimes very long or only as long as calyx; limb spreading or reflexed, the anterior lobes larger than the posterior pairs
    Stamens
    Stamens 4–5, didynamous, inserted in the corolla-tube, alternate with the lobes, usually long-exserted
    Ovary
    Ovary imperfectly 4-locular, each locule with one lateral ovule
    Pistil
    Style terminal, elongate; stigma shortly 2-fid, exserted
    Fruits
    Drupes obovoid or globose, often 4-grooved and ± (2–)4-lobed; mesocarp ± fleshy; endocarps bony or crustaceous, smooth or rugose, separating into 4 pyrenes or 2 pairs of pyrenes; seeds with no albumen.
    [LKGF]
    Use
    Many species are used as ornamentals.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Cuba, East Himalaya, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Pakistan, Paraguay, Philippines, Qinghai, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Uganda, Vanuatu, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Argentina Northwest, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Caroline Is., Christmas I., Cook Is., Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, New Caledonia, New Zealand North, Nicaragua, Niue, North Carolina, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., South Carolina, Texas, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Clerodendrum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2012 Yii, P.C. [53547], Malaysia K000853683
    Jan 1, 2005 Ambriansyah [3080], Indonesia K000785930
    Dec 1, 2003 Ambriansyah [2666], Indonesia K000785928
    Aug 1, 2003 Sidiyasa, K. [2816], Indonesia K000785927
    Mar 1, 1999 Kessler, P.J.A. [2522], Indonesia K000785926
    Dec 14, 1998 Yii, P.C. [69789], Malaysia K000785919
    Jan 1, 1998 Acworth, J.M. [147], Cameroon K000011888
    Jan 1, 1998 Sambuling, S. [66], Malaysia K000853652
    Jan 1, 1998 Fraser, P. [392], Cameroon K000011889
    Jan 1, 1997 Brass, L.J. [6025], Papua New Guinea K000804937 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1997 Lamb, A. [174], Malaysia K000803639
    Jan 1, 1995 Macedo, G.C. [19], Brazil K001218619
    Jan 1, 1978 Carr, C.E. [15748], Papua New Guinea K000825668
    Sep 26, 1972 Paie, I. [31569], Malaysia K000785921
    Carr, C.E. [16362], Papua New Guinea K000825686
    Carr, C.E. [13990], Papua New Guinea K000825687
    Carr, C.E. [16103], Papua New Guinea K000825694
    Carr, C.E. [16071], Papua New Guinea K000825696
    Carr, C.E. [12853], Papua New Guinea K000825711
    Carr, C.E. [11839], Papua New Guinea K000804940
    Carr, C.E. [16464], Papua New Guinea K000804952
    Carr, C.E. [12109], Papua New Guinea K000804956
    Carr, C.E. [14758], Papua New Guinea K000804960
    Carr, C.E. [15156], Papua New Guinea K000804961
    Carr, C.E. [15155], Papua New Guinea K000804962
    Brass, L.J. [29246], Papua New Guinea K000825702
    Brass, L.J. [29246], Papua New Guinea K000825703
    Brass, L.J. [25952], Papua New Guinea K000804947
    Brass, L.J. [7864], Papua New Guinea K000804953
    Brass, L.J. [13062], Indonesia K000804957
    Sands, M.J.S. [7324], New Guinea K000172024
    Sands, M.J.S. [6304], Indonesia K000825664
    Clemens, J. [21782], Malaysia K000785923
    Clemens, J. [21783], Malaysia K000785924
    Clemens, J. [20641], Malaysia K000785925
    Womersley, J.S. [5049], Papua New Guinea K000825671
    Womersley, J.S. [NGF37008], Papua New Guinea K000825691
    Womersley, J.S. [NGF37008], Papua New Guinea K000825692
    Womersley, J.S. [NGF7951], Papua New Guinea K000825705
    Sayers, C.D. [NGF18026], Papua New Guinea K000825698
    Sayers, C.D. [NGF21707], Papua New Guinea K000825704
    Millar, A.N. [NGF13821], Papua New Guinea K000825675
    Millar, A.N. [NGF9972], Papua New Guinea K000825682
    Millar, A.N. [NGF35455], Papua New Guinea K000825685
    Millar, A.N. [NGF14469], Papua New Guinea K000804955
    Schodde, R. [2577], Papua New Guinea K000825665
    Schodde, R. [4474], Papua New Guinea K000825672
    Schodde, R. [4555], Papua New Guinea K000825673
