According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Salicaceae, C.M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985
- Dioecious trees or shrubs
- Leaves alternate; stipules small or foliaceous, usually deciduous
- Flowers grouped into unisexual catkins, often appearing before leaves; each flower subtended by a bract; perianth absent; disc present, often forming one or more fleshy glands Male flower with 2–many stamens; filaments filiform, free or united; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally Female flower with 1-locular ovary, 2–4 parietal placentas and numerous ovules; style 2–4-fid
- Male flower with 2–many stamens; filaments filiform, free or united; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally
- Female flower with 1-locular ovary, 2–4 parietal placentas and numerous ovules; style 2–4-fid
- Fruit a capsule, dehiscing longitudinally into 2–4 valves
- Seeds numerous, very small, with large tuft of long hairs arising from funicle; embryo straight; endosperm absent
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa[FWTA]
Salicaceae, R.D. Meikle. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958
- Trees or shrubs
- Leaves alternate, simple, deciduous; stipules small or foliaceous
- Flowers unisexual, dioecious, densely arranged in erect or pendulous catkins often appearing before the leaves; bracts membranous, each subtending a flower Female flowers: ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, 1-celled, with 2–4 parietal placentas; style 2–4-fid Male flowers: stamens 2 or more, free or united; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
- Calyx absent or represented by a cupular disk or 2 glandular scales
- Male flowers: stamens 2 or more, free or united; anthers 2-celled, opening lengthwise
- Female flowers: ovary sessile or shortly stipitate, 1-celled, with 2–4 parietal placentas; style 2–4-fid
- Ovules numerous, ascending
- Fruit a 2–4-valved capsule
- Seeds small, with numerous fine hairs arising from the funicle and enveloping the seed; endosperm none; embryo straight
According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Salicaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991
- Dioecious trees or shrubs
- Leaves alternate, deciduous; stipules small or foliaceous, usually deciduous
- Flowers grouped into unisexual catkins, often appearing before the leaves; each flower subtended by a bract; perianth absent; disk present, often forming one or more fleshy glands Male flower with 2-many stamens, filaments filiform, free or united, anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally Female flower: ovary 1-locular with 2–4 parietal placentas, ovules numerous, style 2–4-fid
- Male flower with 2-many stamens, filaments filiform, free or united, anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally
- Female flower: ovary 1-locular with 2–4 parietal placentas, ovules numerous, style 2–4-fid
- Fruit a capsule, dehiscing longitudinally into 2–4 valves
- Seeds numerous, very small, with a large tuft of long hairs arising from the funicle; embryo straight; endosperm absent
According to Neotropikey[NTK]
Alford, M.H. & Belyaeva, I.V. (2009). Neotropical Salicaceae.
Trees or shrubs, with or without thorns or spines. Leaves alternate or rarely opposite or subopposite (Abatia Ruiz & Pav.), simple , pinnately or palmately veined , sometimes acrodromous perfect (3-veined from base to apex : Lunania Hook., Neosprucea Sleumer); margins entire to crenate , serrate , dentate , or spinose; leaf teeth, if present, with small conical, deciduous appendages or with persistent , papillate to globose to torus-(doughnut-)shaped glands ; infrequently with stellate pubescence (some Abatia, Banara Aubl., Macrohasseltia L.O.Williams, Pineda Ruiz & Pav., Ryania Vahl); lamina sometimes with pellucid -punctations or -lines (tribe Samydeae); exstipulate or stipulate, stipules sometimes large and falcate (e.g., Prockia P.Browne ex L., Salix L.) or even leaf-like (Azara Ruiz & Pav.). Sexuality various, usually hermaphroditic, polygamous, or dioecious . Inflorescences axillary or terminal , catkins, spikes, racemes, panicles, cymes, corymbs, umbelliform cymes, fascicles, or glomerules, or reduced to single flowers. Flowers actinomorphic or irregular (tribe Saliceae), often minute. Hypanthium present or absent. Sepals absent (tribe Saliceae), otherwise 3-15(-22), aestivation imbricate or valvate . Petals absent or 3-8(-12), aestivation imbricate or valvate . Disk sometimes present, in some groups appearing like thick staminodes and in other groups like globose nectaries, inside, alternating with, or outside the stamens. Stamens (1-)2-numerous, sometimes in epipetalous bundles; anthers globose to linear -elongate; anther dehiscence introrse (tribe Samydeae), extrorse, or latrorse (Lunania), dehiscence usually longitudinal (± poricidal in Neosprucea). Gynoecium of 1 pistil , ovary superior or half-inferior (Homalium Jacq.), generally unilocular (occasionally with septa in Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Arn., Flacourtia L'Her., Hasseltia Blume, Prockia), placentation parietal or pseudo- axile , styles 1-8, stigma capitate to lacerate to obscure . Fruit a fleshy or dry berry , capsule , samara (Neopringlea S.Watson), or drupe (Flacourtia). Seeds 1-numerous, arillate or exarillate, sometimes covered in cottony hairs (Bartholomaea Standl. & Steyerm., Casearia Jacq. sect. Gossypiospermum Urb., Macrohasseltia) or with a coma (Populus L., Salix).