    Schodde, R. [2693], Papua New Guinea K000825684
    Schodde, R. [1570], Papua New Guinea K000825693
    Schodde, R. [2295], Papua New Guinea K000825707
    Schodde, R. [1570], Papua New Guinea K000804951
    Schodde, R. [4648], Papua New Guinea K000825724
    Darbyshire, P.J. [224], Papua New Guinea K000825706
    Darbyshire, P.J. [646], Papua New Guinea K000804941
    Hoogland, R.D. [10256], Papua New Guinea K000825708
    Anderson, J.A.R. [T23], Malaysia K000785934
    Anderson, J.A.R. [7794], Malaysia K000803642
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9325], Cameroon K000029642
    Streimann, H. [LAE51567], Papua New Guinea K000825674
    Streimann, H. [NGF39398], Papua New Guinea K000825676
    Streimann, H. [NGF26200], Papua New Guinea K000804948
    Kairo, A. [NGF35625], Papua New Guinea K000804938
    Johns, R.J. [7671], Indonesia K000825662
    Johns, R.J. [7671], Indonesia K000825663
    McKee, H.S. [1685], Indonesia K000825701
    McKee, H.S. [1777], Indonesia K000825661
    Letouzey, R. [15144], Cameroon K000029643
    Vink, W. [BW15341], Indonesia K000804954
    Craven, L.A. [1044], Papua New Guinea K000825712
    Smith, L.S. [NGF1180], Papua New Guinea K000825678
    Mogea, J.P. [809], Indonesia K000785938
    Mogea, J.P. [3484], Indonesia K000785939
    Mogea, J.P. [3808], Indonesia K000785940
    Ridsdale, C.E. [NGF33437], Papua New Guinea K000825688
    Wheatley, J.I. [18], Cameroon K000011979
    Wheatley, J.I. [502], Cameroon K000011988
    Wheatley, J.I. [483], Cameroon K000011989
    Kessler, P. [2297], Indonesia K000785929
    Kessler, P. [1659], Indonesia K000785931
    Kessler, P. [1942], Indonesia K000785932
    Kessler, P. [2188], Indonesia K000785933
    Frodin, D.G. [2737], New Guinea 63175.000
    Nooteboom, H.P. [5639], Indonesia K000785936
    Sidwell, K. [97], Cameroon K000011981
    Curtis, C. [50], Indonesia K000803656
    Pulle, A. [1227], Indonesia K000804950
    Fuentes, R. [37217], Philippines K000804668
    Madani, L. [111376], Malaysia K000803648
    Docters van Leeuwen, W.M. [9015], Indonesia K000825670
    Docters van Leeuwen, W.M. [10078], Indonesia K000825677
    Pullen, R. [6619], Papua New Guinea K000825690
    Pullen, R. [8161], Papua New Guinea K000825700
    Henty, E.E. [NGF14753], Papua New Guinea K000825666
    Henty, E.E. [NGF14753], Papua New Guinea K000825667
    Henty, E.E. [NGF10697], Papua New Guinea K000825683
    Henty, E.E. [NGF10550], Papua New Guinea K000804939
    Henty, E.E. [NGF38743], Papua New Guinea K000825723
    Havel, J.J. [NGF17288], Papua New Guinea K000825681
    Kostermans, A. [21652], Indonesia K000785943
    Kostermans, A. [18319], Indonesia K000803635
    Kostermans, A. [18256], Indonesia K000803636
    Kostermans, A. [18731], Indonesia K000803643
    Floyd, A.G. [6654], Papua New Guinea K000825709
    Floyd, A.G. [6654], Papua New Guinea K000825710
    Floyd, A. [6455], Papua New Guinea K000804949
    Burley, J.S. [2122], Indonesia K000803653
    Buwalda, P. [6867], Indonesia K000803655
    Mohtar, A. [49541], Malaysia K000785917
    Verboom, W.C. [10], Indonesia K000803657
    Sundaling, D. [135314], Malaysia K000785942
    Pleyte, D.R. [375], Indonesia K000825713
    Pleyte, D.R. [375], Indonesia K000825714
    Pleyte, D.R. [665], Indonesia K000825722
    Kooy, C.W. [1009], Indonesia K000803649
    Aet [532], Indonesia K000825669
    Aet [6], Indonesia K000825679
    Aet [407], Indonesia K000825689
    Aet [339], Indonesia K000804958
    Aet [256], Indonesia K000804959
    Aet [119a], Indonesia K000825725
    Thompson, S.A. [1403], Cameroon K000029641
    Webb, C.O. [3442], Indonesia K000803644
    Webb, C.O. [3643], Indonesia K000803646
    Reynoso, E. [1300], Philippines K000804670
    Reynoso, E. [836], Philippines K000804673
    Reynoso, E. [7220], Philippines K000804678
    Ilias bin Paie [28570], Malaysia K000803652
    Pius, G. [117707], Malaysia K000803647