Distribution in the Neotropics
- Abatia Ruiz & Pav. (including Aphaerema Miers): montane Central and South America, SE Brazil.
- Azara Ruiz & Pav.: Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, and SE Brazil, mostly subtropical and temperate.
- Banara Aubl.: Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America, especially diverse in the Antilles.
- Bartholomaea Standl. & Styerm.: Mexico, Guatemala, and Belize.
- Casearia Jacq.: Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America.
- Dovyalis E.Mey.: cultivated for fruit, throughout.
- Euceraea Mart.: South America.
- Flacourtia L.'Her.: cultivated for fruit, throughout.
- Hasseltia Blume: Central and South America.
- Hasseltiopsis Sleumer: Central America.
- Hecatostemon S.F.Blake: northern South America.
- Homalium Jacq.: Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America.
- Laetia Loefl.: Antilles, Central and South America.
- Lunania Hook.: Antilles, Central and South America, most diverse in the Antilles.
- Macrohasseltia L.O.Williams: Central America.
- Macrothumia M.H.Alford: Brazil.
- Neopringlea S.Watson: Mexico and Guatemala.
- Neoptychocarpus Buchheim: South America.
- Neosprucea Sleumer: Panama and South America.
- Olmediella Baill.: Mexico and Central America.
- Pineda Ruiz & Pav.: montane Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
- Pleuranthodendron L.O.Williams: Central and South America.
- Populus L.: Mexico, but infrequently cultivated elsewhere.
- Prockia P.Beowne ex L.: Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America.
- Ryania Vahl: Central and South America.
- Salix L.: Mexico, Central and South America.
- Samyda Jacq.: Antilles, Mexico, and Central America.
- Tetrathylacium Poepp. & Endl.: Central and South America.
- Xylosma G.Forst. (including Priamosia Urb.): Antilles, Mexico, Central and South America.
- Zuelania A.Rich.: Antilles, Central and northern South America.
Key differences from similar families
- Salicaceae can be confused with a large number of other families. They are commonly mistaken for Euphorbiaceae, Violaceae, or Malvales.
- Unlike Euphorbiaceae, many common Salicaceae have torus- (or doughnut-) shaped glands at the leaf teeth and never produce a milky latex.
- Salicaceae can usually be distinguished from Malvales if flower or fruit (and placentation) is available, but even then, some Salicaceae have highly intruded to pseudo-axile placentation; few Salicaceae also have stellate pubescence and petiolar pulvini, although not both in the same species (as currently known).
- Salicaceae tend to have more stamens (>5) and less elongate fruit than Violaceae.
- Infrequently, species of Salicaceae with pellucid -punctuations or -lines may be confused with Rutaceae, but the leaves of Rutaceae are usually compound and the flowers usually have an intrastaminal, annular nectary disk.
- The opposite-leaved Abatia is easily confused with Buddleja L. (Buddlejaceae) or Viburnum L.(Adoxaceae) in the vegetative state; again, leaf teeth are helpful. In flower, they can be distinguished because Abatia lacks petals and generally has more than 5 stamens, all free.
- Tribe Saliceae (Populus and Salix) may be confused with Lacistemataceae, a closely related family with catkin (or catkin -like) inflorescences. Lacistemataceae usually have bisexual flowers, some perianth, arillate seeds, and a single stamen with an expanded connective. Populus and Salix rarely have one stamen, are usually dioecious, apparently lack perianth (minute in Populus and only clear early in development), and generally have two or more stamens.
- Abatia - opposite leaves, generally montane.
- Azara - commonly has leaf-like stipules, generally subtropical to temperate in the south.
- Banara - common genus, especially along rivers or in disturbed areas.
- Casearia - common genus, inflorescences usually axillary fascicles, leaves with pellucid -punctations or -lines, seeds arillate (sometimes confused with Xylosma, which lacks the pellucid-punctations, has unisexual flowers, and has free [and sometimes more numerous] stamens [visible as remnants even in fruit]; also, Casearia, when toothed, has deciduous conical leaf teeth ( Xylosma) typically has abaxial, persistent, glandular, doughnut or spherical shaped teeth).
- Hasseltia and Pleuranthodendron - common genera in Central America and northern South America; both have 3-veined leaves with paired glands at base of lamina or apex of petiole (see photo in Alford, 2003).
- Populus and Salix - generally temperate genera that have unisexual flowers in catkins, flowers have no evident calyx or corolla, and seeds have a coma: a specific structure with a circular bolster with unicellular cotton-like trichomes connected from below.
- Prockia - common genus, especially in disturbed or seasonally dry areas, 3-merous flowers.
- Xylosma - common genus, generally dioecious, occasionally with thorns or spines, flowers usually in axillary fascicles (see Casearia for confusion).
Key to genera of Neotropical Salicaceae
See also Alford (2003) for an even more superficial key (Populus and Salix were not included; Macrothumia is treated as Banara ; and a new species of Pineda keys incorrectly).
1. Leaves opposite ... Abatia
1. Leaves alternate — 2
2. Leaves 3-7-veined from the base — 3 2. Leaves pinnately veined — 18
3. Inflorescences of catkins, spikes, compound spikes, spike-like racemes, or panicles of spikes; leaves sometimes pellucid-punctate or -lineate — 4
3. Flowers solitary or inflorescences of fascicles, lax racemes, panicles, cymes, or compound umbelliform cymes; leaves never pellucid-punctate or -lineate — 7
4. Flowers unisexual; seeds with cottony pubescence; leaf margin usually crenate — 5
4. Flowers bisexual; seeds arillate; leaf margin usually entire or subserrate ... Lunania
5. Sepals present; inflorescences axillary and peduncled .... Bartholomaea
5. Sepals apparently absent; inflorescences sessile or terminating a leafy branch — 6
6. Buds with 3-10 overlapping scales, often resinous; nectary disk or glands lacking .... Populus
6. Buds with 1 scale, not resinous; disk gland(s) (nectary or nectaries) present .... Salix
7. Anthers linear-elongate, anther dehiscence ± poricidal; leaves often 3-veined from base to near apex with perpendicular tertiary veins... Neosprucea
7. Anthers globose, anther dehiscence longitudinal; leaves 3-veined from base to no more than 2/3 leaf length — 8
8. Fruit a capsule; seeds with cottony pubescence .... Macrohasseltia
8. Fruit a berry (rarely tardily dehiscent), drupe, or samara; seeds lacking cottony pubescence — 9
9. Dioecious; styles or style branches 4-8 — 10
9. Hermaphroditic (rarely polygamous or functionally androdioecious in Prockia ); style — 13
10. Petals present in male flowers; unarmed; native — 11
10. Petals absent in male flowers; frequently with thorns on the trunk or branches; cultivated and possibly naturalised — 12
11. Fruit a samara; stamens in bundles of 3 alternating with disk glands; petals lacking in female flowers ... Neopringlea
11b. Fruit a berry; stamens numerous (>20), not in bundles; petals present in female flowers ... Hasseltiopsis
12. Fruit a drupe; disk glands in a row outside the stamens; leaves (in Neotropical cultivated sp.) glabrous or glabrescent ... Flacourtia
12. Fruit a pubescentberry; disk glands alternating with stamens; leaves (in Neotropical cultivated sp.) with pubescence visible with the naked eye, especially on the veins... Dovyalis
13. Glands at leaf teeth (at maturity) abaxial and doughnut (= torus) shaped; disk glands lacking — 14