    Kato, M. [1174], Malaysia K000803638
    Wilde, W. de [14467], Indonesia K000803633
    Wilde, W. de [14891], Indonesia K000803651
    Wilde, W. de [14114], Indonesia K000803654
    Branderhorst, B. [74], Indonesia K000825718
    Branderhorst, B. [74], Indonesia K000825719
    Gray, E. [NGF8008], Papua New Guinea K000825697
    Reksodihardjo, S. [622], Indonesia K000785986
    Kalat, A. [17309], Brunei K000785935
    Othman, I. [57200], Malaysia K000785937
    Othman, I. [33714], Malaysia K000785922
    Pereira, J.T. [549], Malaysia K000853649
    Gaerlan, F.M. [3023], Philippines K000804674
    Gaerlan, F.M. [2978], Philippines K000804676
    Gaerlan, F.M. [2787], Philippines K000804677
    Ndi [50351], Cameroon K000029640
    Strang, H. [45715], Brazil K001218620
    Rahmat Si Boeea [5974], Indonesia K000803650
    Gray, E.C. [NGF8129], Papua New Guinea K000825695
    Saigol, P. [90893], Malaysia K000803637
    Sijde, H.A. v.d. [BW4167], Indonesia K000825715
    Sijde, H.A. v.d. [BW4170], Indonesia K000825716
    Zollinger, H. [2015], Indonesia K000785874
    Mahmud bin Sidek [6366], Malaysia K000784909
    Pannell, C.M. [1849], Indonesia K000803632
    Yii, P.C. [64870], Malaysia K000785920
    Jamree [76773], Malaysia K000785918
    Frodin, D. [UPNG603], Papua New Guinea K000825699
    Gillison, A.N. [NGF22245], Papua New Guinea K000825717
    Barbon [2029], Philippines K000804666
    Barbon [2437], Philippines K000804667
    Barbon [2307], Philippines K000804669
    Barbon [2053], Philippines K000804672
    Barbon [12361], Philippines K000804675
    Sumbing Jimpin [139267], Malaysia K000803640
    Sumbing Jimpin [139279], Malaysia K000803641
    Amin [108167], Malaysia K000803634
    s.coll. [NGF4167], Papua New Guinea K000804946
    Stone [10032], Papua New Guinea K000825680
    Stone [5500], Philippines K000804671
    Mbani, J. M. [40], Cameroon K000011969
    Latiff, A. [1667], Malaysia K000784908
    Tuen, E. [E43], Papua New Guinea K000825720
    Harley, M. [TL2136], Madagascar K000853673
    Harley, M. [TL2136], Madagascar K000853678

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • B. Thomas in Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 68: 1 (1936).
    • —F.T.A. 5: 292
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Harley et al. in Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 199 (2004).
    • Kadereit (ed.), Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. (Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VII: 199 (2004).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 407 (1983)*.
    • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 407 (1983).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68 : 1–106 (1936).
    • Thomas in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68: 1–106 (1936).
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 285 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl.: 637 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Moldenke in Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4: 407 (1983) (very comprehensive generic synonymy etc.)
    • Thomas in E.J. 68: 1–106 (1936)
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 285 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 109 (1753)
    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    • Harley RM, Atkins S, Budantsev AL, Cantino PD, Conn BJ, Grayer R, Harley MM, de Kok RPJ, Krestovskaja T, Morales R, Paton AJ, Ryding O, and Upson T. 2004. Labiatae, in The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants (K. Kubitzki, ed. in chief) VI: 167-275. Sp
    • B. Thomas, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 68: 1-98 (1936).
    • L., Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 285 (1754)
    • Clerodendrum L., Sp. Pl. 2: 637 (1753)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Lamiaceae Key Genus Fact Sheets
    Nina Davies, Gemma Bramley and Don Kirkup, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0