13. Glands at leaf teeth, if present, marginal and papillate; disk glands present — 15
14. Inflorescence a raceme; placentation often pseudo-axile; petals sometimes lacking; stipules sometimes foliaceous; sexuality various ... Prockia
14. Inflorescence a panicle, raceme, or fascicle; placentation parietal to highly intruded parietal; petals present; stipules small, caducous; bisexual... Banara
15. Glands near apex of petiole, if present, usually not paired and not opposite each other; outer row of filamentous staminodes present .... Pineda
15. Glands at base of lamina or near apex of petiole paired and opposite each other; filamentous staminodes lacking — 16
16. Placentation axile or pseudo-axile; perianth persistent in fruit; a pair of elliptic leaf glands embedded in the base of the lamina... Hasseltia
16. Placentation parietal; perianth deciduous in fruit; a pair of cicular leaf glands projecting from the lamina-petiole junction or apex of the petiole — 17
17. Inflorescence a panicle; seed(s) 1 (or 2) per fruit... Pleuranthodendron
17. Inflorescence a raceme, this sometimes congested and fascicle- or umbel-like; seeds per fruit numerous ... Macrothumia
18. Leaf margins spinose — 19
18. Leaf margins entire, crenate, or serrate — 20
19. Dioecious; sepals 7-15(-22); stamens numerous; leaves not pellucid-punctate or -lineate .... Olmediella
19. Bisexual; sepals 5-6; stamens 6-10; leaves sometimes pellucid-punctate or -lineate .... Casearia sect. Casearia informal group 'Ilicifoliae' — 20
20. Flowers lacking any obvious perianth; inflorescences of catkins; fruits capsules; seeds with cottony pubescence — 21
20. Flowers with at least sepals present; inflorescences various, not catkins; fruits generally berries or tardily deshicent capsules; seeds usually lacking cottony pubescence (except Casearia sect. Gossypiospermum ) — 22
21. Buds with 3-10 overlapping scales, often resinous; nectary disk or glands lacking .... Populus
21b. Buds with 1 scale, not resinous; disk gland(s) (nectary or nectaries) present .... Salix
22. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior ... Homalium
22. Ovary superior — 23
23. Inflorescences of spikes, compound spikes, or panicles of spikes — 24
23. Flowers solitary or inflorescences of fascicles, racemes, cymes, or panicles — 26
24. Leaves pellucid-punctate or -lineate; stamens 8 ... Euceraea
24. Leaves not pellucid-punctate or -lineate; stamens 4 or 10-20 — 25
25. Stamens 10-20; foliaceous stipules sometimes present; leaves <10 cm long; sepals generally yellow ... Azara
25. Stamens 4; stipules not foliaceous; leaves >8 cm long; sepals generally white or red ... Tetrathylacium
26. Petals present — 27
26. Petals absent — 28
27. Sepals and petals generally 3; disk glands lacking; outer filamentous staminodes lacking .... Banara
27. Sepals and petals (4-) 5 (-6); disk glands present; outer filamentous staminodes present .... Pineda
28. Thorns on trunks or branches present — 29
28. Thorns on trunks or branches absent — 33
29. Flowers usually unisexual; sepals free; leaves not pellucid-punctate or -lineate — 30
29. Flowers bisexual; sepals united at the base (sometimes up to 1/3 or more) with stamens forming a hypanthium; leaves usually pellucid-punctate and/or -lineate — 32
30. Styles, style branches, or stigmas 1-3(-5); native .... Xylosma
30. Styles, style branches, or stigmas (2-)5-12; cultivated and possibly naturalised — 31
31. Fruit a glabrousdrupe; disk glands in a ring outside the stamens; style branches 4-6 (each with bilobed stigma s) .... Flacourtia
31. Fruit a pubescentberry; disk glands alternating with the stamens; style branches 5(-7) .... Dovyalis
32. Disk lobes and stamen filaments free or only united near the base; flowers few to numerous per inflorescence.... Casearia sect. Casearia -OR- Casearia sect. Guidonia
32. Disk lobes and stamen filaments united almost completely or disk lobes apparently absent; flowers generally 1-3 per inflorescence.... Samyda
33. Glands present at the base of the leaves or on petioles — 34
33. Glands absent at the base of the leaves or on petioles — 35
34. Stipules absent (or apparently so); sepals 4-6; style branches or stigmas 1-3(-5) .... Xylosma
34. Stipules present; sepals 7-15(-22); style branches or stigmas 6-8 .... Olmediella
35. Bracts united into a cup below the flowers and fruits — 36
35. Bracts free — 37
36. Stamens 30-50; seeds arillate; fruits frequently with rust-colored pubescence .... Laetia sect. Scypholaetia
36. Stamens 8-10; seeds exarillate, covered in cottony pubescence; fruits glabrous.... Casearia sect. Gossypiospermum
37. Leaves never pellucid-punctate or -lineate; glands at leaf teeth (if leaves toothed) usually abaxial, torus-shaped, and persistent; disk glands present, globose, nectariferous; anther dehiscence extrorse; seeds exarillate — 38
37. Leaves usually pellucid-punctate or -lineate; glands at leaf teeth (if leaves toothed) usually marginal, conical or hair-like, and deciduous; disk glands absent or present, if present, in the shape of ligulate staminodes, not nectariferous; anther dehiscence introrse; seeds usually arillate — 40
38. Leaf-like stipules (i.e., two "leaves" of different shape or size at a node) usually present; inflorescences spikes, racemes, corymbs, or fascicles; style 1; outer filamentous staminodes often present .... Azara
38. Leaf-like stipules absent; inflorescences fascicles or short racemes; styles or style branches 1-7; outer filamentous staminodes lacking — 39
39. Styles, style branches, or stigmas 5-7; cultivated .... Dovyalis
39. Styles, style branches, or stigmas 1-3(-5); native .... Xylosma
40. Dioecious; sepals 4, obviously connate; leaves entire, glabrous.... Neoptychocarpus
40. Bisexual; sepals 4-5(-9), connate or free; leaves entire or toothed, glabrous or pubescent — 41
41. Disk glands absent or obscure — 42
41. Disk glands present — 43
42. Sepals fused into a tube, at least basally, usually more .... Samyda
42. Sepals free.... Laetia
43. Stamens 5-12(-22), often included within the sepals .... Casearia
43. Stamens 20-100, usually exposed — 44
44. Anthers linear-elongate; disk inside the stamens; stellate hairs on the leaves commonly present .... Ryania
44. Anthers globose; disk glands inside or alternating with the stamens; hairs simple — 45
45. Stamens 20-40; stigma peltate.... ZuelaniaDistinguishing characters (always present)
45. Stamens 80-100; stigma small, capitate.... Hecatostemon
- Trees or shrubs.
- Leaves simple.
- Placentation usually parietal (axile or pseudo-axile in few genera).
- Leaves pellucid-punctate or -lineate in tribe Samydeae.
- Leaves usually alternate (except opposite in Abatia) and commonly toothed.
- General Description
Number of genera
- Abatia (including Aphaerema Miers) - 10 spp.
- Azara - 10 spp.
- Banara - ca. 35 spp.
- Bartholomaea - 2 spp.
- Casearia (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - ca. 180 spp. worldwide, ca. 80 in the Neotropics.
- Dovyalis - ca. 15 spp. worldwide, 1 sp. infrequently cultivated in the Neotropics.
- Euceraea (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 3 spp.
- Flacourtia - ca. 15 spp. worldwide, 1(+?) sp. infrequently cultivated in the Neotropics.
- Hasseltia - 4 spp.
- Hasseltiopsis - 1 sp.
- Hecatostemon (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 1 sp.
- Homalium - ca. 200 worldwide, 3 in the Neotropics.
- Laetia - 10 spp.
- Lunania (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 14 spp.
- Macrohasseltia - 1 sp.
- Macrothumia - 1 sp.
- Neopringlea - 3 spp.
- Neoptychocarpus (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 2 spp.
- Neosprucea - 9 spp.
- Olmediella - 1 sp.
- Pineda - 2 spp.
- Pleuranthodendron - 1 sp.
- Populus - ca. 32 spp. worldwide, ca. 4 spp. in the Neotropics (2 native, 2 introduced and naturalized).
- Prockia - ca. 6 spp.
- Ryania (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - ca. 8 spp.
- Salix - ca. 450 spp. worldwide, 17 in the Neotropics (11 native, 5 introduced and 1 naturalized).
- Samyda (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 9 spp.
- Tetrathylacium (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 2 spp.
- Xylosma (including Priamosia Urb.) - ca. 95 spp. worldwide, ca. 50 in the Neotropics.
- Zuelania (sometimes placed in Samydaceae) - 1 sp.
- Berberidopsis Hook.f. is treated under Berberidopsidaceae.
- Lacistema Sw. and Lozania Mutis ex Caldas are treated under Lacistemataceae.
- Cyanogenic (former) Flacourtiaceae are treated under Achariaceae.
- In general, tropical members of the family Salicaceae have few economic uses.
- The more temperate genus Populus is fast-growing, used for wood, and now includes the first woody species to have its entire genome sequenced.
- The mostly temperate genus Salix is one of the early sources of aspirin precursors.
- Salix species (willows) are very important in management of ecosystems such as prevention of erosion, bioremediation of soil and they provide a specialised habitat for other organisms.
- Some willows are widely cultivated as ornamental plants and used in wicker furniture.
- Both Salix and Populus are potential biofuel sources.
- In the Neotropics, genera like Casearia and Macrohasseltia are occasionally used for wood, and the genus Ryania has toxic compounds used in poisons and insecticides.
- Despite their lack of use in the Neotropics, Salicaceae are common elements of tropical forests.
- Abatia (including Aphaerema) - Endemic
- Azara - Endemic
- Banara - Endemic
- Bartholomaea - Endemic
- Casearia - Native
- Dovyalis - Cultivated
- Euceraea - Endemic
- Flacourtia - Cultivated
- Hasseltia - Endemic
- Hasseltiopsis - Endemic
- Hecatostemon - Endemic
- Homalium - Native
- Laetia - Endemic
- Lunania - Endemic
- Macrohasseltia - Endemic
- Macrothumia - Endemic
- Neopringlea - Endemic
- Neoptychocarpus - Endemic
- Neosprucea - Endemic
- Olmediella - Endemic
- Pineda - Endemic
- Pleuranthodendron - Endemic
- Populus - Native, cultivated and naturalized.
- Prockia - Endemic
- Ryania - Endemic
- Salix - Native, cultivated and naturalized.
- Samyda - Endemic
- Tetrathylacium - Endemic
- Xylosma (including Priamosia) - Native
- Zuelania - Endemic
- Salicaceae were traditionally a mostly temperate family consisting of two genera, Populus (poplars, cottonwoods, aspens) and Salix (willows).
- Recent phylogenetic analyses using DNA sequence data, however, indicate that Salicaceae sensustricto are nested within the non-cyanogenic taxa of the former Flacourtiaceae. These taxa have now been united into one family, the Salicaceae (Eurosids I: Malpighiales), which is closely related to Lacistemataceae, Passifloraceae, Violaceae, Achariaceae, and allied families.
- Some botanists (the author included) prefer to segregate one tribe of Salicaceae sensulato as a separate family (Samydaceae), leaving the rest as a Salicaceae sensumedio, but this approach has not been widely accepted.
- The former Flacourtiaceae have been a notorious family, principally because Flacourtiaceae are diverse morphologically and because the family has served as a garbage can for taxa of uncertain affinity. Several key studies in the past 30 years have mostly eliminated the latter problem, but unfortunately, the former "problem" continues to persist in the current Salicaceae sensulato. Thus, for the novice, the description and advice of Al Gentry is pertinent: "One of the two most notoriously heterogeneous neotropical families. A good dictum for the beginner is: 'If you don't have any idea what family it is, try Flacourtiaceae [now mostly Salicaceae sensulato] or Euphorbiaceae'" (Gentry, 1993).
Alford, M. H. 2003. Claves para los géneros de Flacourtiaceae de Perú y del Nuevo Mundo. Arnaldoa 10(2): 19-38.
Argus, G.W. 1997. Infra-generic classification of Salix (Salicaceae) in the New World. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 52: 1-121.
Chase, M. W., S. Zmarzty, M. D. Lledo, K. J. Wurdack, S. M. Swensen, & M. F. Fay. 2002. When in doubt, put it in Flacourtiaceae: a molecular phylogenetic analysis based on plastid rbcL DNA sequences. Kew Bulletin 57: 141-181.
Eckenwalder, J.E. 1996. Systematics and evolution of Populus in: Stettler, R.F., Bradshaw, H.D., Heilman, P.E. & Hinckley, T.M. Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation 1(1): 7-32.
Gentry, A. H. 1993. A Field Guide to the Families and Genera of Woody Plants of Northwest South America (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru) with Supplementary Notes on Herbaceous Taxa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lemke, D. E. 1988. A synopsis of Flacourtiaceae. Aliso 12: 29-43.
Schneider, C. K. 1918. A conspectus of Mexican, West Indian, Central and South American varieties of Salix. Bot. Gaz. 65: 1-41.
Sleumer, H. O. 1980. Flacourtiaceae. Flora Neotropica No. 22. Bronx: New York Botanical Garden.
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Samydaceae[FWTA]
Samydaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954
- Trees or shrubs
- Leaves simple, alternate, often pellucid-dotted or lined; stipules small, deciduous or absent
- Flowers hermaphrodite, actinomorphic, perigynous
- Sepals united in the lower part, imbricate or valvate, persistent
- Petals the same number or more than the sepals or absent, often persistent
- Disk-glands alternate with the stamens
- Stamens definite or indefinite in number, in one or more rows, sometimes in bundles opposite the petals; staminodes often present; filaments free or connate at the base; anthers 2-celled, short, opening lengthwise
- Ovary free or adnate to the calyx-tube, sessile, 1-celled with 3–5 parietal placentas often towards the top of the cell; style simple or 3–5 distinct styles; ovules few or numerous
- Fruit capsular or indehiscent
- Seeds with fleshy copious endosperm and fairly large embryo
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa under the synonym Flacourtiaceae[FWTA]
Flacourtiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954
- Trees or shrubs
- Leaves simple, alternate; stipules often soon falling off
- Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, often dioecious or polygamous, variously arranged
- Sepals sometimes not distinguishable from the petals, imbricate or open in bud
- Petals sometimes not arranged regularly in relation to the sepals, large, small or absent, with or without an opposite scale inside the base, imbricate
- Stamens numerous, rarely few, hypogynous, free; anthers 2-celled, often short, opening lengthwise by slits
- Ovary 1-celled, with one or more parietal placentas, or rarely the placentas meeting in the middle; ovules 2 or more on each placenta; styles or stigmas as many as the placentas
- Fruit indehiscent, mostly a berry or drupe, very rarely a capsule, sometimes large
- Seeds with fleshy endosperm and medium-sized embryo; cotyledons often broad
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa under the synonym Flacourtiaceae[FTEA]
Flacourtiaceae, H. Sleumer (Rijksherbarium, Leiden). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1975
- Trees or shrubs, sometimes with spines on trunk and branches
- Leaves spirally arranged, or often distichous, simple, entire, crenate or serrate (crenations mostly glandular), sometimes with pellucid dots and/or lines; lateral nerves pinnate or rarely several from the base; petioles often thickened at the base and (or) the apex; stipules generally present, rarely large and persistent
- Pedicels often articulated near the base Inflorescences subterminal or mostly axillary, rarely on the trunk or very rarely on the midrib of the leaves; flowers solitary, or mostly in fascicles, racemes or panicles, apparently essentially cymose, bisexual or unisexual (polygamous, monoecious, or dioecious), regular, 3-poly-merous, spiral or cyclic
- Sepals (2–)3–7 (rarely more), mostly persistent, sometimes accrescent, imbricate or valvate, free or connate at the base into a calyx-tube
- Petals 3–8 (rarely more), free, imbricate or valvate, mostly alternating with the sepals and caducous, sometimes persistent and accrescent, often inserted on the margin of a hypogynous or almost perigynous disk, or absent
- Receptacle often depressed in the centre, often with appendages such as an extrastaminal disk or disk-lobes, free glands between the stamens, or staminode-like scales inserted on the inner side of the base of the petals, or with true, mostly barbate staminodes which alternate with the stamens
- Stamens 5 to numerous, hypogynous, mostly free, or sometimes connate at the base with the staminodes; anthers with 2 thecae, these longitudinally dehiscent, or very rarely opening by apical pores or very short slits
- Ovary usually free, rarely semi-inferior, unilocular, with (2–)3–5(–8) parietal placentas; ovules generally numerous, anatropous; styles 1–10, free or connate; stigma sessile
- Fruit a fleshy or dry berry or a capsule, rarely a drupe, 1-many-seeded
- Seeds sometimes arillate, with abundant endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons mostly broad, foliaceous
According to Flora Zambesiaca under the synonym Flacourtiaceae[FZ]
Flacourtiaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960
- Trees or shrubs
- Leaves petiolate, alternate, simple, entire, crenate or serrate, crenations often glandular
- Stipules caducous or persistent, small or large and foliaceous or wanting
- Inflorescences subterminal or more usually axillary, of racemes, panicles or cymes or reduced to fascicles or glomerules, or flowers solitary
- Flowers bisexual or unisexual, monoecious or dioecious, occasionally polygamous, actinomorphic, sepals and petals dissimilar or more rarely spirally arranged and ± undifferentiated; pedicels often articulated
- Sepals 3–6 or more, often persistent, sometimes accrescent, valvate or imbricate, free or connate below into a calyx-tube (or receptacle ?)
- Petals 3–12 or rarely more, sometimes accrescent, free, valvate or imbricate, often inserted on the margin of a hypogynous or perigynous disk, or absent
- Disk extrastaminal or with free glands between the stamens or of staminode-like scales inserted at the base of the petals (or of threads or corona-like outside our area), often adnate to the receptacle or developed as appendages to the receptacle
- Stamens 5–?, free or rarely connate into a cylinder, sometimes alternating with staminodes; anthers 2-thecous, dehiscing longitudinally, or rarely by terminal pores, connective sometimes appendaged
- Ovary superior or more rarely semi-inferior, 1-locular with 2–8 parietal placentas or incompletely 2–8-locular; ovules 2 — ?, anatropous; styles 1–10, free or connate
- Fruit a more or less fleshy berry or a capsule
- Seeds sometimes arillate, with copious endosperm; embryo straight; cotyledons usually broad, foliaceous
- Abatia Ruiz & Pav.
- Azara Ruiz & Pav.
- Banara Aubl.
- Bartholomaea Standl. & Steyerm.
- Bembicia Oliv.
- Bennettiodendron Merr.
- Bivinia Tul.
- Byrsanthus Guill.
- Calantica Jaub. ex Tul.
- Carrierea Franch.
- Casearia Jacq.
- Dankia Gagnep.
- Dissomeria Hook.f. ex Benth.
- Dovyalis E.Mey. ex Arn.
- Euceraea Mart.
- Flacourtia Comm. ex L'Hér.
- Hasseltia Kunth
- Hasseltiopsis Sleumer
- Hecatostemon S.F.Blake
- Hemiscolopia Slooten
- Homaliopsis S.Moore
- Homalium Jacq.
- Idesia Maxim.
- Irenodendron M.H.Alford & Dement
- Itoa Hemsl.
- Laetia Loefl. ex L.
- Lasiochlamys Pax & K.Hoffm.
- Ludia Comm. ex Juss.
- Lunania Hook.
- Macrohasseltia L.O.Williams
- Macrothumia M.H.Alford
- Mocquerysia Hua
- Neopringlea S.Watson
- Neoptychocarpus Buchheim
- Neosprucea Sleumer
- Olmediella Baill.
- Oncoba Forssk.
- Ophiobotrys Gilg
- Osmelia Thwaites
- Pangium Reinw.
- Phyllobotryon Müll.Arg.
- Pineda Ruiz & Pav.
- Pleuranthodendron L.O.Williams
- Poggea Gürke
- Populus L.
- Prockia P.Browne ex L.
- Pseudoscolopia Gilg
- Ryania Vahl
- Ryparosa Blume
- Salix L.
- Samyda Jacq.
- Scaphocalyx Ridl.
- Scolopia Schreb.
- Scottellia Oliv.
- Streptothamnus F.Muell.
- Tetrathylacium Poepp.
- Tisonia Baill.
- Trichadenia Thwaites
- Trichostephanus Gilg
- Trimeria Harv.
- Xylosma G.Forst.
- Zuelania A.Rich.
First published in Elém. Physiol. Vég. Bot. 2: 905. 1815 [24-30 Jun 1815] (as "Salicineae") (1815)
- APG IV (2016) http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/boj.12385
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.